 The Probability Web  Bob Dobrow; Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Carleton College
A collection of pages to serve people with interests in probability theory and its applications. Information is presented under the following headings: Probability links, Abstracts, Listservers, Newsgroups, People, Jobs, Journals, Software, Books, Booksellers,
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 Problem at the Art Gallery  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
The Crystal Art Gallery was being readied for its grand opening, and I had to figure out how many guards were needed to make sure that every wall of paintings was under scrutiny. I was also ordered to keep costs as low as possible. The trouble was that
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 The Problem of Knot Classification  Charilaos Aneziris
Contents: Denoting Regular Knot projections; When is a notation drawable?; Equal Drawability; Identifying Equivalent Knot Projections; Ordering Knot Notations; Connected Sums; Comparing Regular Knot Projections; NF=14 Results; Calculating the Alexander
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 Problem of the Week Articles  the Math Forum @ Drexel
These three published articles give context to using the Math Forum's Problems of the Week with students: Writing to Develop Understanding: The Math Forum @ Drexel's PoWs; Problems of the Week Engage Students with Special Needs; and The Impact of the
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 Problem Solving in Mathematics  Jim Wilson; Univ. of Georgia
Problems in algebra, geometry, conversion, cryptarithm, "mean," trigonometry, and a mixture of all, many with comments and solutions, from a course given in the Dept. of Mathematics Education at the University of Georgia. The site also provides links
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 Problem Solving  It Has to Begin with Noticing and Wondering  Hogan, Marie; and Alejandre, Suzanne
Middle school teacher Marie Hogan observed as the Forum's Director of Professional Development modeled a full cycle of the Problems of the Week (PoWs) in Hogan's West Covina (CA) classroom. This coauthored article about their experience around the PoW
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 Problem Solving with Heron's Formula  Jim Wilson; Dept. of Mathematics Education, Univ. of Georgia
A paper on the development and demonstration of Heron's formula for the area of a triangle given the lengths of its three sides. Problems and explorations are included for using Heron's formula.
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 Professional Development in a Technological Age: New Definitions, Old Challenges, New Resources  Cathy Miles Grant
This paper looks broadly at the field of professional development and the underlying principles that guide current approaches. The paper suggests specific issues that come with the process of supporting teachers in technology use, and concludes with a
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 Professor Badih Ghusayni
Ghusayni, who teaches in the Department of Mathematics at Lebanese University, serves as Founder and Managing Editor of the International Journal of Mathematics and Computer Science. Purchase and download his books and journal articles on complex and
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 Professor L N Trefethen, Numerical Analysis  Balliol College, Oxford University, UK
Links to books and recent papers by the head of the Numerical Analysis Group at Oxford University. Books include: Spectral Methods in Matlab, Finite Difference and Spectral Methods, Numerical Linear Algebra, and Spectra and Pseudospectra.
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 Professor Salah Mecheri  Salah Mecheri
Home page of a mathematical analysis professor in Saudi Arabia. Includes publications, references, research statements, primarily focused on operator theory.
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 Professor Warwick Sawyer  Mark Alder
Articles by the author of Mathematician's Delight: "Things and Unthings  An approach to negative numbers," "The Contribution of Music to Mathematical Discovery," "Some Thoughts on Education and Mathematics," "Saturday Morning Mathematics in Cambridge,"
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 Profile (John H. Conway): Not Just Fun and Games  Mark Alpert, Scientific American
A short biography of the Englishborn Princeton University mathematician and a discussion of some of his major mathematical contributions. ...over the past three decades Conway has made some of his greatest contributions to mathematical theory by analyzing
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 Program Information Guide Service (NCBE)  The National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition and Language (NCELA)
Short monographs that provide schoolbased personnel with information on innovative practices for working with linguistically and culturally diverse students: bilingual and ESL, language minority, immigrants, etc. The National Clearinghouse for English
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 A Progression of Primes  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Searches for patterns among prime numbers  whole numbers exactly divisible only by themselves and one  have long served as stiff tests of the ingenuity and perseverance of mathematicians. In recent years, the use of computers has brought a steady stream
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 Project 2061: Science Literacy for a Changing Future  American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
A longterm initiative to reform K12 education nationwide so that all highschool graduates will be literate in science. The project is creating a coordinated set of reform tools and services—books, CDROMS, online resources, and workshops. This site
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 ProjectBased Learning (Learning and Mathematics)  Blumenfeld, Soloway, Marx, Krajcik, Guzdial, & Palincsar; Math Forum
In this 1996 article, "Motivating projectbased learning: Sustaining the doing, supporting the learning," Blumenfeld and her colleagues at the University of Michigan describe projectbased learning and the benefits of using longterm projects as part
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 Project Hermite  Shayne Waldron
Because bounding the error in Hermite interpolation in terms of the derivative which kills the interpolating space is of interest in numerical analysis and in the analysis of ordinary differential equations, there is an extensive literature on the subject.
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 Projet Folium
Folium est un ensemble organisé d'articles sur les mathématiques, du cours aux biographies de mathématiciens célèbres, en passant par les exos les plus classiques et les théorèmes les plus puissants. Articles
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 Projet PRISME  INRIA, Sophia Antipolis
Les activités du projet PRISME sont centrées sur la géométrie algorithmique et ses applications, et sur les aspects géométriques de la robotique. Les études sont motivées par les nombreux domaines
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 Promoting Engagement and Supporting Leadership Development:
Online Teacher Professional Development at the Math Forum  Wesley Shumar, Jason Silverman, & Troy P. Regis, Drexel University
PDFformat article. Abstract: Teacher professional development (TPD) in its current state is typically episodic, fragmented, and often not rewarding over the long haul. There is need for a more substantial and extensive core set of TPD experiences that
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 Proof, Mathematical (Encarta Encyclopedia 2000)  Microsoft Encarta Online
An argument that is used to show the truth of a mathematical assertion. In modern mathematics, a proof begins with one or more statements called premises and demonstrates, using the rules of logic, that if the premises are true then a particular conclusion
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 A Proof of the Full ShimuraTaniyamaWeil Conjecture  Henri Darmon
Download an article in PDFformat on the completion of the proof by Wiles, Breuil, Conrad, Diamond and Taylor.
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 A Proof of the Pythagorean Theorem by Liu Hui (third century A.D.)  Donald B. Wagner
Web version of an article which appeared in Historia mathematica, 1985, 12, pp. 713. Includes Chinese characters, which were not in the published version. Some statements here are no longer up to date, but the article has not been significantly modified.
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 Proofs Without Words  Cut the Knot!, Alexander Bogomolny
Martin Gardner wrote, "There is no more effective aid in understanding certain algebraic identities than a good diagram. One should, of course, know how to manipulate algebraic symbols to obtain proofs, but in many cases a dull proof can be supplemented
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 Prophet of Chaos  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
"'...it may happen that small differences in the initial conditions produce very great ones in the final phenomena. A small error in the former will produce an enormous error in the latter. Prediction becomes impossible, and we have the fortuitous phenomenon.'
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 The Pros and Cons of Technology in the Classroom  Roy Pea, Larry Cuban, Bay Area School Reform Collaborative, TAPPED IN
Nationally recognized experts on the subject, Dr. Roy Pea and Dr. Larry Cuban offer their insights in this transcript of speeches each gave to a gathering of organizations that fund school reform projects. A transcript of questions and answers from the
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 Providing HandsOn, MindsOn, and Authentic Learning Experiences in Mathematics (NCREL)  Cathy Cook; Pathways to School Improvement
A linked essay giving overview, background, and issues around constructivist theory and its implementation. "When educators begin to see learning as knowledge construction, they change their thinking about curriculum, instruction, and assessment, developing
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 Psychosemiotic Theory and Educational Practice  Alice Leonard
Walkerdine and Corran's (1979) paper showed how psychosemiology may account for developmental data as a potentially fruitful alternative to the better known stage theories, like that of Piaget. They argued that learning mathematics is an ideal activity
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 P.T. Chang
Articles by this math professor from the University of Alaska Anchorage's MatSu College include "The Ostentatious World of Algebra," "InService Training for the Math Teacher of the 21st Century," and "Retesting in a College Remedial Mathematics Course."
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 Publications  Douglas N. Arnold; Institute for Mathematics and its Applications
Most of Arnold's papers written since the late 1980s are available in PostScript, TeX DVI or plaintext file format. The Ph.D. theses of students he has supervised are also online. Primary research interests center around numerical analysis, with an emphasis
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 Publications  J. F. Jardine; Mathematics Dept., Univ. of Western Ontario, Canada
On this page there are: a link to a full list of publications; a book subdirectory (Simplicial Homotopy Theory, by P. G. Goerss and J. F. Jardine); and abstracts of papers: A^1local symmetric spectra; Presheaves of symmetric spectra; A rigidity theorem
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 Publications of François Morain
Links to papers on elliptic curves: Primality proving; Complex multiplication; Pseudoprimes; Elliptic curves over finite fields; Discrete logarithm over algebraic curves; Character sums; Miscellaneous. Also in French.
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 Public Understanding of Mathematics  Key Issues in Mathematics at the Math Forum
Links to organizations and articles that explore perceptions and assumptions nonmathematicians hold about mathematics and mathematicians.
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 Publishing or Programming? A Framework for the Development and Presentation of Work by Children on the World Wide Web  Judy Keiner
A paper to be presented at SIGGRAPH97, Los Angeles, August 8th 1997, involving process writing approaches, and including three criteria for evaluating Web pages. Also links to example sites.
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 Punctured Polyhedra  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
A tetrahedron has four triangular faces, four vertices, and six edges. When a vertex of one tetrahedron pierces the face of a second tetrahedron it forms a new, more complicated polyhedron: one triangular face has a triangular "hole" where the face was
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 Puzzling Lines  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Sol LeWitt has often featured geometric and combinatorial themes in his sculptures, paintings, and drawings. In 1973 he composed "Straight Lines in Four Directions and All Their Possible Combinations," a grid of 15 squares, each inscribed with one or
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 The Puzzling World of Barry R. Clarke  Barry R. Clarke
Brain teasers from Clarke's column in The Daily Telegraph (UK) and from his various puzzle books: liar problems, logic teasers, number conundrums, matchstick puzzles, lateral mindbenders, and more. With links to other puzzles sites and an article on
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 Pythagoras Plays Ball  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
Spring, baseball, statistics, math. In many ways, baseball is a numbers game: Strikeouts, home runs, batting averages, innings pitched, complete games, earned run averages, number of players left on base in scoring position in the bottom of the ninth
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 Pythagoras' Theorem: Elaboration on the Similarity Argument  Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny
Euclid included two proofs of the Pythagorean theorem in his Elements. A better known Proposition I.47 (Bride's chair) and VI.31 which is consistently overlooked in the introductory geometry courses. The latter,
however, renders the theorem virtually
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 Pythagoras' Theorem in Babylonian Mathematics  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay examining four Babylonian tablets that all have some connection with the Pythagorean theorem. With references and other related web sites.
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 The Pythagorean Theorem and the Maya Long Count  Charles Wm. Johnson; Science in Ancient Artwork 
Various essays dealing with the possible extension of the Pythagorean Theorem to the third power in relation to the mathematical and geometrical appearance of the Maya long count fractals within progressive series of right triangles. It would appear that
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 Pythagorean Theorem  Over 20 Proofs  Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny
A general exposition of the Pythagorean theorem, with proofs from Euclid to Garfield  and more. Also links to other sites on the Web with proofs.
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 Quadratic, Cubic, and Quartic Equations  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked article describing the progress made on these equations from the Babylonians through Leibniz in 1673, with another Web site and 12 references.
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 The Quadray Papers  Kirby Urner, 4D Solutions
An Introduction to Quadrays. The game of quadrays starts with a regular tetrahedron and four rays pointing from its center to the four corners; these or any ray built from these rays are labelled 4tuples  i.e. four numbers separated by commas and enclosed
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 The Quake Project  The Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and the School of Computer Science at Carnegie Mellon University; and the University of Southern California's Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC)
An NSF and DARPAfunded project developing the capability for predicting, by computer simulation, the ground motion of large basins during strong earthquakes, and using this capability to study the seismic response of the Greater Los Angeles Basin. Research
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 Quantitative and Qualitative Research Supporting Prentice Hall Mathematics Programs  Pearson Education, Inc.
Download PDFs: the Research Summary of Prentice Hall Mathematics programs; Quantitative Research on 1999 Course 1, Algebra LVR, 2000 PreAlgebra Research Summary, and 1999 Middle School Math; Qualitative Research on Unique Progress and on Reading and
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 Quantitative Reasoning  Bill Briggs; Dept. of Mathematics, Univ. of Colorado at Denver
Ideas and information about teaching Quantitative Reasoning courses (also called Mathematics for Liberal Arts Students), links to many Internet sites that support QR courses, and some information about a new QR book. Includes an article by William L.
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 Quantitative Reasoning for College Graduates: A Complement to the Standards  MAA Online
What quantitative literacy requirements should be established for all students who receive a bachelor's degree? Over the years, the Mathematical Association of America has approached this question in various ways, most recently by establishing, in 1989,
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 The Quantum Age Begins  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay describing the beginnings of quantum theory, from Kirchoff's blackbody radiation work in 1859 to Bohr, Einstein, and von Neumann in the 1930's, with 33 references (books/articles).
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