 Providing HandsOn, MindsOn, and Authentic Learning Experiences in Mathematics (NCREL)  Cathy Cook; Pathways to School Improvement
A linked essay giving overview, background, and issues around constructivist theory and its implementation. "When educators begin to see learning as knowledge construction, they change their thinking about curriculum, instruction, and assessment, developing
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 PseudoNumerals  phonetic symbols for numbers  Allan Krill
A method for remembering IDnumbers, etc., as words. The techniques used here have been used for 200 years, but now are formally defined as numerals. Presented in August at Mathfest 2002.
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 Psychosemiotic Theory and Educational Practice  Alice Leonard
Walkerdine and Corran's (1979) paper showed how psychosemiology may account for developmental data as a potentially fruitful alternative to the better known stage theories, like that of Piaget. They argued that learning mathematics is an ideal activity
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 P.T. Chang
Articles by this math professor from the University of Alaska Anchorage's MatSu College include "The Ostentatious World of Algebra," "InService Training for the Math Teacher of the 21st Century," and "Retesting in a College Remedial Mathematics Course."
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 PTC: Product Lifecycle Management Software  Parametric Technology Corporation
PTC acquired MathSoft, developer of Mathcad and other software for math, science and engineering for business, research, academic and government markets. They also market Pro/ENGINEER, Windchill, Arbortext, ProductView, CoCreate, and InSight.
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 Ptolemy's Ptools  ThinkQuest 1998
Easytounderstand math projects for students to do by themselves or with adult direction. Triangle investigations of the perspectives of the 3D video games Star Fleet Academy, Quake II, and Sub Culture Submarine Adventure. "Quadrant projects" involve
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 P Torres blogger  Paula Torres
Blog by an AP Calculus teacher at a public high school in Rancho Cucamonga (CA). Posts, which date back to February, 2014, have included "Beginning to flip," "The wonder of Desmos," "Calculus around the room and 'the Statistics talk,'" "They won't fall
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 Publications and Research Tools (AMS)  American Mathematical Society
The AMS research and publishing services include MathSciNet and the AMS Electronic Journals. Research tools for mathematicians include Mathematical Reviews Author Lookup, Institution Codes and Addresses, Serials Abbreviations; the AMS Preprint Server,
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 Public Domain Materials  Mike Jones
A collection of public domain instructional and expository materials from a USborn math teacher who teaches in China. Microsoft Word and PDF downloads include a monthly circular consisting of short problems, "The BowandArrow Problem," and "Twinkle
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 Public Outreach, Education, Teaching and Reaching Youth (POETRY)  Sten Odenwald, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
The goal of the IMAGE mission's education and public outreach program (POETRY) is to explain how solar storms affect the Earth, and to correct misconceptions about Earth's magnetic field, its radiation belts, and why we have aurora. Read the latest information
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 Public Understanding of Mathematics  Key Issues in Mathematics at the Math Forum
Links to organizations and articles that explore perceptions and assumptions nonmathematicians hold about mathematics and mathematicians.
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 The Published Data of Robert Munafo  Robert Munafo
Mathematical data includes MuEncy, The Encyclopedia of the Mandelbrot Set (History, Exploring, Area, Algorithms, Naming, etc), properties of specific numbers, such as 2.68542 . . . and 143, and very large numbers and ways to write them. Programs include
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 Publishing or Programming? A Framework for the Development and Presentation of Work by Children on the World Wide Web  Judy Keiner
A paper to be presented at SIGGRAPH97, Los Angeles, August 8th 1997, involving process writing approaches, and including three criteria for evaluating Web pages. Also links to example sites.
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 PUERTRA  Javier Sánchez González
The software package PUERTRA implemented a theoretical study of formal properties of Islamic geometrical art. PUERTRA modeled the Islamic rectilinear interlaced lattices found extensively in wood work (artesonado ceilings, mosque minbars, doors and windows,
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 Punctured Polyhedra  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
A tetrahedron has four triangular faces, four vertices, and six edges. When a vertex of one tetrahedron pierces the face of a second tetrahedron it forms a new, more complicated polyhedron: one triangular face has a triangular "hole" where the face was
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 PuraMate
Ejercicios e soluciones de ecuaciones de primer grado, ecuaciones de segundo grado, algebra de Baldor, polinomios, producto y cociente notable, binomios, trinomios, desigualdades, y inecuaciones. Un blog empezó en octubre, 2014, tiene entradas
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 Pure Math Online
Pure Math Online uses live, personal tutors to help students with algebra and other math homework in real time over the Internet. Program information and signup for free demo are available on the site.
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 Purplemath  Your Algebra Resource  Elizabeth Stapel
Algebra modules provide lessons, practical tips, hints, worked examples, and point out common mistakes in basic triangle length (trigonometry) values, calculators (what model to buy), canceling units, domain and range, exponents, factoring quadratics,
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 Putnam Exams  Dave Rusin
Solution sets and comments compiled from postings on the sci.math newsgroup. Online resources and citations for exams dating back to 1987.
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 Put the Heart into Mathematics: Cardiac Output, Rates of Change and Accumulation (iMath Investigations)  Illuminations; National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM)
An online, interactive, multimedia math investigation. This activity explores the measurement of the amount of blood being pumped by a heart. The goal of this iMath investigation is a rich exploration of concentrations (mixture problems), rates of change
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 PuzzleBeast  James W. Stephens
A collection of computergenerated puzzles, some illustrated with Java applets, some with solutions included: The Fried Okra Perplexity, A Dozen Irritating Sliding Block Puzzles, The Bulbous Blob Puzzle, Meandering Monk Maze, The Kung Fu Packing Crate
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 Puzzle Choice
A wide choice of puzzles and games for all ages, including crosswords, wordsearches, brainteasers, number puzzles (a calculator is provided), logics, teacher resources and other online games, including mazes.
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 Puzzle explorer  Wade Philpott
Links to mathematical games invented by Philpott and now for sale: Multimatch and Leap (originally Sweep).
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 Puzzle Fun  Rodolfo Kurchan
An online newsletter edited by Rodolfo Kurchan (Buenos Aires  Argentina) about polyominoes and other puzzles. Back issues are on the Web.
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 Puzzlemaker  Discovery Education
A puzzle generation tool for teachers, students and parents. Create and print customized puzzles, including math squares and number blocks, online, or buy a CD with editing tools and other extras.
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 Puzzle of the Week  Ralph Grove
A small archive of math and word puzzles having to do with patterns, permutations, and probability, with solutions, from a professor of computer science at Indiana University of Pennsylvania.
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 Puzzle Page  The Black Stump Ltd.
More than 150 links to puzzle sites on the Web. A new site is added each week.
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 Puzzler  Franklin Institute Online
Puzzles from the inQuiry Almanack Puzzle Archive: e.g. Cryptograms, January, 1998. Coded messages hide famous quotations. A clue is offered to begin breaking the code, and an answer key is provided. One puzzle a month from March of 1995 through July of
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 Puzzlers  Bryan Clair, University of Chicago
A collection of Clair's favorite puzzles (no discussion or answers are provided): The Nine Dots; Weighing Coins; The Dollar Hotel, Planning an Orchard; The Math Department; Tea and Cream; Bugs on a Square; River Crossing; More Crawling Bugs; The Unexpected
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 Puzzles
A blog of math puzzles. Post your answers in the comments sections.
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 Puzzles  Martin Watson
Blogs, comments, musings, design sketches, and photographs of mechanical puzzles by an avid collector and craftsman. Puzzle news, the author's own burrs (Watson's wormhole, digigrams, Dutch cubist), indepth explorations of manipulative puzzles (Puzzles
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 Puzzles of Leonid Mochalov  Leonid Mochalov
Numerical and visual puzzles, some in Russian only, most in English.
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Puzzles/Oneplayer Games  Jürg Nievergelt
Rubik's Cube and its variants. The 3*3*3* cube; Rubik's Revenge (4*4*4 cube); Pyramix (tetrahedron); Rubik's Clock; Rubik's Magic. Also Cryptequations, polyominoes, and links to a list of similar puzzles.
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 Puzzles, & Riddles  The Contest Center  Frank Rubin
Hundreds of puzzles and mathematical problems ranging from kindergarten through postdoctoral levels. For the easier puzzles, answers are provided on the site; names of those who submit correct solutions to harder problems are posted. See also Puzzles
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 Puzzle Toons, The Citizen Scientist  Brian Mansfield
A comic strip devoted to puzzles, mind benders, and brain teasers. The subject matter of the puzzles ranges from mechanical devices and geometry to astrodynamics, chess, and billiards. Read back issues of Mansfield's column, dating to its inception in
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 Puzzle University  Amy Galitzer
A nonaccredited "university," created solely for fun. Everything is free to play and take part in. Register, pass a simple test, and advance from freshman to sophomore to junior to senior to grad student this way. The puzzles get harder as you progress.
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 Puzzle Up  Binary Arts Corporation
A collection of others' Java puzzles, baffler and logic questions, "for serious puzzlers," best of the week, and mazes and mysteries, each organized into the three different skill levels of young, brisk, and expert. Also, information on the company's
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 PuzzleUp  Emrehan Halici
New problems and games posted every week in a contest format. Register, read the competition's rules, and browse the archive of past problems.
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 Puzzle Workshop  maths online  University of Vienna, Austria
Make your own interactive "jigsaw," or multiple choice puzzles, to save and run on your own computer or to publish on the web. The Applet puzzle creation page requires Java; the Test puzzle creation page allows greater use of mathematical symbols.
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 Puzzle World  John Rausch
A searchable site with information and a discussion group (Puzzle Talk) about handcrafted mechanical puzzles. Most of the puzzles presented here are not the massproduced variety found in stores, but limited production puzzles produced by craftsmen (often
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 Puzzle Zapper  Alexandre Owen Muñiz
Original mathematical puzzles, some available in lasercut acrylic for sale: polyomino common superforms, pentomino coloring problems, miscellaneous polyomino explorations, flexible polyforms, square grid puzzles, visualizing sequences of numbers, Lissajous
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 Puzzlies.net  Michał Barciś
Play sudoku and griddler logic puzzles online. Log in to save game play and compete in the rankings.
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 Puzzling Lines  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Sol LeWitt has often featured geometric and combinatorial themes in his sculptures, paintings, and drawings. In 1973 he composed "Straight Lines in Four Directions and All Their Possible Combinations," a grid of 15 squares, each inscribed with one or
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 Puzzling Primes  Isaac Reed
To fully comprehend our number system, mathematicians need to understand the properties of the prime numbers  but even finding them isn't so easy.
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 The Puzzling World of Barry R. Clarke  Barry R. Clarke
Brain teasers from Clarke's column in The Daily Telegraph (UK) and from his various puzzle books: liar problems, logic teasers, number conundrums, matchstick puzzles, lateral mindbenders, and more. With links to other puzzles sites and an article on
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 PyGeo  Arthur Siegel
A dynamic geometry toolset written in Python, with dependencies on Python's Numeric and VPython extensions. It defines a set of geometric primitives in 3d space and allows for the construction of geometric models that can be manipulated interactively,
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 Pyramid and Frustum Formulas (Ask Dr. Math FAQ)  Math Forum
Formulas for finding the surface area and volume of a pyramid and its frustum.
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 Pyramids and Algebra  David C. Miller
Four questions that explore the problem of creating a pyramid from a set of dominoes, dealing with the concepts of arithmetic series; derivation of square roots including a graphical method; scientific notation; exponential notation; quadratic equations;
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 Pythagoras' Haven  Jim Morey
Step through a geometrical Java applet proof of the Pythagoraean theorem  the square of the hypotenuse of a right triangle is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides.
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 Pythagoras: Music and Space  J. BoydBrent
A brief introduction to Pythagoras' observations on the relation between music and number. Graphics show music intervals expressed as mathematical ratios. Pythagoras observed that when the blacksmith struck his anvil, different notes were produced according
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