 Birthday Surprises  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
It's rather unlikely that you and I share the same birthday (month and date). The more people you pull into the group, however, the more likely it is that at least two people will have matching dates. Ignoring the minor technicality of leap years, it's
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 BitArt  Robert J. Krawczyk
Illustrated introductions to spirolaterals and strange attractors. See a selfrunning demonstration of a variety of spirolaterals, or generate one of your own and see all the reversals. The link of current exhibits lists installations showing strange
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 bitplayer  Brian Hayes
In Hayes' weblog, the author of the American Scientist Computing Science column elaborates on those articles, posts errata, records notes from conferences in progress, and explores other topics. The blog dates back to January, 2006, and includes articles
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 Blended Animated Teaching and eLearning  Dr. Massoud Hajsadr
Description of the author's pedagogical experiments with elearning and online animations.
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 Block Schedules and Student Performance on AP Examinations  Robert Smith and Wayne J. Camara  collegeboard.com, Inc.
Download a PDF article that concludes that "[t]he instructional schedule does affect student grades on the four AP Examinations in this 1998 study after they have been adjusted for group differences in student ability. The results from this study generally
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 Block Scheduling Effects on a State Mandated Test of Basic Skills  Veal, Schreiber; Education Policy Analysis Archives
A study that examined the effects of a trischedule on the academic achievement of students in a high school. The trischedule consisted of a traditional, 4x4 block, and hybrid schedules running at the same time in the same high school. The effectiveness
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 Block Scheduling: Structuring Time To Achieve National Standards in Mathematics and Science  Bernard Durkin
The national standards for science and mathematics education call for sufficient instructional time for inquiryoriented activities, accompanying discussion, and explanations of concepts involved. Several of the standards will require increased time to
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 Boaz Tsaban's Homepage
Includes three PostScript papers: Was Godel right? Was Pi known to ancient Rabbis? and On the Rabbinical Approximation of Pi. Also a links to a Jewish Mathematics page.
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 Bottles in a Wine Rack  Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny
Arranging wine bottles in a rack leads, under certain circumstances, to a curious mathematical problem discussed in books by S. Wagon and R. Honsberger. The site arouse out of an attempt to illustrate their solution. The dynamic illustration quickly
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 Bounded Set Theory  Vladimir Sazonov
Bounded Set Theory (BST) is a weak version of the ordinary set theory. Its main feature is paying main attention to using bounded quantification (as in the ordinary everyday mathematical practice) and other analogous bounded constructs. The language of
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 The brachistochrone problem
 MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay on the brachistochrone problem, posed by Johann Bernoulli in Acta Eruditorum in June, 1696. With references and other related web sites.
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 Brain Science & ICT in Mathematics Education  Dave Moursund
An exploration of three major topics from a math education point of view: Brain Science Craft & Science of Teaching & Learning (C&S of T&L) Information & Communications Technology (ICT). Read the author's thoughts on constructivism,
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 Brainy Figuring  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
In the May 7 Science, Dehaene and collaborators at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology present the first hard evidence that two quite different modes of brain activity underlie our inborn capacity for mathematics. Their study indicates that learning
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 Bray Proves Penrose Conjecture in General Relativity (Math Chat)  Frank Morgan, MAA Online
In 1979 R. Schoen and S.T. Yau proved that the total mass of a universe must be positive. Last year [1998] G. Huisken and T. Ilmanen proved that the total mass is at least as large as the largest constituent mass: M >_ m1. Finally this year [1999] H.
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 Breaking Chocolate Bars  Cut the Knot!, Alexander Bogomolny
The chocolate bar puzzle has three parameters: two side lengths (m and n) and actual selection of lines along which to break the bar and its parts... An interactive column for MAA Online that uses a Java applet to simulate a puzzle or mathematical problem,
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 Brendt Wohlberg  University of Cape Town, South Africa
Fractal image compression resources: bibliography, publications.
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 A Brief History of Cosmology  MacTutor Math History Archives
A hypertext essay describing the course of cosmology from its beginnings in early Babylonian society through the present, with References.
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 Brightest Moon for Thousands of Millennia? (Math Chat)  Frank Morgan, MAA Online
Answer to the challenge: Was there any validity to the claim that the full moon of December 22, 1999 was the brightest that we shall see for millions of years? (Factors that coincided.) New challenge: Eric Brahinsky saw in an article on "New molecule
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 British Weights and Measures Association  Mr. Vivian Linacre, Edinburgh, UK
Views and aims; press releases; the association's publications and some articles from them; a list of patrons and officers; subscription details; an invitation to help; and contact information. "The British Weights and Measures Association opposes wanton
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 A Broken Calculator  Cut the Knot!, Alexander Bogomolny
Thoughts on the controversial question of using calculators in the classroom, and the author's belief that even a broken calculator may have its uses: the elementary mathematics curriculum may emphasize any or all of the paperandpencil, mental, or technologybased
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 Buffon's Needling Ants  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
The idea of estimating pi by randomly casting a needle onto an infinite plane ruled with parallel lines was first proposed by the naturalist and mathematician Georges Louis Leclerc Comte de Buffon (17071788). In recent years, computer
simulations have
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 Building a Virtual Museum Community  Jamie McKenzie
Virtual museums provide an excellent opportunity for museums to partner with schools. The Bellingham (WA) public schools recognized the potential of a partnership with the Whatcom County Museum of History and Art in Fall of 1995. This article describes
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 Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA)  U.S. Department of Commerce
The nation's economic accountant, preparing estimates that illuminate key national, international, and regional aspects of the U.S. economy. Regional, national, and international data, articles, and products.
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 Bureau of Justice Statistics  U.S. Department of Justice
The BJS collects, analyzes, publishes, and disseminates information on crime, criminal offenders, victims of crime, and the operation of justice systems at all levels of government. Key statistics by topic; list of publications, with abstracts, many of
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 Bureau of Labor Statistics  JoAnn L. Yu
The BLS collects information on the U.S. labor force, the economy, etc. Includes "The Economy at a Glance," press releases with relevant statistics, timeseries of various data, regional data, various publications, and information about jobs in the bureau.
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 Burning 1Hour Fuses in 45 Minutes (Math Chat)  Frank Morgan, MAA Online
You have two onehour fuses: lighting one end of a fuse will cause it to burn down to the other end in exactly one hour's time. You know nothing else about the fuses; in particular you don't know how long any segment of a fuse will burn, only that an
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 Bus Boarding and the Theory of Knots  Roy Lisker
This article is a humorous application of basic Knot Theory to the situations encountered when people are trying to board a bus in a great hurry. Their trajectories create braided patterns whicha are 'analyzed' with the help of the theory of knots.
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 Buses on Quantum Schedules  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Anyone who has waited for a bus in the city has probably casually observed that, after an inordinately long wait, two or three buses often come along at the same time. Mathematical models that simulate traffic flow confirm that bus bunching is a real
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 Bytes of Science: An Internet Magazine  David S. Mazel, Ed.
An Internet magazine on science and engineering, with tutorials and introductory articles on various areas of science, math, or engineering. Articles include: A Basis for Functions: The Fourier Series; The Fourier Transform: The Frequency in a Waveform;
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 Calculating Swarms  Ivars Peterson  Science News Online
Ant teamwork suggests models for computing faster and organizing better. Astonishing feats of teamwork emerge from a large number of unsupervised individuals following a few simple rules. This sort of selforganizing cooperative behavior among ants, bees,
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 Calculation and the Chess Master  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
In 1912, J. B. Shaw wrote in the Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society: "The game of chess has always fascinated mathematicians, and there is reason to suppose that the possession of great powers of playing that game is in many features very much
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 Calculatorium  Nenad Mitrovic
JavaScript calculators for determining area, perimeter, surface area, volume, trigonometry, algebra, statistics, finance, conversions, health, and more. See also Calculatorium's timed, autoscoring tests and typeset formulas.
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 Calculus & Higher Mathematics (Funk & Wagnalls Multimedia Encyclopedia)  Lycos Zone: Mathematics
An article defining and describing calculus, including differential and integral calculus, differential equations, and the development of calculus. Also articles on Bessel; complex numbers; Hamilton; Limits; Linear Algebra; Newton, and the Phase Rule.
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 Calculus Made Easy  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
There's something about calculus that can evoke a mixture of both wonder and dread. I was recently reminded of my first encounter with calculus by the announcement of the publication later this year of a new edition of the book Calculus Made Easy (Sylvanus
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 'The Calculus of Logic' by George Boole  D. R. Wilkins, School of Mathematics, Trinity College, Dublin
The paper "The calculus of logic" by George Boole, first published in The Cambridge and Dublin Mathematical Journal, vol. 3 (1848), is available here in various formats: HTML (with inlined images), LaTeX, DVI, PostScript (US Letter size), and PostScript
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 Calculus Reform Movements  Mathematics Education at the Math Forum
The Math Forum's suggested sites on calculus reform, including projects, discussions, conferences, and a bibliography.
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 Calculus Resources OnLine (Mathematics Archives)  University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)
Links to resources on the Web for calculus projects, software vendors, publisher sites, articles and discussions, listings of other calculus resources.
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 Calendar Quirks  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Calendars represent our efforts to create frameworks that allow us to reckon time over extended periods. We normally count the day  the time it takes Earth to rotate once on its axis  as the smallest unit of calendrical time. The measurement of fractions
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 Calendars  L. E. Doggett
An introduction to calendars: what they are; astronomical bases of calendars; calendar reform and accuracy; historical eras and chronology; the Gregorian Calendar  ecclesiastical rules, history; the Hebrew Calendar  rules, Determining Tishri 1, Reasons
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 California Mathematics Council (CMC)
A professional organization of educators dedicated to improving classroom instruction in mathematics at all levels. Goals: to foster excellence in school mathematics curricula and instructional programs, including assessment and evaluation; to promote
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 Canadian Forum on Education in Mathematics
The site of the First Canadian Forum on Education in Mathematics, held May 57, 1995 in Château Frontenac, Quebec City. It contains all documents related to the forum, including A. J. (Sandy) Dawson's discussion paper "A Canadian Education in Mathematics:
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 Canadian Mathematical Society (CMS)
The mission of the CMS is to promote research in mathematics; to assist in improving the teaching of mathematics in Canadian universities, colleges and schools, and to encourage and assist in the development of mathematics and mathematics education. Publications
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 Candy for Everyone  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Several students are sitting in a circle. Each student has an even (though not necessarily the same) number of wrapped pieces of candy. On a signal, each student passes half of his or her trove to the student on his or her right. Between signals, the
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 Canterbury Mathematical Association (CMA)  Christchurch, New Zealand
Encourage and supports the teaching and learning of mathematics. Current events and issues; articles and reviews; teaching ideas; student work; information technology.
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 The Cantor Set  Math Academy Online/Platonic Realms
An article describing a paradox of infinite sets in measure theory.
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 Cantor's Theorem  Math Academy Online/Platonic Realms
An article describing Cantor's diagonal argument, which proved that infinity comes in many different sizes.
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 Career Profiles 
AMSMAASIAM Mathematical Sciences Career Information Project
Mathematicians at work: practical answers to the question, Why should I study math? More than 40 short essays written by math majors around the country about the types of work they are doing after having received their undergraduate or graduate degrees.
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 Carl Bialik
Author of "The Numbers Guy," a weekly column on "how numbers are used and misused in the news, business and politics," for the Wall Street Journal Online. Read past columns, such as "Putting a Number on Happiness," "Lightning Stats Are Partly Cloudy,"
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 Carl Eberhart
Class information and/ or Maple worksheets for courses including multivariable calculus, linear algebra, linear programming, differential equations, numerical methods, and topics for mathematics teachers, as well as Maple and C++ programs for a course
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 Carl Offner's Home Page  University of Massachusetts, Boston
Expository papers by Offner on mathematics and computer science (levels: advanced undergraduate to 1styear graduate student): Repetitions of Words and the ThueMorse Sequence; Finite Fields and PseudoRandom Number Generation; Some Early Analytic Number
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