 Prime Numbers
Browse primes smaller than 10 billion, or see a list within a given range, or have such a list emailed to you.
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 PrimeNumbers.net  John Barth
Answers to commonly asked questions about primality: What are prime numbers? What are composite numbers? How do I find prime numbers? What are some types of prime numbers? What is the biggest prime number? Other resources include original worksheets available
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 Primordial Soup Kitchen  David Griffeath, Dept. of Mathematics, Univ. of Wisconsin
Research on the selforganization of random cellular automata. Griffeath produces colorful computer graphics that illustrate the ability of local parallel update rules to generate spatial structure from disordered initial states. His Welcome offers access
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 Principia Mathematica II  Michael Meyling
An open source project attempting to present mathematical knowledge in a formal, correct form. It includes a proof verifier which checks a mathematical proof written in a certain formal language and an HTML converter for making mathematical HTML pages.
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 Principles of Calculus Modeling, an Interactive Approach  Donald Kreider and Dwight Lahr, Department of Mathematics, Dartmouth College
Web pages that correspond to each section of the book Principles of Calculus Modeling: Modeling Discrete Data; Modeling Rates of Change; Modeling with Differential Equations; Modeling Accumulations; and Culminating Experience. With quizzes, applets, worked
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 Printable Math Worksheets  TestDesigner.com
Free printable math worksheets, with answer keys, on number concepts, measurement, geometry, algebra, and statistics. Customize your own tests by selecting from the growing database of questions  or create your own.
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 The Prisoner Problem  Anne Arundel Community College
A classic logic problem about three prisoners, each of whom tries to determine what color his own hat is in order to be set free.
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 Prisoners' Dilemma  Wayne Davis
An interactive game simulation inspired by Prisoners' Dilemma game theory as described in the book The Selfish Gene by Richard Dawkins. The payoff is a reduction in prison sentencing of very good, fairly good, fairly bad or very bad, which is translated
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 Probability and Quantile Applets  Balasubramanian Narasimhan
The Probability Applet calculates areas under the standard normal density curves. You are presented with two fields and three buttons on top of a normal density curve. The buttons allow you to calculate areas to the left or to the right or between. The
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 Probability by Surprise  Susan P. Holmes et al.
Experimenting Paradoxes  browsersensitive Java applets (try Internet Explorer first) to try out: The Birthday Problem; Say Red; The Collector; Banach's Matchbox Problem; The Matching Problem; The IID Sequence; Polya's Urn as a restaurant choice; Random
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 Probability  Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny
A short essay on probability theory, with links to some wellknown problems: Monty Hall Dilemma; Three pancakes problem; Lewis Carroll's problem; Bertrand's Paradox; Bear cubs problem; Misuse and Misconception of Statistics; Pauling's joke; Probability
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 Probability of Getting Doughnuts  NASA Lewis Learning Technologies Project
A box of doughnuts contains 4 glazed, 3 creamfilled, and 2 jelly doughnuts. What is the probability of getting a creamfilled doughnut, eating it, and then getting a glazed doughnut? A detailed answer is provided. From NASA's 9th Grade Math Proficiency
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 Probability: Rolling Dice  NASA Lewis Learning Technologies Project
Probability: If a die is rolled 18 times, how many times is the number 2 expected to come up? A detailed answer is provided. From NASA's 9th Grade Math Proficiency Test.
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 The Problem Site  Douglas Twitchell
Math puzzles, brainteasers, strategy games, web quizzes, and informational pages. Flashpowered math games include Adders, Zap (slide tiles to move digits and add up to a specified sum), Side By Side (number rearrangement), One To Ten (given four numbers,
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 Problem Solving Island  Samuel A. Rebelsky
Challenging openended word problems on the topics of games, such as Blockade, Finger Multiplication, and The Word Pyramid; puzzles such as Error Correction, Error Detection, The Fake Coin, Friday the 13th, and Leap Birthdays; and problems based on figures,
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 Prof. McFarland's Help Center for Mathematics Students  Thomas McFarland, Department of Mathematical and Computer Sciences, University of Wisconsin System
McFarland's handouts for courses such as Finite Mathematics, Basic Algebra, Calculus, and The Logic of Chess. Interactive (JavaScript) selftests or explorations cover integer and fractional exponents; factoring; reducing, adding, multiplying, and dividing
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 Project Atmosphere Australia Online  Sel Kerans; Australian Bureau of Meteorology
Online meteorological activities open to international schools. The site provides access to Australian weather observations, forecasts, and archived weather statistics, with information designed to educate the general public about weather and related
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 Project Interactivate  Shodor Education Foundation, Inc.
Interactive middle school lessons on number and operations, geometry and measurement, functions and algebra, and probability and statistics. They feature: online activities (illustrative Java applets including: Venn diagrams; clock arithmetic; Pythagorean
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 Project Poison Applet  Computer Science Dept., Trinity College Dublin
A site created by firstyear computer science students as a Java programming project. Each of 12 topics (Algebra; Geometry; Trigonometry; Calculus; Matrices; Sequences & Series; Complex Numbers; Vectors; Probability; Groups; Further Calculus; Further
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 The Projects of R. W. Gray  Robert W. Gray
Geometric coffee tables, an introduction to polyhedra and the jitterbug (a dynamic polyhedron) that draws on the golden ratio, a collection of notes with respect to R. Buckminster Fuller's work, photos of a dome frame Gray built with students at Oswego
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 Project VISIT
An online professional development collaboratory for high school teachers of science, technology, and social science, supported by the National Science Foundation. VISIT seeks teacher leaders to participate in leading this program during February  May,
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 Prongo.com
Free online games, such as Batter's Up Baseball and Lemonade Larry, for practicing arithmetic, investing in the stock market with real time stock prices, using logic to guess a number and decipher secret codes, and more. Themes of other games include
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 Proofs Without Words  Cut the Knot!, Alexander Bogomolny
Martin Gardner wrote, "There is no more effective aid in understanding certain algebraic identities than a good diagram. One should, of course, know how to manipulate algebraic symbols to obtain proofs, but in many cases a dull proof can be supplemented
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 ProveIt! TwoColumn Proofs Practice Tool  Michael Ferraro
Michael Ferraro of Balboa High School in San Francisco, CA, created this tool for students to practice their twocolumn proof skills. Choose a topic to begin, and choose statements and reasons from the list given. As you go, there are options to remove
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 Put the Heart into Mathematics: Cardiac Output, Rates of Change and Accumulation (iMath Investigations)  Illuminations; National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM)
An online, interactive, multimedia math investigation. This activity explores the measurement of the amount of blood being pumped by a heart. The goal of this iMath investigation is a rich exploration of concentrations (mixture problems), rates of change
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 PuzzleBeast  James W. Stephens
A collection of computergenerated puzzles, some illustrated with Java applets, some with solutions included: The Fried Okra Perplexity, A Dozen Irritating Sliding Block Puzzles, The Bulbous Blob Puzzle, Meandering Monk Maze, The Kung Fu Packing Crate
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 Puzzlemaker  Discovery Education
A puzzle generation tool for teachers, students and parents. Create and print customized puzzles, including math squares and number blocks, online, or buy a CD with editing tools and other extras.
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 Puzzle Up  Binary Arts Corporation
A collection of others' Java puzzles, baffler and logic questions, "for serious puzzlers," best of the week, and mazes and mysteries, each organized into the three different skill levels of young, brisk, and expert. Also, information on the company's
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 Puzzle Workshop  maths online  University of Vienna, Austria
Make your own interactive "jigsaw," or multiple choice puzzles, to save and run on your own computer or to publish on the web. The Applet puzzle creation page requires Java; the Test puzzle creation page allows greater use of mathematical symbols.
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 Puzzlies.net  Michał Barciś
Play sudoku and griddler logic puzzles online. Log in to save game play and compete in the rankings.
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 Pythagoras' Haven  Jim Morey
Step through a geometrical Java applet proof of the Pythagoraean theorem  the square of the hypotenuse of a right triangle is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides.
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 Pythagoras' Theorem: Elaboration on the Similarity Argument  Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny
Euclid included two proofs of the Pythagorean theorem in his Elements. A better known Proposition I.47 (Bride's chair) and VI.31 which is consistently overlooked in the introductory geometry courses. The latter,
however, renders the theorem virtually
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 Pythagorean Theorem Animated Voice Demo  Chris Beall
Animted deerivation of the Pythagorean Theorem.
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 Pythagorean Theorem (Manipula Math)  International Education Software (IES)
Java applets for experimenting with shifting, rotating, and moving pieces of quadrilaterals to prove the Pythagorean Theorem.
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 Pythagorean Theorem  Over 20 Proofs  Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny
A general exposition of the Pythagorean theorem, with proofs from Euclid to Garfield  and more. Also links to other sites on the Web with proofs.
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 Pythagorean Triples  H.B. Meyer
A Javascript calculator for pythagorean triples. In English and German.
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 Pythagoreisches Tripelprogramm  Heinz Becker
A Java applet that reads a and gives integer solutions of a^2+b^2 = c^2. In German and English.
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 Pythagoräische Tripel (Pythagorean Triplets)  H. B. Meyer
A calculator for Pythagorean triplets, making visible the oneto one correspondence between triplets and certain pairs of relatively prime numbers, and an interesting correspondence with certain sequences of letters A, B, or C. (Javascript is required.)
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 Pythia Equation Solver  Pablo Perna
The site contains equations for which the user can solve automatically any unknown given the known parameters. Geometry equations include areas of triangles and circles, and surface area and volume for various 3D shapes. Equations also include electronics
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 Qdos Math  The Education Channel International, Ltd.
An interactive online program delivering elementary mathematics content. Written by teachers, the program includes assessment tests, interactive tuition/demonstration pages and followup exercises and activities. Qdos is available via the internet at
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 QPuzzle  XIAO Gang
A mathematical jigsaw puzzle: your goal is to recover a disordered photo by finding the inverse affine transformation. A French version is also available.
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 Quadramania  CleverMedia
Use tiles of different shapes to form rectangles and earn points  ten times the square of the total number of tiles in the rectangle. Requires the Flash plugin.
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 Quadratic Map  Ron Lee
The Quadratic Map is the chaotic dynamical system composed of the following equation: x_n+1 = 4 lambda x_n(1  x_n) with parameter lambda. The Java applet is a quadratic distribution plotter.
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 QuantumBrainBenders  Joel Klebanoff
A series of puzzles: find a series of numbers in a grid that add to the given sum. A new puzzle for each of three skill levels is posted daily. The site also includes an archive of previous puzzles.
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 QUdata.com  Icestone Trustee Limited
Online tools and reference library resources for data mining and knowledge discovery. Collection of free online statistical and scientific calculators, 2D and 3D function plotters.
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 Queryous  Information Manipulation, Inc.
An interactive quiz tool. Take a quiz on any course currently available or create your own course and earn half the proceeds. Businesses may use this for training or create free courses for brand recognition.
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 QueryTree  D4 Software Ltd
Drag and drop this free tool to explore, analyze, and visualize data — without special code, formulas, or even software: QueryTree queries tabular information within your web browser.
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 The Quest for the Holy Value  Kjetil Valstadsve
Finding the correct value of pi. The likelihood of any random two integers having 1 as their greatest common divisor (no factors in common), has been proved to be 6 divided by pi squared  the numbers are prime in relation to each other. According to
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 Quia!  The Learning Group
Create your own Javaenabled quizzes, home pages, and learning games to play over the Internet: enter your material into a form, select a few options, and press a button. Games have been created and are available for browsing in mathematics, as well as:
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 Quite BASIC  Nikko Strom
A JavaScript environment for coding in the classic BASIC programming language. Math projects include the Fibonacci Sequence, Fibonacci Squares, the Sieve of Eratosthenes, and Mandelbrot; puzzles include the Towers of Hanoi and variations of the Eight
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