 Calculus of Variations and Optimal Control; Optimization  Dave Rusin; The Mathematical Atlas
A short article designed to provide an introduction to calculus of variations and optimization, which seek functions or geometric objects that optimize some objective function. This includes a discussion of techniques to find the optima, such as successive
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 Calculus Reform Movements  Mathematics Education at the Math Forum
The Math Forum's suggested sites on calculus reform, including projects, discussions, conferences, and a bibliography.
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 Calculus Resources OnLine (Mathematics Archives)  University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)
Links to resources on the Web for calculus projects, software vendors, publisher sites, articles and discussions, listings of other calculus resources.
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 Calendar Quirks  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Calendars represent our efforts to create frameworks that allow us to reckon time over extended periods. We normally count the day  the time it takes Earth to rotate once on its axis  as the smallest unit of calendrical time. The measurement of fractions
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 Calendars  L. E. Doggett
An introduction to calendars: what they are; astronomical bases of calendars; calendar reform and accuracy; historical eras and chronology; the Gregorian Calendar  ecclesiastical rules, history; the Hebrew Calendar  rules, Determining Tishri 1, Reasons
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 California Mathematics Council (CMC)
A professional organization of educators dedicated to improving classroom instruction in mathematics at all levels. Goals: to foster excellence in school mathematics curricula and instructional programs, including assessment and evaluation; to promote
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 Canadian Forum on Education in Mathematics
The site of the First Canadian Forum on Education in Mathematics, held May 57, 1995 in Château Frontenac, Quebec City. It contains all documents related to the forum, including A. J. (Sandy) Dawson's discussion paper "A Canadian Education in Mathematics:
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 Canadian Mathematical Society (CMS)
The mission of the CMS is to promote research in mathematics; to assist in improving the teaching of mathematics in Canadian universities, colleges and schools, and to encourage and assist in the development of mathematics and mathematics education. Publications
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 Candy for Everyone  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Several students are sitting in a circle. Each student has an even (though not necessarily the same) number of wrapped pieces of candy. On a signal, each student passes half of his or her trove to the student on his or her right. Between signals, the
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 Canterbury Mathematical Association (CMA)  Christchurch, New Zealand
Encourage and supports the teaching and learning of mathematics. Current events and issues; articles and reviews; teaching ideas; student work; information technology.
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 The Cantor Set  Math Academy Online/Platonic Realms
An article describing a paradox of infinite sets in measure theory.
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 Cantor's Theorem  Math Academy Online/Platonic Realms
An article describing Cantor's diagonal argument, which proved that infinity comes in many different sizes.
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 Career Profiles 
AMSMAASIAM Mathematical Sciences Career Information Project
Mathematicians at work: practical answers to the question, Why should I study math? More than 40 short essays written by math majors around the country about the types of work they are doing after having received their undergraduate or graduate degrees.
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 Carl Bialik
Author of "The Numbers Guy," a weekly column on "how numbers are used and misused in the news, business and politics," for the Wall Street Journal Online. Read past columns, such as "Putting a Number on Happiness," "Lightning Stats Are Partly Cloudy,"
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 Carl Eberhart
Class information and/ or Maple worksheets for courses including multivariable calculus, linear algebra, linear programming, differential equations, numerical methods, and topics for mathematics teachers, as well as Maple and C++ programs for a course
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 Carl Offner's Home Page  University of Massachusetts, Boston
Expository papers by Offner on mathematics and computer science (levels: advanced undergraduate to 1styear graduate student): Repetitions of Words and the ThueMorse Sequence; Finite Fields and PseudoRandom Number Generation; Some Early Analytic Number
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 The Carpets Theorem  Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny
An intuitively obvious fact that the area of a carpet is equal to the area
of the floor beneath admits several reformulations and nontrivial
consequences, some of which are discussed and dynamically illustrated at
the site.
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 Carroll's Paradox  Math Academy Online/Platonic Realms
An online encyclopedia article on Lewis Carroll's paradox, in Charles Dodgson's Alice in Wonderland.
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 The Case Against Block Scheduling  Jeff Lindsay
An analysis and opinions. Sections include: Nature of the Problem, reviews of case studies (including Bateson's Canadian studies), Advantages of Block Scheduling, Suggestions for Improved Use of Time, Comments From Around the Country, Questions to Ask
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 Catalog of Isohedral Tilings by Symmetric Polygonal Tiles  Doris Schattschneider
A collection of Sketchpad and JavaSketchpad files supplementing the article
"One Corona is Enough for the Euclidean Plane" by mathematicians Doris
Schattschneider and Nikolai Dolbilin. Tilings of the Euclidean plane by a single polygon are considered,
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 A Catalog of Random Bits  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
Researchers use random numbers for tackling a wide range of problems, from modeling molecular behavior and sampling opinion to solving certain equations and testing the efficiency of algorithms. Such numbers also play crucial roles in a wide variety of
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 Categorical Geometry  Zhaohua Luo
See a brief tour of categorical geometry, which studies the geometric properties of unitary categories. The categorical approach to algebraic geometry was initiated by Yves Diers in his pioneer book Categories of Commutative Algebras (Oxford University
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 Category Theory, Homological Algebra  Dave Rusin; The Mathematical Atlas
A short article designed to provide an introduction to category theory, a comparatively new field of mathematics that provides a universal framework for
discussing fields of algebra and geometry. While the general theory and certain types of categories
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 Category Theory  JeanPierre Marquis
An entry in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy covers category theory's definitions, history, and philosophical significance. Also includes a bibliography.
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 Cattle of the Sun  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
The story goes that Archimedes of Syracuse (287212 B.C.) was annoyed with Apollonius of Perga (262190 B.C.), who had criticized Archimedes' work on the multiplication of large numbers. For revenge, Archimedes devised a fiendish computational problem
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 CC (Concord Consortium) Library: Papers  Robert F. Tinker
From Robert F. Tinker, Director of the Educational Technology Lab of the Concord Consortium, a nonprofit, research and development organization dedicated to furthering the technology revolution worldwide through innovations in hardware, software, learning
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 Cédric Villani
For mathematicians, the 2010 Fields Medalist offers his publications, lecture notes for students, errata sheets, and his research into collisional kinetic theory (Boltzmann type), collisionless kinetic theory (Vlasov type), and optimal transport. "For
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 Cellular Automata Miscellanea  José Manuel Gómez Soto
Cellular automata theses, reports of summer research, working papers, lectures, and articles, some in Spanish, many by Harold V. McIntosh. Also, download the CAM/PC exerciser CAMEX and a program collection of NXLCAU, the Linear Cellular Automata for NeXTSTEP.
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 Census and Statistics Department, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region  Hong Kong SAR Government Information Centre
The statistics collection department of the Hong Kong Government. Key geographic, climate, population, and socioeconomic data, press releases, other publications, and an overview of the department. Frequently requested timeseries are available online
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 Census Challenges (Math Chat)  Frank Morgan; Christian Science Monitor
Gordon Squire notes that planners for the 2000 U.S. Census wonder what to do about missing certain groups of people such as many homeless in New York. Suggestions include statistical random sampling. What approach would you suggest?
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 Census Sampling Confusion  Ivars Peterson  Science News Online
To obtain a more accurate enumeration in the year 2000, the Census Bureau has proposed integrating the results of conventional counting techniques with the results of a large sample survey of the population, but others want to use the straight count (direct
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 Center for Advancement of Learning: Learning Strategies Database  Muskingum College, New Concord, Ohio
Database of background information, purposes and advantages of various strategies, and descriptions of specific strategies themselves. Subjectspecific strategies, including math, and a variety of general purpose strategies are available.
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 Center for Cognitive Technology  Richard E. Clark, Director
Conducting and analyzing interdisciplinary research on the role of new technology in the development of advanced expertise and performance motivation. See, in particular, the publications "Teaching general problemsolving skills is not a substitute for,
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 The Center for Game Science
Makers of free online fraction games such as Treefrog Treasure, Refraction, and Creature Capture. The Center for Game Science also offers its research publications on science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) games for scientific discovery; for
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 Center for Nonlinear Dynamics (CNLD)  University of Texas at Austin
Research in the Center for Nonlinear Dynamics concerns complex dynamics, chaos, and pattern formation in systems driven far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Experimental, numerical, and theoretical studies have revealed chaotic behavior and complex spatial
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 Center for the Development of Teaching (CDT)  Education Development Center, Inc. (EDC)
A research and development center whose goal is to learn how teachers' practice can be transformed to support students' construction of knowledge. Currently focusing on mathematics and science teaching, the Center carries out research and action projects
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 Central Office of Statistics, Malta
The COS collects statistics for the Maltese government. List of publications, tables of key data, and press releases.
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 Central Service for Statistics and Economic Studies (STATEC)  Luxembourg
The agency for official statistics for the country of Luxembourg. Description of the agency and tables, graphs, and brief articles about key social and economic data available in English and German. More information may be found in the French version
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 Central Statistical Bureau of Latvia  Republic of Latvia
The statistics collection department of the government of Latvia. Key socioeconomic figures, press releases, list of publications, legal basis and history of the bureau. A version of the site is also available in Latvian.
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 Centre for Innovation in Mathematics Teaching  University of Plymouth
A focus for research and curriculum development in mathematics teaching and learning with the unifying aim of enhancing mathematical progress in schools and colleges. The site includes: The Mathematics Enhancement Programme; Resources: worksheets in HTML
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 The Challenge of Detracking: Finding the Balance between Excellence and Equity  Lockwood, Cleveland; UEWeb
Download this PDF for an introduction to and background of tracking; terminology, issues, and data showing prevalence and impact; and bibliography.
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 Chance Encounters at ICME9  Cut the Knot!, Alexander Bogomolny
From the International International Congress on Mathematics Education held in Tokyo in August, 2000, impressions that came from personal, often unplanned, meetings with such mathematicians as N. P. Dolbilin (who outlined the history and the current state
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 CHANCE  J. Laurie Snell, Mathematics Dept., Dartmouth College
Materials designed to help teach a "Chance" course or a more standard introductory probability or statistics course. A Chance course is a case study quantitative literacy course designed to make students more informed and critical readers of current news
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 Chance of Bank Balance $0.00 (Math Chat)  Frank Morgan, MAA Online
Answer to the Challenge: My colleague Dick De Veaux reports that upon returning from a threeweek trip, he found his checking account balance at exactly $0.00. Without further information, how would you estimate the probability of such an event?
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 Changes of Mathematical State [PDF document]  Ivars Peterson  Science News Online
A discussion of constraintsatisfaction problems, more specifically the logic puzzle in theoretical computer science known as the satisfiability (SAT) problem (e.g. working out a seating plan), the current state of research on computational "phase transitions,"
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 Channeling quantum information efficiently  Ivars Peterson  Science News Online
By carefully choosing how a message is encoded and decoded, it's possible to approach the theoretical maximum for transmitting information via photons or other quantum particles.
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 Chaos and the Solar System  Paul Trow
An essay on the historical development of chaos theory, especially as it relates to the solar system.
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 Chaos at Maryland  The Chaos Group, the University of Maryland at College Park
Research in chaotic dynamics: the theory of dimensions, fractal basin boundaries, chaotic scattering, controlling chaos, and more. Read research papers, link to Daniel P. Lathrop's Nonlinear Dynamics Lab and the Pattern Formation Laboratory, learn about
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 Chaos, Fractals, and Arcadia  Robert L. Devaney; Dept. of Mathematics, Boston University
An animated description of some of the mathematical ideas lurking in the background of Tom Stoppard's play Arcadia. Introduction; Thomasina's Geometry of Irregular Forms; The Chaos Game; The Sierpinski Hexagon; Thomasina's Fern; Valentine's Grouse; Summary
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 The Chaos Hypertextbook: Mathematics in the Age of the Computer  Glenn Elert
Formerly titled "Chaos, Fractals, Dimension": an illustrated paper submitted for the author's M.S. in secondary science education from Columbia. Contains chapters on: Mathematical Experiments (Iteration and Orbits, Orbit and Bifurcation Diagrams, Universality);
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