 An overview of Babylonian mathematics  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay exploring the arithmetic and geometry of the Babylonians, who lived in Mesopotamia, a fertile plain between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The Babylonian civilization replaced the Sumerian civilisation and the Akkadian civilisation; this
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 An overview of Egyptian mathematics  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay on the development of the Egyptian number systems, and the arithmetical methods they devised to work with their numerals. With references and other related web sites.
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 An overview of Indian mathematics  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay on the contributions of Indian mathematics, in particular the number system invented by the Indians, on which much of mathematical development has rested. With references and other related web sites.
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 Overview of the History of Mathematics  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked overview from the Babylonians through topics from the twentieth century, with additional sections on notation and communication, brilliant discoveries, how we view history, and a challenge, as well as a 700item general bibliography.
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 Oxford University Press
The world's largest university press, publishing 3,000 new books a year, including scholarly works in all academic disciplines, bibles, music, school and college textbooks, children's books, materials for teaching English as a second language, business
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 P2S Games  P2S Information Systems Pvt. Ltd
Online games that challenge you to click your way to filling containers of liquids (Fill It Up), completing equations with operations (Equation), adding adjacent tiles to maximize their overall sum (Maximize), selecting operations between the 4s to make
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 Packing Videotapes  NASA Lewis Learning Technologies Project
Roger had to pack videotapes 10 to a box. If he had 178 tapes of one kind and 121 of another kind, how many boxes would he need in order to pack them all and not mix the different types? A detailed answer is provided. From NASA's 9th Grade Math Proficiency
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 Page of Conversion (Convert It)  Ramsviks, Adler
Enter a number and press the tab key to convert among bases, tempreatures, and measures and weight.
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 Pages Mathématiques  Lycée de Vienne SaintRomainEnGal (académie Grenoble)
Une série de cours de mathématiques: Géométrie du triangle; Transformations; Géométrie des cercles; Barycentres; Coniques et courbes; Solides; Statistiques; Fractales; Géométrie non euclidienne;
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 The Pai Intersect  Jimmy Pai
Blog by an Ottawa (Canada) secondary mathematics teacher and graduate student in education. Posts, which date back to August, 2012, have included "Understanding Fraction Division #2  Part 1," "$100 Tablet Project," "Spiraling through the curriculum,"
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 Pairing Like Students for Perseverance in Problem Solving  Marie Hogan
Article about how one particular duo of eighth grade PreAlgebra students, paired by ability level, overcame a contentious start to work together and "reach new heights of problemsolving proficiency." Originally published in the March, 2013, issue of
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 Palindromic Numbers and Other Recreational Topics  Patrick De Geest
Many odd facts about big (and little) numbers, including circular primes and palindromic triangulars, tetrahedrals, squares, cubes, and primes. Also assorted odd puzzles, etc.
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 Palindromic Primes  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Palindromic primes are whole numbers, evenly divisible only by themselves and 1, that also have the same sequence of digits read forward or backward... The current record for the largest known palindromic prime is held by Harvey Dubner, a retired electrical
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 Panamath  Panamath.org
Have you ever tried to guess how many jelly beans are in a jar without counting? The Panamath test measures your number sense  your intuitive recognition of numbers and their relationships  and approximate number system (ANS) aptitude. Practice estimating
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 Panitz cooperative learning and WAC web page and much more  Ted Panitz, Cape Cod Community College
Workshops, articles, and other resources on cooperative learning and pedagogy.
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 Pantagraph (Manipula Math)  International Education Software (IES)
A pantograph is a drawing instrument for magnifying figures. Using the applet on this page, by moving the red point to trace an original figure you can automatically obtain a magnified figure with the pen at the blue point.
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 Panthera's Puzzle Contest  Dr. Amy Galitzer; Puzzle University
A weekly contest of math, logic, and word puzzles sponsored by the American Mathematical Society and the University of Maryland Mathematics Department. You can submit your own puzzle for the next contest by signing up to participate, or simply read the
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 paperfolding.com  Eric Andersen
Learn to fold origami from diagrams; read about the history of paperfolding, including the origin of the term "origami." The origami & math essay contains sections such as Origami, Geometry, and the Kawasaki Theorem; and Origami and Topology.
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 PaperFoldingFractals  Joel Castellanos, Rice University
A classroom teaching or personal learning software tool for Windows that can be an introductory lesson to fractals. Simple, stepbystep processes of paper folding can give rise to infinite verities of fractals. The user learns what fractals are and how
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 Paperforms: Polyhedrons for the Masses  John T. Vonachen
Geometric paper sculptures offered for sale.
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 Paperkit
Generate the exact type grid paper using this printable graph paper template. Specify format, units, spacing, margin, and stroke width and color.
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 Paper Models of Polyhedra  Gijs Korthals Altes
Dozens of paper models of polyhedra: Platonic and Archimedean solids, compounds, caleidocyli, and more. Print the images, cut, and glue them together, or download the models in zipped CorelDraw or GIF format.
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 Paper Mosaics  Alex Bateman
Origami tessellations consist of a simple crease pattern unit that gets repeated across a sheet of paper. Download Tess, a computer program that aids in the design of such tilings; and browse a gallery of works created with the application.
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 Papers by Dr. Bert K. Waits  Dr. Bert K. Waits
In PDF format, essays include "The Role of HandHeld Computer Symbolic Algebra in Mathematics Education in the TwentyFirst Century: A Call for Action!"; "The Role of Graphing Calculators in Mathematics Reform"; "The Evolution of Instructional Use of
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 Parallel lines and Angles (SMILE)  Earl M. Singleton, III, Daniel Hale Williams School
A lesson designed to teach students to identify the names and measurement of angles formed when parallel lines are intersected by a transversal. From the Geometry and Measurement section of a collection of almost 200 single concept lessons by the Science
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 Parent Roadmaps to the Common Core Standards  Mathematics  The Council of the Great City Schools
Guides for parents of children learning the mathematics of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), and how to support that learning. Running six to eight pages in length, each freely downloadable roadmap includes examples; sections such as "Partnering
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 Parent's Page  Chicago System Initiative (CSI)
A list of informative sites for parents who have questions about parenting and how to get involved in their children's education. Topics include Family Math (a page on math education); Helping your child learn math; Math and Your Child (information on
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 Parent Toolkit  NBC Education Nation
Academic "growth charts," tips, benchmarks, advice, and other guidance for parents, organized by grade. Parent Toolkit also provides tabletfriendly parentteacher conference guides, checklists, and templates for taking notes.
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 The Partnership for 21st Century Skills
The Partnership for 21st Century Skills is a national organization that advocates for the integration of skills such as critical thinking, problem solving and communication into the teaching of core academic subjects such as mathematics, reading, science
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 Pascal's Triangle and its Patterns
All kinds of information about Pascal's triangle: sums of the rows; prime numbers; hockey stick pattern; magic 11's; Fibonacci sequence; triangular numbers; square numbers; polygonal numbers; points on a circle; connection to Sierpinski's triangle.
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 Pascal's Triangle Interface  Andrew Granville
A form that lets you visualize the entries of Pascal's triangle with respect to a modulus between 2 and 16. Select values for the number of rows, modulus, and the size of the image, and submit.
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 Pascal's Triangle  Ken Williams
Pascal's triangle, written out through row 19, by Ken Williams of the Math Forum.
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 Pascal's Triangle  Math Forum, Ask Dr. Math FAQ
What is Pascal's Triangle? How do you construct it? What is it good for?
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 Pascal's Triangle  Math Forum/USI
A Web unit designed to support workshops given by the Math Forum for the Urban Systemic Initiative (Philadelphia and San Diego). Read about the history of Pascal's triangle and learn to construct it; view illustrations of number patterns to be discovered;
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 Pascal's Triangle: Number Patterns  Math Forum
Some history and an interactive exploration of number patterns and an exploratory Internet Web unit for elementary, middle school, and high school, with lessons, number pattern studies, and links to relevant sites on the Web.
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 Pascal's Triangle using Clock Arithmetic  Jay's Corner
Exploring Pascal's triangle when the modulus is a prime; when the modulus is a power of a prime; and when the modulus has at least two different prime divisors. From mod 2 to mod 12, illustrated. (See also Part II.)
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 Passy's World of Mathematics
Lesson outlines by this Australianborn math teacher include Venn diagram word problems, combining like terms, translate word equations, and isometric drawing and 3d cubes; PowerPoint presentations include traversable networks, sharing using ratios, real
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 Pathfinder Services, Inc.
An Indianabased nonprofit which, among other projects, creates mathematics teaching aids, including Recycled Math Manipulatives, Fraction Islands, Pattern Blocks Plus, and Polyhedra Plus. Full descriptions and ordering information are provided. They
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 Path Puzzles  Erich's Puzzle Palace; Erich Friedman
Sixteen paththroughagrid puzzles; can you fill in the correct path? Answers provided.
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 Pathways to School Improvement  North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL)
A Web site that addresses school improvement issues about students, educators, content, methods, and the environment. Practical, actionoriented summaries of best practice and research, descriptions of schools that have successfully addressed issues,
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 Pathways to Science  Institute for Broadening Participation
Programs such as undergraduate summer research opportunities, graduate fellowships, postdoctoral positions, as well as resources and materials pertaining to recruitment, retention, mentoring, and funding of underrepresented groups on pathways to science,
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 Pat Kenschaft's Home Page  Patricia Clark Kenschaft, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Montclair State University
From the host of the weekly callin talk radio show, Math Medley (19982004): links to her books, such as Mathematics for Human Suvival, Winning Women into Mathematics, and Math Power: How to Help Your Child Love Math Even If You Don't, the first book
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 PAT Online: Reports from the Practical Algebra Tutor Project  PACT Center, Carnegie Mellon University
An intelligent tutoring system, a sort of modified spreadsheet system, based on a theory of cognition developed by John Anderson and the NCTM standards. Try it out online, or: read articles about education, technology, and computer science; explore background
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 Pat's Math & Problem Solving Links  Pat McQuatty
Site recommendations from the math consultant for the Western Quebec School Board. See, in particular, Special Days (Hundredth Day of school, Math with the number 2000  twenty suggested math activities for the year 2000). Also mathrelated links for
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 Pattern Based Reason  Alan Selby
This book surveys rule and pattern based thought in daily life, society, science and technology. The first chapters show how reliable implication rules can be employed one at a time or one after another to arrive at conclusions. The middle chapters describe
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 Pattern Exploration: Integrating Math and Science for the Middle School  Martin Logan et al.
Download PDFs of lesson plans from units such as The PascalSierpinski Connection, Branching Patterns in Trees, Lessons in Paper Folding, Fractal Wallhanging, Patterns in Nature, Scaling and Dimension, and more. With accompanying Java applets and Cabri
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 Pattern Pals  Kevin Roddy
If you like building designs with Pattern Blocks, you might enjoy being a Pattern Pal. Pattern Pals is a pen pal service with a twist: select a Pattern Pal Activity (Grab Your Crayons!; Adventures in Line; Symmetry; PaintbyNumber Pattern Blocks; Logo
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 Patterns in Mathematics (Teachers' Lab)  Annenberg Media
This lab, based on the professional development series and workshops broadcast on the Annenberg/CPB Math and Science Project Channel, explores patterns as they occur in logic, numbers, and words, focusing on how to develop "function sense" without simply
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 Patterns, Patterns, Everywhere  Nina Heal
Three lesson plans: an internetbased research project on patterns; connections between the arts of M. C. Escher and quilters; and a technologyenriched tessellations lesson. Includes a teacher resource page with rubrics.
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 Patterns  Suzanne Alejandre
Links to Web sites with patterns. Students look through the pages and answer these questions: How do natural patterns influence us? How do patterns help us to solve problems? Can you put elements of a pattern into an order that can be measured? that
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