 Square of the Hypotenuse  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Some history of the legend of the discovery of the Pythagorean theorem: in his textbook The History of Mathematics, Roger Cooke of the University of Vermont describes how the Babylonians might have discovered the Pythagorean theorem more than 1,000 years
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 Square Wheel (MatheMUSEments!)  Ivars Peterson (Math Muse for Kids)
A square wheel may be the ultimate flat tire. There's no way it can roll over a flat, smooth road without jolting the rider again and again. Stan Wagon, a mathematician at Macalester College in St. Paul, Minnesota, has a bicycle with square wheels. It's
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 Squaring the Circle  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay covering the problem of squaring the circle in the form which we think of it today, which originated in Greek mathematics: given a circle, construct geometrically a square equal in area to the given circle. This article discusses the history
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 Standards for School Science and Mathematics: Background, Purposes, Goals, Principles  Lynn Arthur Steen, St. Olaf College
A "sidebar" on background of the standards movement in science and mathematics
education prepared for the National Science Foundation's "Indicators" study for 1995. In 1994 Indicators of Science and Mathematics Education. Washington, DC: National Science
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 Stan's Library  Stanislav Sykora
A library including a section of mathematical articles, reviews, etc..
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 Stardust Equations  Keith Devlin (Devlin's Angle)
On Sunday, February 7, at 4:04 PM, a Lockheed Martin Delta II rocket lifted off from Cape Canaveral carrying an unmanned spacecraft about the size of an office desk, having the romantic name of Stardust. If all goes well, on January 15, 2006, the spacecraft
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 State Institute of Statistics (SIS)  Republic of Turkey
The agency in charge of collecting statistics for the country of Turkey. Includes tables and charts of key social, economic, and environmental statistics and a dictionary of important statistics and economics terms arranged by subject. Some articles
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 Statistical Assessment Service (STATS)
STATS is a nonprofit, nonpartisan resource on the use and abuse of science and statistics in the media. Its goals are to correct scientific misinformation in the media and in public policy resulting from bad science, politics, or a simple lack of information
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 Statistical Mechanics, Structure of Matter  Dave Rusin; The Mathematical Atlas
A short article designed to provide an introduction to statistical mechanics, structure of matter, the study of largescale systems of particles, including
stochastic systems and moving or evolving systems. Specific types of matter studied include fluids,
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 Statistics  Dave Rusin; The Mathematical Atlas
A short article designed to provide an introduction to statistics: the science of obtaining, synthesizing, predicting, and drawing inferences from data. Elementary calculations of mean and standard variation suffice to summarize a large, finite,
normallydistributed
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 Statistics Finland
The Finnish statistics office; includes news and press releases, important socioeconomic and election data, and publications, including a report on Finnish education. Finnish and Swedish versions also available, as well as Finlande en chiffres in French.
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 Statistics Iceland
The statistics ministry of the government of Iceland. Key socioeconomic figures; press releases; monthly statistics in PDF format; methodological information. Site also available in Icelandic.
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 Statistics Indonesia (Badan Pusat Statistik)  Republic of Indonesia
The statistics collection department of the government of Indonesia. Glossary of statistical terms, key socioeconomic figures for Indonesia by subject and region, census results, methodology information, and links to regional offices. Recent economic
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 Statistics Lithuania
The agency that collects statistics for the country of Lithuania. The site includes: a timeline of statistics in Lithuania dating to 1528, tables of geographic, population, and economic data, press releases, list of recent publications  some may be
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 Statistics Netherlands
A government organization that collects, interprets, and presents information about Dutch society. Tables of key socioeconomic figures for the Netherlands; publications and press releases, which may be ordered or downloaded in PDF format; introduction
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 Statistics Norway
The agency that collects Norwegian statistics. Includes articles about data, tables of recent economic and population statistics, and list of publications; many publications and research papers may be read or downloaded in PDF format. The site also
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 Statistics & Probability (Funk & Wagnalls Multimedia Encyclopedia)  Lycos Zone: Mathematics
Short articles on probability and statistics, covering: average, Babson, demography, mode, Neumann, probability, queuing theory, statitics, and vital statistics.
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 Statistics Singapore
The Singapore Department of Statistics page includes key economic and social indicators, a glossary of economics and statistics terms, press releases, a list of publications, and the Statistics Singapore newsletter in PDF format.
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 Statistics Sweden
Provides official statistics for the country of Sweden: population, key socioeconomic figures, press releases, and graphs of important data. More information, including an order form for timeseries information, is available in the Swedishlanguage version
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 The Statistics Teacher Network  STN  Jerry Moreno, Editor; American Statistical Association (ASA)
A newsletter (beginning Winter 1997) for teachers including book reviews and articles on new teaching ideas, methods, and tools. Initial articles on: Review of ActivityBased Statistics; A Quick Introduction to the Statistical Capabilities of the TI83
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 Statistik Österreich (Statistics Austria)
Wilkommen bei Statistik Österreich; Presseinformation; Publikationskatalog; Fachbereiche (Text, Tabelle, und Grafik); Formulare/ Downloads. (The Austrian government agency in charge of statistics. Introduction to the agency; press releases; catalog
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 StatLib  Dept. of Statistics, Carnegie Mellon University (CMU)
A system for distributing statistical software, datasets, and information by electronic mail, FTP, gopher, and WWW. Quick summary of contents, longer annotations.
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 StatLibJASA Data Archive  Mike Meyer
Contributed datasets from articles published in the Journal of the American Statistical Association. Examples include data from articles such as: "The Chilean Plebiscite: Projections Without Historic Data"; "Kriging and Splines: An Empirical Comparison
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 StatLit.Org  Milo Schield
Hundreds of articles on statistical literacy, quantitative literacy, numeracy, quantitative reasoning and statistical reasoning. See also StatLit's recommendations of introductory books; news on recent and upcoming events; and reviews of grants.
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 Staying in Step  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Christiaan Huygens noticed that the pendulums of the two suspended clocks, hanging side by side from a common support, were swinging together. When one pendulum swung to the left, the other went to the right. The pendulums remained precisely in opposite
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 Stealing Copernicus  Keith Devlin (Devlin's Angle)
The theft of a first edition copy of Nicolaus Copernicus's classic text De revolutionibus orbium coelestium ("On the revolution of the heavenly spheres") was the seventh such disappearance of this valuable work in recent years  a chain of thefts that
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 Stellated Icosahedra  Roman Maeder
An excerpt of an article published in Mathematica in Education. There are 59 stellations of the icosahedron; these pages contain various images of them, ordered by increasing circumradius, and some background information. The metric properties and graphics
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 Stephen Wolfram
The creator of Mathematica and one of the first researchers into cellular automata. Site includes a biographical sketch, photos, and a timeline of Wolfram's life; interviews with him; and the full text of many of his books, articles, talks, and patents.
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 Steve Fulling's Home Page  Stephen A. Fulling
Courses in Foundation Coalition Freshman Calculus, linearity, and other subjects offer objectives, assignments, solutions and reports, exams, and supporting documentation such as books (.pdf, .ps, and .dvi formats). The site also includes access to the
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 Steve Leinwand
Publications, presentations, blog, and more by a Principal Research Analyst at American Institutes for Research (AIR). Freely download articles such as "Moving Mathematics Out of Mediocrity," "High Leverage Mathematics Instruction Practices," "Making
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 Steven M. Christensen and Associates, Inc.  Steven M. Christensen and Associates, Inc.
Offers scientific computing consulting and program development for corporations and universities. Also distributes Schur, a group theory software for handling calculations with Lie and symmetric groups; and Sunfreeware.com, the Solaris Freeware Project.
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 Steven Strogatz
Research, teaching, publications and more by Strogatz, Jacob Gould Schurman Professor of Applied Mathematics at Cornell University. Best known in the academia for his 1998 Nature paper on "smallworld" networks, which he coauthored with his former student
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 Steven Strogatz  The New York Times Company
Mathematics from an adult perspective  from the basics of math to the baffling  by Steven Strogatz, a professor of applied mathematics at Cornell University. This New York Times series is not meant to be remedial, but rather to give readers a better
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 The Stirling EngineRefrigerator: Rich Pedagogy from Applied Physics  Randall D. Peters
An article detailing experiments with a Stirling engine. Abstract: A Stirling engine of the type used for demonstration purposes has been outfitted with a pair of sensors that measure pressure and piston displacement when the engine is operating with
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 StopandGo Science  P. Weiss  Science News Online
Viewing traffic flow as a complex system, controllers use mathematical and computer models and simulations in an attempt to decrease congestion. Some computerbased traffic models simulate virtual vehicles that motor by the hundreds or thousands through
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 The Strange Case of Emily X  Keith Devlin (Devlin's Angle)
The story of Emily, a mathematical genius in high school who disappeared for 5 years and returned with even greater mathematical ability, and then wrote an autobiography, My Lost Years. An excerpt from Devlin's book, The Math Gene: How Mathematical Thinking
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 Strange Orbits  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Newton's laws provide a precise answer to the problem of determining the motion of two bodies under the influence of gravity. If the solar system consisted of the sun and a single planet, for example, the planet would follow an elliptical orbit. When
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 A Stranger from Spaceland  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
An essay about Flatland, Edwin A. Abbott's 1884 "doorway to the fourth dimension and beyond for many explorers of geometry," and "a sharply delineated satire that reflects widely debated social issues in Victorian Britain," particularly women's rights.
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 Strategic Directions in Computer Science Education  Allen B. Tucker, Bowdoin College, Editor
From ACM Computing Surveys, 1996. Abstract: This report identifies major issues and challenges in computer science education across a wide range of institutions. It includes suggestions for improving the quality and effectiveness of computer science and
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 Strategy Acquisition and Application (Learning and Mathematics)  Siegler, Jenkins; Math Forum
In this 1989 article, "Strategy Discovery and Strategy Generalization," Robert S. Siegler and Eric Jenkins of CarnegieMellon University discuss how children acquire and apply strategies, looking closely at a small group of students over a long period
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 Strategy and Conflict: An Introductory Sketch of Game Theory  Roger A. McCain
Game theory is an interdisciplinary approach to studying human behavior that touches on computer science, social sciences, and behavioral sciences. Designed as a supplement to existing texts as a means of making the basic ideas a bit more accessible,
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 Student Calculus Projects  David Arnold; Mathematics Dept., College of the Redwoods, CA
HTML or Scientific Notebook files. Topics: Equiangular Spiral; Semicubic Parabola; Nephroid; Astroid; Witch of Agnesi; Deltoid; Cassinian Oval; Equiangular Spiral; Quadratix; Ellipse; Conchoid of Nicomedes; Archimedes Spiral; Cardiod; Bernoulli's Lemniscate;
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 Student Projects in Differential Equations  David Arnold; Mathematics Dept., College of the Redwoods, CA
PDF or Scientific Notebook files. Topics: Romeo and Juliet; Modeling Molecular Vibrations; Van Meergeren Art Forgeries; The Flight of a Discus; A Simple Microeconomics Model; An RLC Circuit; Autocatalytic Modeling; A Rate of Memorization Model; Tacoma
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 Student Projects in Linear Algebra  David Arnold; Mathematics Dept., College of the Redwoods, CA
PDF or Scientific Notebook files. Topics: Fractal Music; Hill Ciphers; Forest Management  Sustainable Harvesting; The Singular Value Decomposition in Image Compression; Spotted Owl Population; Fourier Series; Arnold's Cat Map; Image Compression with
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 Students' difficulties with proof  Annie and John Selden; Mathematical Association of America
Keith Weber overviews research that addresses questions such as "What is proof and what is its role in mathematics?" and "How can the concept of proof be taught effectively?" Difficulties that students have with proofs include inadequate cognitive development,
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 Student's Difficulties with Proof  Keith Weber; Mathematical Association of America
"Proof is a notoriously difficult mathematical concept for students. Empirical studies have shown that many students emerge from prooforiented courses ... unable to construct anything beyond very trivial proofs. Furthermore, most university students
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 Students' Interest for and Work with AppletEnhanced Word Problems  Renninger, Sinclair, Hand, Stohl, Alejandre, and Underwood
Article from the International Conference on Learning Sciences archive, Proceedings of the 6th international conference on Learning sciences. Abstract: Study of student interest for and work with interactive nonroutine mathematics problems (ESCOT Problems
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 Student standouts tackle ills, theorems  P. Weiss  Science News Online
A project by a young mathematician who proved five theorems also garnered highest honors at the 1999 Intel International Science and Engineering Fair.
Jennifer Pelka, 16, of Orlando, Fla., received a $40,000 scholarship for her mathematics project, which
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 Studying Dimensionality through a StairStep Fractal  Burrill, Frost, Anderson, Burkett, Gribble, Ryerson, & Williams
A background paper and a related classroom activity about a lesson studyproduced activity on using a stairstep fractal to study other dimensions.
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 Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth  Camilla P. Benbow and David Lubinski, codirectors; Peabody College, Vanderbilt University
This 50year longitudinal study of over 5,000 intellectually talented individuals aims to improve understanding of the unique needs of intellectually precocious youth and determine the contrasting developmental trajectories that they display over their
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