 Pascal's Triangle from Top to Bottom  Matthew Hubbard and Tom Roby
A comprehensive resource for the study of Pascal's Triangle. The section "Applications" addresses questions such as "What types of questions are answered by the binomial coefficients?" and "What number greater than 1 shows up most often in Pascal's Triangle?"
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 A Passion for Pi  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
Some of you may be familiar with the sentence: How I want a drink, alcoholic of course, after the heavy lectures involving quantum mechanics! The number of letters in each word represents successive digits of pi: 3.14159265358979. How Simon Plouffe memorized
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 Past Lectures  Gresham College
Dozens of video lectures by Robin Wilson, Gresham Professor of Geometry and former Visiting Professor in the History of Mathematics: "The Great Mathematicians," "Early Mathematics Day," "Lewis Carroll in Numberland," "Topics in the History of Financial
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 Pathways to Science  Institute for Broadening Participation
Programs such as undergraduate summer research opportunities, graduate fellowships, postdoctoral positions, as well as resources and materials pertaining to recruitment, retention, mentoring, and funding of underrepresented groups on pathways to science,
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 Patterns of physical change  Phil Henshaw
Focuses on the use of tools such as derivative reconstruction (DR) to measure growth and changes in a system. Includes: a short paper "Is the basis of change evolutionary?"; a description of the theory of derivative reconstruction as a method of analyzing
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 Paul Nevai
Paul Nevai researches orthogonal polynomials and approximation theory. Many of his articles are available here in .dvi format or as html documents.
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 Pavilion of Polyhedreality  George W. Hart
A page of images of polyhedra from the author of Multidimensional Analysis and the Encyclopedia of Polyhedra. Constructions from wood, paper, paper clips, pencils, food and forks. The is also an extensive linked list of other Web pages related to polyhedra
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 PCMI@MathForum  Suzanne Alejandre, Jim King
An overview and, in some cases, details of the working groups, schedules, and projects from each summer session: Research Program, Graduate Summer School, Undergraduate Program, Mathematics Education Research Program, Undergraduate Faculty Program, High
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 PEEI: a computer program for the numerical solution of systems of partial differential equations.  Giacomo Lorenzoni
The program PEEI calculates a numerical solution of almost all the systems of partial differential equations who have number of equations equal or greater of the number of unknown functions. Free download. For Windows XP/Vista/Server 2003.
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 Penrose Tiling Generator  Stephen Collins
A software package for Windows NT, for generating rhombic Penrose tilings and investigating symmetrical topological chains within them.
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 Pentagonal Geometry and the Golden Ratio (The Geometry Junkyard)  David Eppstein, Theory Group, ICS, UC Irvine
An extensive annotated list of links to material on geometric problems defined on regular pentagons, involving pentagonal angles, or based on the golden ratio (the ratio of diagonal to side length in a regular pentagon).
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 Pentomino Relationships  Adrian Smith
The site describes how pentominoes (twelve pieces of wood, each a different shape and each made of five cubes) fit together into rectangles or cuboids, as well as the subsequent challenge of finding as many other solutions as possible from the one just
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 Perfect Problems  Vasek Chvátal
Unsolved problems on perfect graphs, a collection for people with at least a basic knowledge of the subject. Contents include: Perfection of special classes of Berge graphs; Recognition of special classes of Berge graphs; Decompositions of perfect graphs;
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 Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics
An independent, nonprofit, scientific research organization working to advance our understanding of physical laws and develop new ideas about the essence of space, time, matter, and information. Located in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, Perimeter also provides
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 PEST: ModelIndependent Parameter Estimation  Watermark Computing
PEST is a package that can be used with any preexisting model for data interpretation or model calibration. Use of nonlinear parameter estimation techniques allows you to exercise greater control. The site includes PEST, Parallel PEST, SENSAN, PEST MODFLOW/MT3D
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 Pete Casazza
Articles by this University of Missouri professor, some of them scanned from journals, include "A Mathematician's Survival Guide," "Classes of Finite Equal Norm Parseval Frames," "Dear Pythagoras: See What You Started," "Equivalents of the KadisonSinger
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 Pete L. Clark
Course notes, open problems, publications and preprints by Clark, who teaches at the University of Georgia, and does research primarily in number theory and arithmetic geometry. See, in particular, Clark's freely downloadable PDF expositions on commutative
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 Peter Doyle  Mathematics, Univ. of California at San Diego
Advanced tutorials, proofs and papers, mostly statistics, probability, geometry, and graph theory, but with examples from other mathematics areas as well. Don't miss Dr. Doyle's Flip Flops.
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 peterlu.org  Peter Lu
Publications and research into medieval Islamic geometry (e.g., decagonal and quasicrystalline tilings in its architecture), softmatter and colloid physics, highperformance imaging, ancient Chinese technology (e.g., first use of diamond, early precision
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 Peter Olver's Home Page  Peter Olver
Publications, seminar and conference talks, and more resources from the Head of the University of Minnesota's School of Mathematics. Download notes of Olver's lectures on applied mathematics, numerical analysis, orthogonal bases and the QR algorithm,
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 Pfaff's Method (III): Comparison with the WZ Method (Organic Mathematics Proceedings)  George Andrews
In the 1990's, the WZ method has been the method of choice in resolving new conjectures for hypergeometric identities. The object here is to compare the WZ method with Pfaff's method. Such a comparison should (it is hoped) provide some suggestions for
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 Phalanstère  Équipe de Combinatoire Algébrique, Université de MarnelaVallée
Research into the relations between algebra and combinatorics. Membres; Publications; Logiciels; Séminaire. In French.
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 Philippe Flajolet
Philippe Flajolet researches the analysis of algorithms, analytic combinatorics, computer algebra, asymptotic analysis, special functions, random structures, and natural languages. An extensive collection of his articles, and the first chapters of
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 Photos by Paul Halmos  Mathematical Association of America (MAA)
Snapshots taken by Paul R. Halmos of notable contemporaries, academics, and other intellectuals of the 20th century. Search or browse the tagged collection of pictures, each of which includes a brief note about the subjects photographed in Halmos' own
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 Physics Problems for the Next Millennium  David Gross, Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara
The ten most important unsolved problems in fundamental physics, as formulated by participants of the University of Michigan's Strings 2000 Conference: Are all the (measurable) dimensionless parameters that characterize the physical universe calculable
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 Pi: A 2000Year Search Changes Direction  Adamchik, Wagon
A New Formula for Pi: David Bailey of NASA/Ames and Peter Borwein and Simon Plouffe of the Centre for Experimental and Computational Mathematics at Simon Fraser University (BBP) have discovered a remarkable and remarkably simple new formula for Pi. Sum
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 PiSearch
Search the first four billion binary digits of Pi for a string. Enter the string in hex (4 bit) or character (5 bit) format. Includes some statistics (probability of occurrence of characters, digits). Related links include articles and papers.
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 pLab: Random Number Generation  Peter Hellekalek; Mathematics Dept., University of Salzburg
Results and links on this fundamental topic in stochastic simulation. RNGs are deterministic algorithms that produce numbers with certain distribution properties. Roughly speaking, these numbers should behave similar to realizations of independent, identically
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 Planar Geometry (The Geometry Junkyard)  David Eppstein, Theory Group, ICS, UC Irvine
An extensive annotated list of links to material on planar geometry.
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 Planet Math
Designed to be a central repository for mathematical knowledge on the web, with a pedagogical slant. All content is usercontributed, either to the Encyclopedia or to the reviewed listings of papers, books, and lecture notes. Polls, discussions, and feedback
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 plantri and fullgen  Gunnar Brinkmann, University of Bielefeld, and Brendan McKay, Australian National University.
Programs for generating certain types of planar graph. Graphs are generated in such a way that exactly one member of each isomorphism class is output without the need for storing them. The speed of generation is more than 100,000 graphs per second in
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 Plouffe's Inverter  Simon Plouffe
A database of more than 84,800,000 mathematical constants like Pi, Sqrt(2), Catalan and Euler's gamma. Enter a number, search or browse, and the programs will find what the number is made of. From the author of the Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences (with
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 Poem about the Riemann Zeta Function  Tom Apostol
A poem about the zeta function and the Riemann hypothesis, linked to explanations of the important concepts by Chris Hughes.
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 Point Plots and Space Curves  Theo Gray
Download a Mathematica notebook that defines the functions PointParamPlot3D, SpaceCurve, and PointSpaceCurve. These functions let you make discrete point plots in two and three dimensions. The SpaceCurve and PointSpaceCurve functions let you make threedimensional
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 Poliplus Software
Educational computer algebra, geometry, trigonometry, calculus software for Windows and Macintosh, and Java. Formulae 1 (F1) is a computer algebra system designed for the teaching and exploration of Mathematics. EqnViewer is a Java applet that allows
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 Polish Mathematical Society, Cracow Division
Council, Committees, Delegates, report of Plenary Meeting; Contact details.
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 POLYA: Cooperative Solutions of Difficult Problems in Elementary Mathematics  Paul Yiu and Xiaodong Zhang, Moderators; Department of Mathematical Sciences, Florida Atlantic University
An archived discussion group for the cooperative solution of difficult problems in elementary mathematics through calculus, "preferably nontechnical in nature."
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 Polyhedra and Polytopes (The Geometry Junkyard)  David Eppstein, Theory Group, ICS, UC Irvine
An extensive annotated list of links to material on geometric properties of polygons, polyhedra, and higher dimensional polytopes (particularly convex polytopes).
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 The polymath blog  Timothy Gowers
Massively collaborative mathematical research projects discussed and hosted here have included IMO Q6 2009, Density HalesJewett, Embedded c_0 or lp in explicit Banach spaces, and Finding primes deterministically. Proposals include Boshernitzan's problem,
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 Ponder This  IBM Research
Match wits with the minds in IBM Research, who post a new puzzle every month (some suggested by users at large), and welcome your solutions. Archives of previous challenges.
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 Potto Project  Dr. Genick BarMeir
An open content project meant to be used by the community to write quality text books for colleges. Currently offering the free online textbook, Fundamentals of Compressible Flow Mechanics.
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 The Power of One  Robert Matthews, The New Scientist
Benford's law demands that around 30 per cent of the numbers in a given data set will start with a 1, 18 per cent with a 2, right down to just 4.6 per cent starting with a 9. This essay provides a mathematical history behind the counterintuitive law,
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 Powersums, Fermat, Waring; Quotes, History...  Nico F. Benschop
Links to papers on the ideas of Fermat, Waring, Goldbach, Cantor, Hensel, HasseMinkowski, and Selmer, and the following mathematical concepts: semigroups, sequential logic synthesis, cubic roots, and state machines and their sequential closure. With
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 Practical Foundations of Mathematics  Paul Taylor
The full text (online, in HTML) of the book (some diagrams may be missing), published by Cambridge University Press in March, 1999 as number 59 in their series Cambridge Studies in Advanced Mathematics. Practical Foundations collects the methods of construction
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 A Practical Guide to Wavelet Analysis  Christopher Torrence and Gilbert P. Compo
Read an introduction to wavelet analysis and Monte Carlo methods, or download it in PDF or PostScript format. Use an interactive wavelet plotting form to investigate sample time series or your own data. Download wavelet software in Fortran, IDL, or
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 Practice Online! The Electronic Complement to INTERFACES (POL)  Institute for Operations Reseach and the Management Sciences (INFORMS)
A practiceoriented electronic information service of INFORMS, jointly sponsored by INTERFACES and the INFORMS Roundtable. Forum, submission guidelines, supplemental materials online, tables of contents and abstracts, Edelman abstracts, practiceoriented
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 Preconditioned Eigensolvers  Andrew Knyazev; Dept. of Mathematics, Univ. of Colorado at Denver
Investigations into matrixfree iterative methods for partial eigenvalue
problems that take advantage of using preconditioners to accelerate convergence. Papers, an interactive discussion, a bibliography, related conferences, and links to software.
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 Prependix A: Math Notation On KCT
 Karl Hahn
Math notation over the Web: symbol conventions used by Karl Hahn for his Calculus Tutor Notes.
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 Preprints  Yale Mathematics Department
Download files via FTP. Single documents and papers with only a few simple diagrams are stored as ASCII TeX files. An index lists titles and authors of papers.
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 Pricing and Hedging of Derivative Securities  Lars Tyge Nielsen
A book that introduces the theory of pricing and hedging of derivative securities in continuous time graduate and advanced undergraduate students and for researchers in both academia and the financial industry. Includes background in stochastic process
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