 Pi: A Source Book  J. Borwein, SpringerVerlag
A complete history of pi, with resources for teachers for anything from special topic courses to individual talks and special student projects. The literature on pi included in this source book falls into three classes: a selection of the mathematical
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 Pick a Digit, Any Digit  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
One of the most amazing mathematical results of the last few years was the discovery of a surprisingly simple formula for computing digits of the number pi. Unlike previously known methods, this one allows you to calculate isolated digits  without computing
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 Pick a number from 1 to 10 ... for SCIENCE!  Alec Perkins
"When asked 'pick a number from 1 to 10,' people tend to pick certain numbers more than others, in particular 7 and 4 over the extremes...." Participate by choosing your own number; see bar graphs and line plots of data submitted thus far according to
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 Picking Winners  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
One of the attractive features of spectator sports is the uncertainty of the outcome. Even when one team is overwhelmingly favored to win, the underdog may still come through with a surprising victory. Nonetheless, the ability to pick winners can be of
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 Pico Firme Bago  Evan M. Fuchs
A Flashbased logic/deduction game, similar to Mastermind. Originally created as an online version of a game used in the author's 5th grade class.
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 Pi Day  Herte; Finley Middle School, Glen Cove, NY
Pi Day is March 14th, a day to celebrate mathematics in school, to allow students to have fun while investigating mathematics concepts and being creative and even a little silly. This page describes a number of Pi Day activities. You are invited to email
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 Pi Day: Making a Pi Necklace  Diana Funke
Diana Funke teaches mathematics at Davisville Middle School in North Kingstown, RI. Her students make a Pi necklace for Pi Day to reinforce the idea that some numbers never repeat or end. They assign a color to each digit (including 0) and then string
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 Pi Day  Math Forum, Teacher2Teacher FAQ
Answers to a frequently asked question: What activities can I use for Pi Day?
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 The PiDye TShirt Shop  Josh Cummings
Purchase from a variety of pi and other math tshirts, mugs, clocks, etc., including the famous MathSpeak tshirt.
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 Pieces 'n Creases: A Fun Guide to Origami  Herring, Long, Haeggquist, Jeremy; ThinkQuest Junior
Contents include the history of origami; uses and benefits; terms, symbols, and tips; origami and peace; poems about origami; activities, and resources for folding paper. An awardwinning entry from Vidor Middle School.
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 The PiFactory  David Whitfield
Revision notes, boardshots, and Excel worksheets to download, from when the author used to teach in North London. The PiFactory includes an opensource assessment suite, classroom resources, and concept maps. The PiFactory conveniently pulls together
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 Pi  Jim Loy
An elementary introduction to pi.
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 PiNation.com  Hugh Bell
A site to "... just enjoy pi. Leave the math aside. Don't even think about the circumference of a circle." Create unique representations of the decimal expansion of pi with the PiArt Tool: choose the color for each digit, the number of decimal places,
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 The Pi Pages  Centre for Experimental and Constructive Mathematics (CECM)
"Pi is one of the few concepts in mathematics whose mention evokes a response of recognition and interest in those not concerned professionally with the subject. It has been a part of human culture and the educated imagination for more than twenty five
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 PiSearch
Search the first four billion binary digits of Pi for a string. Enter the string in hex (4 bit) or character (5 bit) format. Includes some statistics (probability of occurrence of characters, digits). Related links include articles and papers.
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 The Pi Song  Hester Lewellen
Pi Song audio and sheet music. This musical scale is aligned to the digits of pi.
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 PI Team Chess Game
A multiple player chess game. PI Team Chess builds strong problem solving,
critical thinking, math and teamwork skills. Site includes chess lesson plans, scholastic research on chess, and problem solving activities.
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 Pi Through the Ages  MacTutor Math History Archives
A history of pi: the Rhind papyrus (Egypt), Ptolemy, Tsu Ch'ung Chi, al'Khwarizmi, Al'Kashi, Viet, Romanus, Van Ceulen, Gregory, Shanks, Lambert, Euler, Buffon, and many more, with other Web sites and 30 references (books/articles).
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 The Pixel Calculator  METIP (Mathematics Experiences Through Image Processing) Project
The Pixel Calculator is intended primarily for use by students of ages 1217 in a variety of enrichment activities involving mathematics and digital image processing. It provides a good introduction for students to digital images by allowing students
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 PJ's Mathematical Gold Nuggets  Pam Strout; Bethel High School, Bethel, Connecticut
Links relating to K12 research topics in mathematics and mathematics teaching collected and usefully annotated by a mathematics teacher.
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 Place Value  Cut the Knot!, Alexander Bogomolny
Dictionary definitions of place value and what they lack; the emphasis on place value in the NCTM Standards; its importance in understanding our numeration system; how it arises from one of several possible representations of grouping in the counting
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 Place Value  Math Forum, Teacher2Teacher FAQ
Answers to a frequently asked question: How do I provide my students with practice on their place value skills?
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 Plane Geometry Web Pages  David Jaffe
Materials from a geometry course originally taught to future middle and high school teachers. Using definitions, theorems, proofs, and examples, the site introduces mappings; isometries and similarities; angles and trigonometry; congruence and similarity;
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 Plane Patterns  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Exploring the link between mathematical symmetry and artistic effort. One and twodimensional repeating patterns appear ubiquitously on surfaces, from quilts and colored fabrics to pottery and ceramic tiles... Analyzing the symmetries that underlie such
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 Plastelina Logic Games  Plastelina
Free Flash games include classic constrained "crossing" problems, such as the puzzle of ferrying a wolf, a sheep, and a head of cabbage across a river in a boat that only holds any two of them at once, without leaving the wolf and sheep alone in each
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 Platonic Solids and Euler's Formula  Margo Lynn Mankus
The lesson plan for Platonic Solids and Euler's Formula offers definitions for simple closed surfaces, solids, and regular polyhedra. After observing platonic solids nets, students complete the provided (blank) table for recording vertices and edges of
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 The Platonic Solids and Polyhedra  Paul Flavin
The 5 Platonic Solids and one oddball polyhedron (a soccer ball). The kinship among the polyhedra is reflected in a 'family photo'. The polyhedra are laid out in a triangular pattern, with the tetrahedron alone in its row, joined with the other Platonic
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 The Platonic Solids Information Site  Dan Radin
Information, computer graphics, a computeranimated video, teaching tools, and links pertaining to the threedimensional geometry of the polyhedron in its many forms. Radin focuses particularly on the five Platonic solidsthe tetrahedron, the cube, the
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 Platonic Solids  Paul Bourke
Definitions, formulas, and illustrations of the threedimensional regular polyhedra: tetrahedron, octahedron, hexahedron (cube), icosahedron, dodecahedron, including the solids as drawn in Kepler's Mysterium Cosmographicum, and as represented in stone
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 Platonic Solids  Rüdiger Appel
Dwnload GIF animations, with shadow effects, of the five Platonic solids. Also available in German.
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 Platonische Körper  Klaus Bernt
Nets of the Platonic solids to fold. Download in postscript format for printing. In German.
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 Play a Piano : An interactive Musical Java Activity  Paul Flavin
Play a Piano / Synthesizer / Oscilloscope: Play the piano using your mouse or computer's keyboard. Watch the wave forms as well as hear them. This virtual reality Java piano lets you play the piano and have a little fun while learning the relation between
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 Play Ball (SMILE)  Roslyn N. Matthews, South Shore High School
A baseball lesson designed to teach students to compute batting and earned run averages; given general dimensions of the playing field and some equipment, change the units to the metric system; find the diagonal distance from 3rd base to 1st base; and
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 A Playground of Thoughts  Takasugi Shinji
Takasugi's "Number Systems of the World" lists dozens of languages; how to count from zero to one hundred in each; and the mathematical meaning of the expressions for each numeral. For example, the French say "93" with quatrevingttreize, which means
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 Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally  Robert Owens
A stepbystep introduction to the mathematics behind the PEMDAS mnemonic. With examples, quizzes, and puzzles illustrating order of operations. A Wired@School project of The Franklin Institute Online Museum Educator program.
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 Plexagon  Pleated Hexagon  Paul Bourke, Ron Evans
Plexagon is a new modular geometry based on the radial pleating of polygonal plates, and their joining or cobracing into 3D modules. This engineering approach can form a very practical basis for modular greenhouses (using recycled plastic sheeting) and
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 Plotting Linear Equations  SPICE: StandardsBased Products for Interactive Classroom Education
An interactive workspace for graphing points, ordered pairs, lines, and planes. SPICE Online modules are constructed with three separate but functionally linked
areas, Instructions/Lessons, Display/Work Space, and Assessment. Detailed directions are
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 Plouffe's Inverter  Simon Plouffe
A database of more than 84,800,000 mathematical constants like Pi, Sqrt(2), Catalan and Euler's gamma. Enter a number, search or browse, and the programs will find what the number is made of. From the author of the Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences (with
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 Plumbing Statistics and Information  PlumbingSupply.com
Conversions, formulas, and tables about water weights, pressures, flows, volumes, horse power, pump efficiency, the weight of 100 yards of pipe filled with water, and flow rate to velocity comparisons. Also, a water flow rate guide and abbreviations.
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 Plus Magazine  Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge
Plus (formerly PASSMaths) is a triannual online magazine for older pupils and the general public. It publishes articles explaining the diverse applications of mathematics used in solving problems in physics, chemistry, biology, engineering, and economics.
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 PNA: Revista de Investigación en Didáctica de la Matemática
PNA is a peerreview open access research journal published by the Spanish research group "Mathematics Education. Numerical Thinking" of the Andalusian Plan of Research. This journal includes papers in English and Spanish related to the teaching and learning
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 PNC Christmas Price Index  PNC Bank
PNC calculates the Christmas Price Index each year as a fun, lighthearted way to look at the increasing cost of goods and services in the song, "The Twelve Days of Christmas." Areas of their site include a video presentation, an interactive chart, and
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 Podcast Directory: Math  Podseek
Podcasts of various math instruction and tutorials. Log in to rate or review the links.
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 Poetry and Mathematics  Math Forum, Ask Dr. Math Common Question
A selection of sites with mathematical poetry, including limericks.
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 Poetry Patterns (TEAMS)  Jeannie Toshima; TEAMS Distance Learning, Los Angeles County Office of Education
Mathematical patterns in numbers and in poetry. This activity involves students in writing two forms of poetry  diamante and cinquain  that involve mathematical word patterns.
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 Polaroid Geometry Scavenger Hunt  Math Forum
This activity presented by Ruth Carver at the Math Forum's 1996 Summer Institute, "Constructing Mathematics on the Internet," displays pictures of items found on this a hunt for a list of geometric items (tessellations, symmetry, concentric circles, shapes,
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 Poly and Poly Pro  Pedagoguery Software
Mac and Windows shareware programs for exploring and constructing paper models of polyhedra. With Poly, you can manipulate a polyhedral solid on the computer and print out a flattened version (a net) which can then be cut out, folded, and taped, to produce
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 Polydron
British vendors of two and three dimensional, handson, geometric modelling systems and other geometric toys. Polydron Corporation history, online catalogue, and order form. To purchase Polydron products in the United States, contact Polydron International
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 Polyedergarten  U. Mikloweit
Photographs of paper models of uniform polyhedra, prisms and compounds. Versions of the site also exist in German and French.
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 Polygon Diagonals  Math Forum, Ask Dr. Math Common Question
A selection of answers to questions about polygon diagonals, such as "How many diagonals can be drawn for a polygon with n sides?"
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