 Phyllotaxis  Pau Atela, Chris Golé; Smith College
An interactive site for the mathematical study of plant pattern formation. Sections of the site include: Introduction to Phyllotaxis (classification, Fibonacci/golden angle, microscope, mathematical model, and lattices); history; glossary; references;
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 Physics 109N: Galileo and Einstein  Michael Fowler; Dept. of Physics, University of Virginia
A course that explores two revolutions in our perception of the universe. The first, in which Galileo played the leading role, was the realization that what we see in the heavens  the moon, the planets, the sun and stars  are physical objects. The second
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 Physics Simulations in Java  Erik Neumann
Twenty different Javabased, interactive, classical mechanics simulations: springs and masses, pendulums, roller coasters, etc. Move objects or change parameters like gravity, friction, etc. Full math explanations and free source code is provided.
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 Pick a number from 1 to 10 ... for SCIENCE!  Alec Perkins
"When asked 'pick a number from 1 to 10,' people tend to pick certain numbers more than others, in particular 7 and 4 over the extremes...." Participate by choosing your own number; see bar graphs and line plots of data submitted thus far according to
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 Pick's Theorem  Cut the Knot!, Alexander Bogomolny
A description with proof of Pick's theorem, including links to further pages including exercises with an applet for the geoboard, Farey Series, and SternBrocot Tree. An interactive column for MAA Online that uses a Java applet to simulate a puzzle or
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 Pico Firme Bago  Evan M. Fuchs
A Flashbased logic/deduction game, similar to Mastermind. Originally created as an online version of a game used in the author's 5th grade class.
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 PiNation.com  Hugh Bell
A site to "... just enjoy pi. Leave the math aside. Don't even think about the circumference of a circle." Create unique representations of the decimal expansion of pi with the PiArt Tool: choose the color for each digit, the number of decimal places,
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 PiSearch
Search the first four billion binary digits of Pi for a string. Enter the string in hex (4 bit) or character (5 bit) format. Includes some statistics (probability of occurrence of characters, digits). Related links include articles and papers.
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 Place Value  Cut the Knot!, Alexander Bogomolny
Dictionary definitions of place value and what they lack; the emphasis on place value in the NCTM Standards; its importance in understanding our numeration system; how it arises from one of several possible representations of grouping in the counting
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 Planarity Flash Game  John Tantalo
Arrange the vertices such that no edges overlap. Solve graphs of increasing difficulty, accumulating points based on the number of moves and the time it took to make them.
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 Plane Graphic Calculator  J. E. Lillge
A Java calculator that can plot graphs of mathematical functions. Intended primarily as an educational aid to understanding the geometric interpretation of mathematical functions, it also supports complex numbers, vectors, and parametrically defined functions.
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 Plane Isometries  Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny
A collection of basic facts and partial explanations on plane isometries. With accompanying Java applets for translation, reflection, rotation and glide reflection.
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 Planetary Gear Simulator  Ryan Cahoon
Dynamically solves for the number of planets and carrier speed, sun gear teeth, or ring gear teeth as you adjust the sliders to vary the other parameters.
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 Planetcalc  Anton Egoshin
More than a hundred free calculators on math topics ranging from area of a triangle by its coordinates to total squares (the number of squares in given rectangles). Categories of others include date and time, health, computers, engineering, finance, navigation,
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 Planetqhe (Probabilistic Learning Activities Network)  David Kay Harris
Outoftheordinary probability problems. The site focuses on using methods of probability to solve counterintuitive problems and deepen students' understanding and competence in the domain. Sections include: a brief history and rationale of the site;
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 Plastelina Logic Games  Plastelina
Free Flash games include classic constrained "crossing" problems, such as the puzzle of ferrying a wolf, a sheep, and a head of cabbage across a river in a boat that only holds any two of them at once, without leaving the wolf and sheep alone in each
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 Platonic Solids  Buckley; Metropolitan School District of Pike Township, Indianapolis, IN
A demonstration of the construction of the five Platonic Solids from Book 13 of Euclid's Elements. Contents include: Prop 13  pyramid; Prop 14  octahedron; Prop 15  cube; Prop 16  icosahedron; Prop 17 dodecahedron; and a Glossary Of Terms.
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 Platonic Spheres (Dr. Neubert's Website)  KarlDietrich Neubert
A systematic approach to generating the Platonic bodies, using Java applets. A major aspect is the inclusion of Descartes' concept of angular deficit as a measure of curvature. An extension of Platonic bodies to Platonic spheres.
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 Play a Piano : An interactive Musical Java Activity  Paul Flavin
Play a Piano / Synthesizer / Oscilloscope: Play the piano using your mouse or computer's keyboard. Watch the wave forms as well as hear them. This virtual reality Java piano lets you play the piano and have a little fun while learning the relation between
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 The Playground of Mathematics  Cilenia
JavaScript practice in addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, time, and comparison ("greater than, equal to, or less than"). Select difficulty, complexity, position of unknown, duration, and other settings. Also available in Russian, Italian,
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 A Playground of Thoughts  Takasugi Shinji
Takasugi's "Number Systems of the World" lists dozens of languages; how to count from zero to one hundred in each; and the mathematical meaning of the expressions for each numeral. For example, the French say "93" with quatrevingttreize, which means
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 PlaytoLearn.com  Fenzi Designs
These flash cards and other tools help students in grades K5 learn the basics of math, tell time, count money, add, subtract, multiply and divide.
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 Plot a Graph  Vladimir Sorokin; University of Kentucky
An applet that allows you to enter and plot functions of one variable. Enter an expression with a variable x to be plotted, the number of points to calculate, and the range of your variable in the corresponding textfields below the plotting area, and
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 Plot Graphs  Philipp Wagner
Plot multiple two or threedimensional graphs, including of parameterized functions and derivatives, in one and the same graph. Key in equations with the WYSIWYG formula editor.
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 Plotting Linear Equations  SPICE: StandardsBased Products for Interactive Classroom Education
An interactive workspace for graphing points, ordered pairs, lines, and planes. SPICE Online modules are constructed with three separate but functionally linked
areas, Instructions/Lessons, Display/Work Space, and Assessment. Detailed directions are
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 Plouffe's Inverter  Simon Plouffe
A database of more than 84,800,000 mathematical constants like Pi, Sqrt(2), Catalan and Euler's gamma. Enter a number, search or browse, and the programs will find what the number is made of. From the author of the Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences (with
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 Podcast Directory: Math  Podseek
Podcasts of various math instruction and tutorials. Log in to rate or review the links.
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 Poisson Pit: Poisson Probability Calculator  Chuck Anesi
Variously called the Poisson Distribution, Poisson Law of Large Numbers, or Poisson Distribution for Rare Events, the probability function for this discrete distribution of one parameter is given on this site. The Poisson distribution is usually employed
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 Poles and Zeros of a Causal LTI System  Manfred Thole
A Java applet that shows the domain of a system whose transfer function has two poles and two zeros. Poles and zeros can be dragged with the mouse. The amplitude response and the phase response are shown along the side. Plot: H(s) may take a while.
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 Poliplus Software
Educational computer algebra, geometry, trigonometry, calculus software for Windows and Macintosh, and Java. Formulae 1 (F1) is a computer algebra system designed for the teaching and exploration of Mathematics. EqnViewer is a Java applet that allows
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 Polygons: formality and intuition  Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny
A discussion of the definition of a polygon (is it desirable to allow overlapping vertices?), mathematical notation, an interactive exploration of Grünbaum's transformation and a generalization of Napoleon's Theorem, billiard tables, and the flexibility
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 Polyhedra  Rolf Asmund
A gallery of regular polyhedra, snub uniform polyhedra, deltahedra (polyhedra consisting only of equilateral triangles), and polychora; with animations, still graphics, and some taxonomic data (vertices, edges, faces, polygons, radii, and more). Mobius
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 Polyhedron Templates  Dan Grunberg
Design your own polyhedron paper models to print out, cut, fold, and assemble with glue. Build a net by choosing from among the five Platonic solids (tetrahedron, hexahedron, octahedron, dodecahedron, icosahedron), or use the advanced button to specify
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 Polynomials Calculator  Xavier R. Junqué
These online and downloadable calculators for basic math and polynomial operations handle matrices and output their inverses, determinants, eigenvalues, eigenvectors, cofactors, adjoints, transposes, Jacobians, and Jordan forms; calculate derivatives
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 Polynomiography  Bahman Kalantari
Polynomiography is the "art and science of visualization in approximation of zeros of polynomials. This visualization is via fractal and nonfractal images created based on the mathematical convergence properties of iteration functions." The galleries
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 Polyominoes  Kevin Gong
Information and Polyominoes software to download. A polyomino is a piece made up entirely of squares connected edgetoedge. For example, a domino is a polyomino with 2 squares. In this program, you can use pentominoes, tetrominoes, trominoes, hexominoes,
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 Popnoggin  Popspring LLC
Popnoggin is a software program that allows parents or teachers to "install" popup flash cards on any game or site a student uses. Set parameters for drilling math facts to "buy" time on the site or game.
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 Portion Distortion  National Institutes of Health (NIH)
How do the portions served in today's fast food restaurants compare to those available 20 years ago? Take the "Portion Distortion" quizzes to learn exactly how much portions have "super sized," as well as the amount of physical activity required to burn
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 Power Math: Online Math Problem Solving
Algebra, geometry, and arithmetic formulas for grades up to 9th.
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 Powers of 10  Michael W. Davidson, The Florida State University
This telescoping Java applet illustrates powers of ten. View the Milky Way at 10 million light years from the Earth, move through space towards the Earth in successive orders of magnitude until you reach a tall oak tree  then begin to move from the
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 Powers of Ten  Bruce Bryson
A series of images based on the book Powers of Ten, by Philip and Phyllis Morrison and the Office of Charles and Ray Eames. Each picture's subject is ten times wider or narrower than the next. Images range from quarks at 1016 meters to groups of galaxies
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 A Practical Guide to Wavelet Analysis  Christopher Torrence and Gilbert P. Compo
Read an introduction to wavelet analysis and Monte Carlo methods, or download it in PDF or PostScript format. Use an interactive wavelet plotting form to investigate sample time series or your own data. Download wavelet software in Fortran, IDL, or
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 Practical Money Skills for Life  VISA
For educators, parents and students to practice better money management for life. Available online or in a binder format, the free classroom curriculum consists of a teacher's guide, student worksheets and quizzes. Teacher's Guide lessons cover topics
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 The Practice of Statistics  Yates, Moore & Starnes; W. H. Freeman & Co.
A free resource for students and instructors using the statistics textbook The Practice of Statistics. Take online quizzes for each chapter; read EESEE (Encyclopedia of Statistical Examples and Exercises) case studies ranging from "Is Old Faithful Faithful?"
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 Praktick  Praktick Learning private Ltd.
Autoscoring practice problems aligned to the UK's Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Standards, from prekindergarten to grade seven. Questions adjust dynamically based on performance, while a timer counts up response time; incorrect answers
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 PreCalculus: A Teacher Quality Grant Project  State of Texas, Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board
A precalculus "courseinabox" for all teachers, particularly those new to teaching precalculus under the guidelines of the Texas Essential Knowledge & Skills (TEKS). It includes content information, activity sheets, videos of best teaching practices,
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 The Precalculus Weblet  Dynamic Educational Materials
A partially online precalculus course with the following centers: Instruction (extending the instructional opportunities beyond the textbook; see Explore the Concepts and Starred Exercises), Reference (technology, glossary, history, sites that complement
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 Precision Mathematics, "Home of the Merbs"  Joseph Balcuk, Precision Mathematics
Site for "The Spoils of Civilization", a game students can play through the entire school year. Students are required to compete in class and work together to build a civilization for the main characters, Merbs. Students can also use the online game forum
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 PrimaryMath  David Dee
Paperless arithmetic learning for school and home. Create lessons composed of interactive problems in addition, subtraction, multiplication and division (including long division) with optional decimals and signed numbers.
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 Prime Factorization Machine  James Brennan
A page that runs a script that will return the prime factorization of a positive integer (limited to numbers less than 1,000,000). Even with this limit, numbers with very large prime factors may take a few minutes to factor if your computer has a slow
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