 The "TwoDimensional Factorial" and a New Solution for the Probability of Completing Sets in Random Sampling  Jeffrey D. Lindsay
In finding a new solution to a classic probability problem, The Collector's Problem, concerning the collection of items in a set, a new and useful recursive function has been found, the "twodimensional factorial." A Web adaptation of J.D. Lindsay, "A
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 Two Points of View  Tom O'Brien
"Children are not stones or recording devices. They are, first of all, sensemakers." In summarizing his work with practicing teachers on the four basic operations, the author responds to H. H. Wu's article, "What's Sophisticated about Elementary Mathematics?"
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 Tying Down a Random Walk  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
For many men, the ordeal of fashioning a neat tie knot is fading into the distant past. It seems ironic that two physicists have now put necktie knots back on center stage. Thomas M. A. Fink and Yong Mao of the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge, England,
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 UC Berkeley Wavelet Group  Univ. of California at Berkeley
People, papers and publications.
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 ULTRALAB  Anglia Polytechnic University, U.K.
A research centre that writes software for learners of all ages and researches all aspects of the use of technology in learning. Reports, papers, and articles; 'old' software and hardware computing archive.
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 Undergraduate Research Project in Random Tilings  Propp, Wilson
This project investigates different regions of random tilings of nxn squares with 1x2 dominoes: square, hexagon, fortress, dungeon, and Aztec diamond (the set of lattice squares completely inside a square tilted 45 degrees, discovering that the dominoes
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 Understanding (Learning and Mathematics)  Greeno, Riley; Math Forum
In their 1987 article, "Processes and Development of Understanding," James G. Greeno of Stanford University and Mary S. Riley of San Diego State University examine why younger children seem to lack the ability of older children to solve mathematical word
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 Understanding Mathematics: A study guide  Peter Alfeld, University of Utah
A resource and source of encouragement, with questions and Alfeld's comments (Are you frustrated working through heaps of meaningless problems that are all alike? Does the thought "I can look it up if I have to" occur to you frequently? Do you feel that
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 Understanding 'Rate' Word Problems  Rick Garlikov
A conceptual explanation of doing various kinds of math "rate" problems (e.g., "distance/speed/time" problems, problems involving combining work done by different agents working at different rates of speed, quantity/proportion problems, etc.).
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 Unfair Dice  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Dice represent an intriguing example of the interplay between randomness, chance, and physical law. The simplest mathematical model of a standard die is based on the assumption that the die is a perfect cube. A cube has six faces, and each face has an
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 The United States and the Metric System  Office of Information Services, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
A capsule history, with questions and answers, a metric chocolate chip cookie recipe, and some sample size relations (kilogram of butter to pound, etc.).
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 Unlucky in Cards (Math Chat)  Frank Morgan, MAA Online
In his Contract Bridge syndicated column Phillip Alder says that the odds against getting a "Yarborough  a hand with no card higher than a nine" are 1827 to 1, and that the odds against two players getting a Yarborough on the same deal are about 182
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 Unsilence Students' Voices  Suzanne Alejandre
Article discussing how to provide an opportunity for all students to contribute to math classroom discussions. Originally published in the September, 2012, issue of the CMC ComMuniCator, journal of the California Mathematics Council, this article intersperses
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 U.S. Department of Education
Extensive and varied education information in categories including: educational initiatives (President's and Secretary's priorities), funding opportunities, student financial assistance, research and statistics, news and events, programs and services,
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 Using Technology to Enhance Engaged Learning for AtRisk Students (NCREL)  Barbara Means; Pathways to School Improvement
A "critical issue": An increasing number of educators are calling for high standards and challenging learning activities for atrisk students. New technologies can provide meaningful learning experiences for all children, especially those at risk of educational
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 Using Technology to Support Education Reform  Means, Blando, Olson, Middleton, Morocco, Remz, & Zorfass
1993 publication of the Office of Educational Research and Improvement, U. S. Department of Education. Includes sections on educational technologies, support for student learning activities, support for teacher functions, effects on student achievement,
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 Using Technology to Transform Mathematics Teacher Education: An Example from Graphing Instruction  Lisa Denise Murphy
An examination of how an example of a use of technology in mathematics education  microcomputerbased laboratory (MBL) work used to teach students about line graphs  fits Pea's framework (the effects of transformation are less predictable than those
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 US Third in Math Olympiad (Math Chat)  Frank Morgan, MAA Online
Answer to the Challenge: a small creature needs to find its way from a random point on an milewide strip of land to the sea on either side, by going distance r in a random direction and then (if it has not yet found the water), turning once t degrees
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 Vagn Lundsgaard Hansen
A personal home page with links to: a mathematical story "I am the greatest," solving and proving/explaining the isoperimetric problem for quadrilaterals; Mathematics and the Public  some experiences with the popularization of mathematics; and Mathematics
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 The Valuation Theory Home Page  FranzViktor Kuhlmann
A forum for all mathematicians who work in valuation theory or apply valuation theoretical results in their own field of research. The home page offers: information about conferences and special events; names and email addresses of mathematicians working
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 Valuing as the Key to Unsilencing  Suzanne Alejandre
"At the heart of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) Initiative is the valued learner, a learner with an active voice in his/her own learning. Under No Child Left Behind (NCLB) practices and assessment many students' voices have fallen silent.... Valuing
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 VedicMaths.Org  Clive Middleton, Kenneth Williams, and Mark Gaskell
Learn about the ancient system of mathematics of the Vedas through interactive tutorials, research and teaching articles, recommended books and websites, a list of sutras translated from the original Sanskrit, a calendar of events, newsletter, and references
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 The Vertex Coloring Algorithm  Ashay Dharwadker
A polynomialtime algorithm for coloring the vertices of a graph with a new constructive proof of Brooks' theorem.
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 The Vertex Cover Algorithm  Ashay Dharwadker
A polynomialtime algorithm for finding minimal vertex covers in a graph.
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 The Vibonacci Numbers (Computing Science)  Brian Hayes, American Scientist
A new mathematical constant, from a branch of the Fibonacci number family in which, instead of always adding two terms to produce the next term, you either add or subtract, depending on the flip of a coin at each stage in the calculation. Hayes writes,
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 Victor Shoup's Home Page
Download research papers on cryptographic protocols and on algorithms for solving problems in the area of number theory and algebra. The Courant Institute researcher freely offers a standard for publickey encryption, a simple LaTeX class for preparing
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 Viewing Fourdimensional Objects in Three Dimensions  Barbara Hausmann; The Geometry Center
"Given that humans only visualize three dimensions, how is it possible to visualize four dimensional, or higher, objects? This question is the underlying idea of a short novel written over a hundred years ago by Edwin A. Abbot called Flatland. Flatland
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 Views from Flatland (MatheMUSEments!)  Ivars Peterson (Math Muse for Kids)
What do you think the world would look like if you and everything in it were squished flatter than a pancake? Like shadows, you and your friends would freely flit about the surface. But if you couldn't rise above or below the surface, objects with any
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 A Viral Dilemma  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
An article that discusses how, in effect, a virus is caught up in a version of the prisoners' dilemma, a widely studied game in which acting for individual advantage clashes with acting for the collective benefit. Game theorists devised the prisoners'
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 Virtual Math Museum  Richard Palais
A virtual "mathematical museum" being developed and improved by an international group of mathematicians called the 3DXM Consortium (the same group responsible for the development of the 3DXplorMath mathematical visualization program). Topics include
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 Virtual Trips to Black Holes and Neutron Stars  Robert Nemiroff
A published paper understandable to undergraduates: "Visual Distortions Near a Black Hole and Neutron Star," Nemiroff, R. J. 1993, American Journal of Physics, 61, 619. Gravitational Principles and Mathematics; General Description of Visual Distortion
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 Visiting Artlandia  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Have you ever admired any of the bold, colorful designs splashed across a variety of fabrics used for scarves, neckties, shirts, and other apparel? There's a chance that you may come across the work of a physicist. Igor Bakshee got into fabric design
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 A visit to James Clerk Maxwell's House  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay outlining the life and work of Edinburghborn mathematician James Clerk Maxwell, with an outline of his childhood, pictures of his home, some mathematical poetry, and references (books/articles).
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 Visualization of Complex Dynamical Systems  Visualization and Animation Group, Institute of Computer Graphics, Vienna University of Technology
Software or technical reports to download (in gzipped PostScript format) related to the graphical representation of complex dynamical systems.
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 Visual Mathematics (VisMath): Art and Science Electronic Journal of ISISSymmetry  Nagy, Jablan
The electronic journal of ISISSymmetry (International Society for Interdisciplinary Studies of Symmetry), published by the Mathematical Institute, Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Papers, conferences, the Nexus Network Journal of Architecture and Mathematics Online,
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 Visual Modelling Group  University of Brighton
This research group focuses on giving formal semantics to existing notations, developing new visual notations, and reasoning with them. The Visual Modelling Group has developed a constraint diagram notation that visually expresses mathematical constraints
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 Vladimir Trifonov's Research Page  Vladimir Trifonov
The site includes papers "Natural geometry of nonzero quaternions" (International Journal of Theoretical Physics 46 (2) (2007) 251257) and “GRfriendly description of quantum systems” (IJTP, DOI 10.1007/s1077300794743).
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 Vladimir Voevodsky
Lectures, publications, a library of Coq files, and more by the mathematician developing univalent foundations, which start with a view of mathematics where sets parametrize collections of objects without "internal structure" while more general homotopy
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 Vygotsky  Cristina Guerra
A brief description of Vygotsky's theories about thought, language, and intellectual development.
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 Vygotsky's Distinction Between Lower and Higher Mental Functions and Recent Studies on Infant Cognitive Development  Eugene Subbotsky; Psychology Department, University of Lancaster, UK
One of the major theoretical advances of Vygotsky's approach to cognitive development was his thesis that human mental functions are social in origin. In making this claim, Vygotsky was confronted with the difficulty of reconciling it with the fact that
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 Vygotsky  Trish Nicholl
This paper includes sections entitled Higher and lower mental functions; Intramental vs intermental abilities; The zone of proximal development (ZPD); Psychological tools; and Semiotic potential and the decontextualisation of mediational means. With references.
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 WallaceBolyaiGerwien Theorem  Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny
According to the WallaceBolyaiGerwien theorem, all simple polygons of equal area are equidecomposable by dissection. The site offers a proof of the theorem and several dynamic illustrations of equidecomposition in special cases.
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 Wanted: A New Mix  Keith Devlin (Devlin's Angle)
An essay on the insularity of mathematicians. "...mathematics as a whole should be prepared to embrace as a useful and bona fide part of the enterprise, collaborative investigations involving mathematicians together with experts in other disciplines."
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 Waterloo Fractal Compression Project  Edward R. Vrscay
A research project dedicated to the study of fractal analysis and Iterated
Function Systems/Fractal Transforms from theoretical and practical perspectives, focussing on image and signal compression. Both mathematical and nonmathematical introductions
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 Wavelet Digest: wavelet.org  Wim Sweldens
A free monthly newsletter with all kinds of information concerning wavelets; announcement of conferences, preprints, software, questions, etc. The latest issue and searchable copies of back issues (beginning in 1992) are available; links to other wavelet
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 The Wavelet Tutorial  Robi Polikar
The engineer's ultimate guide to wavelet analysis: a tutorial that explains basics of signal processing with a focus on the technique of wavelet transformations (WT). Basic concepts of importance in understanding wavelet theory; Short Term Fourier Transform
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 WebCalC  The WebMath Group
An online calculus course with easy to read text, fully worked examples, problem solutions, quizzes, and online linking. To view WebCalC, you need the software Scientific Notebook (a free viewer version is available). The site includes links to publications
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 Weighing the Evidence  Keith Devlin (Devlin's Angle)
Hundreds of thousands of years of evolution have equipped us with many useful mental abilities  our instinct to avoid many dangerous situations and our use of language are two obvious examples. However, evolution has not equipped us to handle statistical
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 Weird Dice (MatheMUSEments!)  Ivars Peterson (Math Muse for Kids)
In the dice game Piggy, you and your opponent take turns rolling a pair of ordinary dice. Your score is the sum of the face values of the dice, so if you roll a three and a four, you get seven points. The first player to reach 100 points wins. Suppose
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 Welcome to PERTH: PEerless on EaRTH  Dave Watson
Dave Watson's main interest is computational geometry, and he specializes in spatial interpolation. Books/software on Contouring (a survey of published bivariate contouring and interpolation methods), Tessellations, Spherical Tessellations, Isolines,
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