 0!  Jim Loy
An explanation of factorials, which "get large, fairly fast. They are very important in probability and calculus."
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 $1000 High School Calculus Student Award (Math Chat)  Frank Morgan, MAA Online
Solution to the challenge: Justin Smith calls 5939 a "right" prime because it remains prime after dropping any number of digits from the right: 5939, 593, 59, and 5 are all prime. How many right primes are there less than 1000? Is there a largest right
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 $1000 Math Chat Book Quest (Math Chat)  Frank Morgan, MAA Online
Solution to the challenge: On a beach in Oregon, at a certain moment, the very last bit of the Sun disappears below the horizon. The question is: Can I make that last bit of Sun reappear by jumping up quickly to my full height, or perhaps by very quickly
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 101 Uses for the Quadratic Equation  Chris Budd, Chris Sangwin
Article on the value of the quadratic equation, in response to critics calling it a torture inflicted on schoolchildren.
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 125 Questions: What Don't We Know?  Science Magazine
Science celebrated its 125th anniversary with a look forward at the most compelling puzzles and questions facing scientists today. Accompanied by reader's forums and other online extras, this free news feature explores 125 big questions that face scientific
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 12 coins problem  Frans Faase
A classic math puzzle: given a balance scale and 12 coins, one of which is counterfeit and weighs less or more than the other coins, determine the counterfeit in 3 weightings, and tell if it is heavier or lighter. Extensions to other cases and the general
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 $200 Double Bubble New Challenge (Math Chat)  Frank Morgan, MAA Online
Challenge: This open problem appears as Conjecture 4.10 in "Component bounds for areaminimizing double bubbles," by Cory Heilmann, Yvonne Lai, Ben Reichardt, and Anita Spielman (NSF "SMALL" undergraduate research Geometry Group report, Williams College,
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 22nd Annual AMATYC Conference (Mathematics Archives)  John St. Clair, Editor
Presentations and contributed papers on mathematics education, improving quantitative literacy, multimedia in the classroom, realworld activities and applications, and more, from the proceedings of the TwentySecond Conference of the American Mathematical
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 A 27Vertex Graph That Is VertexTransitive and EdgeTransitive But Not 1Transitive [PDF]  Peter Doyle
A paper describing a 27vertex graph that is vertextransitive and edgetransitive but not 1transitive. While all vertices and edges of the graph are similar, there are no edgereversing automorphisms. PostScript, source, and PDF picture are available
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 39 ERIC Citations for Block Scheduling  Catholic University of America
These citations are divided into the following categories: Research Reports for Block Scheduling; Identifiers (ERIC controlled vocabulary term); Title Phrase; Free Text Phrase; and Copernican Plan. Directions for ordering ERIC journals and documents cited
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 3D and SIRDS images  Jonathan Bowen
An archive of single image random dot stereo (SIRDS) and other 3D images, together with related information and software. It is available via anonymous FTP. Plain text information on frequently asked questions concerning SIRDS, an index and a README
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 The 3x+1 problem and its generalizations (Organic Mathematics Proceedings)  Jeff Lagarias
The 3x+1 problem, also known as the Collatz problem, the Syracuse problem, Kakutani's problem, Hasse's algorithm, and Ulam's problem, concerns the behavior of the iterates of the function which takes odd integers n to 3n+1 and even integers n to n/2.
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 The 4th Spatial Dimension
An introduction to the visualization of 4 dimensional space. Numerous resources.
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 65m.p.h. Speed Limits, Large Primes, and Japanese Exams (Math Chat)  Frank Morgan; Christian Science Monitor
When a state increases a highway speed limit from 55 to 65 miles per hour, by what percent does the road capacity (in cars per hour) change?
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 AAMT: Australian Association of Mathematics Teachers
A federation of affiliated associations representing all States and Territories within the Commonwealth of Australia, AAMT acts as a national network and council of mathematics educators. AAMT provides serial publications and a regular newsletter, resources
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 Aaron Robertson
Aaron Robertson researches combinatorics, specifically Ramsey Theory. Abstracts of his papers are available online, and they may be downloaded in LaTeX, .dvi, PostScript, or PDF format. Related Maple packages, for which the code is available online,
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 AASA Online  American Association of School Administrators
A professional organization focusing on improving the condition of children and youth, preparing schools and school systems for the 21st century, connecting schools and communities, and enhancing the quality and effectiveness of school leaders. The site
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 The Abacus  Jim Loy
Illustrations of the modern Japanese abacus (Soroban) and the Chinese abacus, both showing the number 1998, how to add "one" to a number, and how to carry.
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 Abbott and Costello's Wacky Math  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
The Math in the Movies Web page provides an annotated list of films in which mathematics plays some sort of role. The choices range from the calculus lessons of Stand and Deliver to the mystifying numerology of the 1998 thriller Pi. Among the notable
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 About time  Keith Devlin (Devlin's Angle)
An essay on time in mathematics and engineering (the time that we measure and use to regulate our lives). How did we come to measure time in the first place? What exactly is it that our timepieces measure? And what scientific principles do we use to construct
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 abraCAdaBRI  Yves Martin
Liens et exercises pour le logiciel Cabri Géomètre:
geéométries; affine plane; vectorielle plane; affine de l'espace; non euclidennes; logique (Alice); dossier coniques; pratique de Cabri. In French.
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 Abstract Finite Groups  Dave Rusin; The Mathematical Atlas
A short article designed to provide an introduction to finite groups  their internal properties: all those results about group theory for which a consideration of the order of elements is a central part of the question. History, applications and related
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 The abstract group concept  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay offering an introduction to the theory of finite groups (the title of the famous text written by Walter Ledermann), based on a lecture given by Peter Neumann at a conference at the University of Sussex. With references and other related web
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 Abstract Harmonic Analysis  Dave Rusin; The Mathematical Atlas
A short article designed to provide an introduction to abstract harmonic analysis: if Fourier series is the study of periodic real functions, which are invariant under the group of integer translations, then abstract harmonic
analysis is the study of
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 Abstract Linear Spaces  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay covering the beginning of the vector concept and the move away from coordinate methods through the beginning of the 20th century with Peano, Hilbert, Schmidt and Banach, with 13 references (books/articles).
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 Abstract State Machines  Jim Huggins
The Abstract State Machine (ASM) Project (formerly known as the Evolving Algebras Project) was started by Yuri Gurevich as an attempt to bridge the gap between formal models of computation and practical specification methods. The ASM thesis is that any
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 Abstracts  The Roles of Calculators in the Classroom  International Congress of Mathematics Education
Abstracts of papers presented in Topic Group 18 of the International Congress of Mathematics Education held in Seville in July, 1996. Online and PDF versions of reports on numerous studies of calculator use in a wide variety of classroom situations. Introduction,
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 Access and Equity in Mathematics Education  EXTEND  Perspectives in Mathematics Education
Links to information about providing access to higher mathematics for all students amidst continuing public debate about the wisdom of tracking and the role of federal, state, and local policy in enabling reform. Equity and Access in Mathematics Education;
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 Accurate Census Taking and Orderly Ants (Math Chat)  Frank Morgan; Christian Science Monitor
A column of ants marches in single file, until one ant falls away and they then march two by two, until another ant falls away and they then march three by three, and so on until finally they are marching 10 by 10. How many ants were there to start with?
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 ACM Transactions On Mathematical Software (TOMS)
The purpose of the Association for Computing Machinery Transactions on Mathematical Software (TOMS) is to communicate important research results concerning the development, evaluation and use of mathematical computer programs. In addition, TOMS publishes
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 Acquisition of Arithmetic (Learning and Mathematics)  H. Ginsburg; Math Forum
In a chapter entitled "Learning to Count. Computing with Written Numbers. Mistakes" in the 1977 book, Children's Arithmetic: How They Learn It and How You Teach It, Ginsburg draws heavily on the idea of assimilation  the incorporation of new ideas into
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 The Ada Project (TAP)  Carol Frieze and Women@SCS; Carnegie Mellon University
Tapping Internet Resources for Women in Computer Science, this site serves as a clearinghouse for information and resources relating to women in computing: conferences, projects, discussion groups and organizations, fellowships and grants, notable women
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 Adapting Science to Chaos  Chris Lang
A new mathematics and metaphysics specifically designed for chaos, complexity theory, and chaotic and complex dynamical systems. The Heisenburg uncertainty principle limits experimentation: optimizing science for chaotic and complex dynamical systems
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 Adaptive Precision FloatingPoint Arithmetic and Fast Robust Predicates for Computational Geometry  Jonathan Richard Shewchuk; University of California at Berkeley
C code for orientation and incircle tests using adaptiveprecision floatingpoint arithmetic. Papers, software, inspiration.
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 Adaptive Technology Resource Centre  University of Toronto
A services and a research and development centre that focuses both on solutions for persons with disabilities, and on universal design. The site includes the Vision Technology Service (sight enhancement and substitution clinic), a technical glossary (covering
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 Adventures in the MathZone  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Ivars Peterson and his wife, Nancy Henderson, have written "a book that introduces children to a variety of ideas also of interest to today's mathematicians: knots, map coloring, Möbius strips and topology, prime numbers, chaos, fractals, and more. Our
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 A. Einstein: Image and Impact  American Institute of Physics
All about Albert Einstein. Essays, photographs, and stories; hear Einstein explain his famous equation E=mc^2. Contents: Formative Years; The Great Works; E=mc2; World Fame; Public Concerns; Quantum and Cosmos; The Nuclear Age; Science and Philosophy;
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 aeyoung.mathematician  Andrew E. Young
Papers from a Mathematics graduate from The University Of Sussex at Brighton: Number Theory: GCD and Prime Factorisation; Molien's Theorem, Invariant Theory and Gregor Kemper; A History of Equality.
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 Africa  Mathematics and the Liberal Arts  Todd Hammond
Notes on published articles: a resource for student research projects and for teachers interested in using the history of mathematics in their courses. Many pages focus on ethnomathematics and on the connections between mathematics and other disciplines.
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 Airplane Weight and World Population (Math Chat)  Frank Morgan; Christian Science Monitor
J. Henry asks whether, on a sinking boat, it helps to make parakeets in the hold fly around. K. Reinecke asks whether an airplane gets lighter when the passengers eat a meal. What causes an airplane to get lighter during flight?
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 Alan H. Schoenfeld  Graduate School of Education, University of California, Berkeley
Download PDFs of publications on mathematics education and curricular considerations such as "Mathematics Teaching and Learning"; "The Math Wars"; "Learning to Think Mathematically: Problem Solving, Metacognition, and SenseMaking in Mathematics"; "Toward
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 Albert Einstein Online  S. Morgan Friedman
Information about Einstein, pictures, organizations that bear his name. Biographies, Hong Kong Baptist Univ. and MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive; Einstein's History; Obituary; Information, David Joyce; Einstein's interview with the FBI; Why Socialism?
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 Alexandru Suciu  Alexandru I. Suciu
Teaching resources such as quizzes, homework assignments, Mathematica solutions, qualifying exams, and syllabi for undergraduate courses in integral calculus, honors calculus, and linear algebra; and for graduate courses in geometry and topology. Also,
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 Algebraic Geometry 
Dave Rusin; The Mathematical Atlas
A short article designed to provide an introduction to algebraic geometry, which combines the algebraic with the geometric for the benefit of both. Thus the recent proof of "Fermat's Last Theorem"  ostensibly a statement in number theory  was proved
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 Algebraic Number Theory: Global Fields  Dave Rusin; The Mathematical Atlas
A short article designed to provide an introduction to algebraic number theory. Subcategories include rings of algebraic integers, quadratic extensions, Iwasawa theory, Galois theory, LanglandsWeil conjectures, density theorems, Adele rings and groups,
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 Algebraic Topology  Dave Rusin; The Mathematical Atlas
A short article designed to provide an introduction to algebraic topology, the study of algebraic objects attached to topological spaces. The algebraic
invariants reflect some of the topological structure of the spaces. The use of these algebraic tools
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 Algebra, Philosophy, and Fun  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
About the book Philosophy and Fun of Algebra, written by Mary Everest Boole (18321916) and published in 1909. "Boole's gentle, conversational introduction to algebra is meant for children. It also serves as a window on
math educationas it was perceived
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 The Algebra Project  North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL)
An interactive curriculum designed to help innercity and rural students better understand mathematical concepts. Developed by Bob Moses, a mathematician and civil rights leader, the curriculum calls for students to follow a fivestep process in which
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 Algebra Project: Organizing in the Spirit of Ella  Civic Practices Network (CPN)
This mathscience program in Cambridge, MA has organized local communities to help make algebra available to all 7th and 8th grade students, regardless of their prior level of skill development or academic achievement. This paper examines how the developers
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 Algebra Research Group of the LUC  Limburgs Universitair Centrum, Diepenbeek, Belgium
Members and publications of the algebra group at the LUC (the Limburgs Universitair Centrum, a university in Diepenbeek, Belgium). Major areas of research include: Noncommutative geometry; Invariant theory; Group algebras and Schur algebras; Lie algebra;
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