 General LeastSquares  Direct Solutions and Bundle Adjustments  David Manthey
The general least squares process can be used to solve a set of equations for a set of unknowns. The only requirement is that there are at least as many equations as there are unknowns. This paper (in html and PDF formats) provides a new description of
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 General Mathematics, AM (Funk & Wagnalls Multimedia Encyclopedia)  Lycos Zone: Mathematics
Short articles on basic mathematics, including biographical information about mathematicians, from the abacus to Gaspard Monge.
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 General Mathematics, NZ (Funk & Wagnalls Multimedia Encyclopedia)  Lycos Zone: Mathematics
Short articles on basic mathematics, including biographical information about mathematicians, from John Napier to Zeno of Elea.
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 General Relativity  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay describing the history of general relativity from Aristotle's notion of the motion of bodies through Lorentz and Einstein in the 20th century, with 29 references (books/articles).
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 Generating Functions  Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Problems, Alexander Bogomolny
The definition and properties of generating functions with several examples, including variants of coin change, fast algorithm for computing Banzhaf and ShapleyShubik power indices, covering the chessboard with tromino and more. Many examples are illustrated
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 A Genetic Algorithm  Harold Brochmann
Genetic algorithms are computer programs that model evolution and natural selection in looking for 'good' solutions to problems that do not have a prescribed solution procedure. This article describes the output of a demonstration GA program.
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 GEOLAB WWW Server  NASA Langley Research Center GEOmetry LABoratory
Home surface modeling and grid generation. In engineering analysis, a critical component of the numerical solution process is the development of a discrete representation for the physical domain of interest. This discretization into surface and volume
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 The Geometer's Sketchpad: Classroom Resources on the Web  Math Forum
A page of links to dynamic interactive geometry resources for Sketchpad. GSP at Key Curriculum Press; classroom introductions and tutorials; courses, classroom materials, and student work; and general information. See also Sketchpad Resources at the Math
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 Geometria Fractal Geometry  Jaume Domenech
Fractal geometry basics, including links to biographies and software, plus a collection of articles, mostly in Spanish, some in English.
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 Geometrical Dimensional Analysis: Map of Physics  John Aikman
A text article and a tutorial, with references and links. Familiar equations and formulas of physics arranged into 3D structures create concept maps of the system of units and a potential for superformulas: more powerful formats for use of existing mathematical
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 Geometric Algorithms  Susan Landau; Univ. of Massachusetts at Amherst
Landau's interest in geometric algorithms has been in problems of an algebraic flavor: computeraided design, robotics, and other geometricrelated applications that have created a need for methods for embeddings, visualization, and algorithms for construction
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 Geometrical Physics  JeanPierre Petit
A site in French and English about the work and research of JP Petit, regarding physics, astrophysics, cosmology, mathematics and geometry. Contents include articles on: Initiation to physics geometrization; A cosmological model: The twin bang; Geometrical
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 Geometric and Solid Modeling  Computer Science Dept., Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNCCH)
One area of focus for the UNC Research Group on Modeling, PhysicallyBased
Simulation and Applications. The field of solid modeling deals with the design and representation of physical objects. The two major representation schemata used in solid modeling
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 Geometric Constructions  Dave Rusin; The Mathematical Atlas
An introduction to geometric constructions using a ruler and compass. History; applications and related fields and subfields; textbooks, reference works, and tutorials; software and tables; selected topics; other web sites with this focus.
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 The Geometry Center  University of Minnesota
The Center for the Computation and Visualization of Geometric Structures: an NSF Science and Technology Research Center. The Center has a unified mathematics computing environment supporting math and computer science research, mathematical visualization,
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 Geometry  Dave Rusin; The Mathematical Atlas
A short article designed to provide an introduction to geometry, including classical Euclidean geometry and synthetic (nonEuclidean) geometries; analytic geometry; incidence geometries (including projective planes); metric properties (lengths and angles);
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 Geometry Forum Articles  The Geometry Center
Articles on mathematical topics and about the Geometry Center by the Center's mathematics writers Evelyn Sander and Bob Hesse, originally posted on newsgroups hosted by the Geometry Forum (now the Math Forum). Articles are collected under the following
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 Geometry In Action  David Eppstein, Theory Group, ICS, UC Irvine
A collection of applications of computational geometry: areas in which ideas from discrete and computational geometry (meaning mainly lowdimensional Euclidean geometry) meet some real world applications, with brief descriptions of those applications
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 Geometry in Motion  Daniel Scher
Direct interaction with geometric diagrams, courtesy of JavaSketchpad. The contents include a variety of curvedrawing devices (Intersecting Circles, Falling Ladder, Van Schooten's Parabola, and more); also other activities such as Constant Perimeter
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 The Geometry Junkyard  David Eppstein, Theory Group, ICS, Univ. of California at Irvine
A collection of usenet clippings, web pointers, lecture notes, research excerpts, papers, abstracts, programs, problems, and other stuff related to discrete and computational geometry  some serious and much also entertaining. Junk sorted into piles (Topics):
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 Geometry (MathPages)  Kevin Brown
"Informal notes" by Kevin Brown on geometry: constructing the heptadecagon, what mirrors do, the golden pentagon, the grazing goat and the lune, Napoleon's theorem, chess boards, Diophantine geodesic boxes, Zeno's mice and the logarithmic spiral, and
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 The Geometry of War, 15001750  Museum of the History of Science, Oxford
A virtual version of an exhibition from The Museum of the History of Science in Oxford on the uses of geometry in the art of warfare during the Renaissance. The site includes summaries that list the instruments and books in the exhibit and also provide
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 Geometry of War  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Leonardo da Vinci was not alone in his fascination with military technology. The University of Oxford's Museum of the History of Science is now featuring a fascinating online exhibition called The Geometry of War, 15001750. The 81 illustrations, accompanied
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 Geometry Out of Africa  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Two recent books that introduce African geometry. Geometry from Africa, by Paulus Gerdes, shows how one can discover or derive the Pythagorean theorem from African designs, explores the role of symmetry (with suggestions for home and classroom crafts
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 The Geometry Pages  Cathi Sanders
Illustrated essays designed to intrigue and inspire you to learn more about geometry and its many applications in art, engineering, science, and more. Includes the following topics: Lines (History, Elements of Geometry, Polygons, Tessellations); Numbers
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 Geometry  Paul Bourke
Explorations and renderings of various surfaces and forms, including knots, surfaces, 3D shapes, curves, algorithms, tilings, plexagons, etc. Formulae for Quadrics (Surfaces of degree 2); Superellipse and superellipsoid; SuperToroid (3D); Plexagons; Hexagonal
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 Geometry Then and Now  Jordana Wiener; Tufts University
Final paper for a Greek Science course at Tufts. Introduction: Although present day society is technically dimensions ahead of the ancient Greeks, we owe much of our progress to them. What is amazing is not so much that we are more scientifically advanced
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 Geometry Turned On: Dynamic Software in Learning, Teaching, and Research  J. King and D. Schattschneider, Editors
This book contains twentysix papers about aspects of dynamic software for geometry. The book does not contain software itself, but this site includes downloadable files for many of the papers in the book. For a discussion of what the book is about, see
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 Geophysics  Dave Rusin; The Mathematical Atlas
A short article designed to provide an introduction to geophysics: applications typically involve material in Mechanics and Fluid mechanics, but for largescale problems (this subject deals with a very big solid and a large pool of fluid).
With the advent
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 Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann (History of Mathematics Archive)  David R. Wilkins
A biography and selected papers of Bernhard Riemann, available online or for download in various formats. A lecture on geometry and the paper which contains the Riemann Hypothesis are available in English translation; the other papers remain in the original
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 Gerard M. Enright
The resume of a mathematics professor at Mary Immaculate College in Ireland. Articles on using BASIC programs in the classroom (to search for numbers that are both square and triangular and to investigate a conjecture about a function of the nonnegative
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 Getting Johnny and Susie To Read (their mathematics books): Teaching and Learning (MAA)  Mathematical Association of America
Articles about how to get students to read math texts and how to help them to read mathematics generally: Requiring Student Questions on the Text, by Bonnie Gold; How I (Finally) Got My Calculus I Students to Read the Text, by Tommy Ratliff; Helping Undergraduates
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 Getting Slammed in Tennis  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
One arena where it's possible to test the apparent relationship between psychological momentum and sequences of successes or failures is bestoffive tennis matches. The question is whether the result of the first set changes the probability of success
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 Giacomo Lorenzoni
Download the author's programs, which include ThermalWall, for calculating fundamental dynamic thermal characteristics of walls composed of multiple homogeneous layers; and PEEI, for the numerical solution of systems of partial differential equations.
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 Gifted and ADD/ADHD  Carolyn K., Hoagies' Gifted Education Page
Articles and reports on attention deficit disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, primarily as related to the education of gifted children.
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 Gifted Children with Special Needs: Articles and Research  Carolyn K., Hoagies' Gifted Education Page
Articles and reports on children who are learning disabled, in particular in the context of those who are also gifted children.
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 Gifted Programs: Articles and Research  Carolyn K., Hoagies' Gifted Education Page
Articles and reports on education programs for gifted children: schools for the gifted, early college, Saturday and summer programs, and talent searches.
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 Gilbert Strang  Dept. of Mathematics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
Books and publications, including recent wavelet papers.
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 Girls' Attitudes, SelfExpectations, and Performance in Math  Michelle Maraffi; Math Forum
For those concerned about girls' negative attitudes and expectations in the study of mathematics who want to improve and increase girls' performance and learning in math: an annotated bibliography of articles and studies designed to give teachers and
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 G. J. Chaitin
Currently a member of the computer systems and software department at the IBM Watson Research Center in New York, Chaitin created algorithmic information theory, which combines, among other elements, Shannon's information theory and Turing's theory of
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 G J Chaitin Home Page  Greg Chaitin
From the author of Algorithmic Information Theory, Information, Randomness & Incompleteness, InformationTheoretic Incompleteness, The Limits of Mathematics, The Unknowable, Exploring Randomness, Conversations with a Mathematician, From Philosophy
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 Glitter Trap (MatheMUSEments!)  Ivars Peterson (Math Muse for Kids)
You've probably looked at your distorted reflection in a shiny holiday ornament, but you may be surprised to learn what the reflections in a pyramid of silvery balls are like. The behavior of light in a stack of mirrored balls can help mathematicians
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 Global Analysis, Analysis on Manifolds  Dave Rusin; The Mathematical Atlas
A short article designed to provide an introduction to global analysis, which studies the global nature of differential equations on manifolds, that is, dynamical systems. In addition to local tools from ordinary differential equation
theory, global
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 The Global Schoolhouse  Global SchoolNet Foundation (GSN)
A site for teachers, parents, teens, and kids, with articles on telecommunication in the classroom, contests, events, projects, an alphabetical site index, and an annotated list of all articles. Formerly called FrEdMail (Free Educational Mail), GSN is
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 The Global Schoolhouse  Global SchoolNet Foundation (GSN)
The Global Schoolhouse focuses on projects for lifelong learning and uses the most powerful Internet tools, including live video, to link K12 classrooms to their communities and to other children around the world. Projects that discover and document
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 The Gods of Sugarscape  Ivars Peterson  Science News Online
Computer simulations furnish a means of gleaning insights into human social and economic behavior. The Sugarscape model is more a metaphor than a realistic depiction of society, but by providing insights into population growth, resource use, migration,
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 Goldbach's Prime Pairs  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Prime numbers serve as building blocks in the mathematics of whole numbers. Evenly divisible only by themselves and one, primes are a rich source of speculative ideas that mathematicians often find simple to state but difficult to prove. The Goldbach
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 The Golden ratio  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay on the history of the golden ratio (golden number, golden section), from Euclid through Martin Ohm's book, Die reine ElementarMatematik. With references and other related web sites.
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 The Golden Section In Art, Architecture and Music  Ron Knott
An introduction with illustrations and references to some applications and occurrences of the Fibonacci series and the Golden Ratio in architecture, art and music. The constant Phi has been used to design architecture, from the Parthenon in Athens to
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 Google Scholar  Google Labs
Google Scholar is a subset of the larger Google search index, consisting of fulltext journal articles, technical reports, preprints, theses, books, and other documents. Use the Advanced Scholar Search to confine search results to engineering, computer
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