 Integer Sequences and Arrays  Clark Kimberling; Dept. of Mathematics, Univ. of Evansville, Evansville, IN
Certain seemingly simple sequences of integers baffle the best mathematicians. Other sequences, less baffling, exhibit patterns  or absence of patterns  whose appeal shines beyond whatever applications these sequence might find outside mathematics.
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 Integral Equations  Dave Rusin; The Mathematical Atlas
A short article designed to provide an introduction to integral equations, which seek functions that satisfy relationships with their integrals. For example, the value of a function at each time may be related to its average value over all preceding time.
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 Integral Transforms, Operational Calculus  Dave Rusin; The Mathematical Atlas
A short article designed to provide an introduction to integral transforms, which include the Fourier transform as well as the transforms of Laplace, Radon, and others, convolution operators, and operational calculi. History; applications and related
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 Integrating Productivity Tools in Primary and Secondary Education  James L. Morrison; Horizon
Articles, some still in draft form, describing how teachers have integrated technology into their instruction.
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 Interactive Learning (Learning and Mathematics)  Brown, et al.; Math Forum
In a chapter entitled "Interactive learning and individual understanding: The case of reading and mathematics" in the 1991 book, Culture, schooling, and psychological development,  Brown, Campione, Reeve, Ferrara & Palincsar discuss learning in which
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 The Interactive Mathematics Program: A Report  Mark Freitag, Univ. of Georgia
The Interactive Mathematics Program (IMP, 1994) is a project designed to implement change in the high school mathematics curriculum. This paper describes how the project began, what it intends to do, and what pedagogical problems it addresses. A specific
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 Interactive Mathematics Program (IMP)  Key Curriculum Press
A fouryear integrated problembased secondary mathematics curriculum and professional development program for teachers that meets college entrance requirements and prepares students to use problemsolving skills in further education and on the job. Information
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 Interactive Math Program (IMP) Sites  Mathematics Education at The Math Forum
Links to sites and articles with information on the Interactive Mathematics Program (IMP), a fouryear, problembased mathematics curriculum for high schools, designed to meet the needs of both collegebound and noncollegebound students. Interactive
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 Interdisciplinary Mathematics  Mathematics Education at the Math Forum
The NCTM Standards make a strong case for connecting mathematics with other disciplines, the National Science Foundation (NSF) has funded many projects and curricula with strong interdisciplinary commitments, and mathematicians are more and more seeking
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 Interior Point Methods Online  Argonne National Laboratory
Join, contribute to, and search the archive of the interiorpointmethods@mcs.anl.gov mailing list; visit the archive of papers announced through the mailing list or the bibliography of interior point methods for mathematical programming; browse through
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 Interior Point Methods  Steven Wright
Research into algorithms for linear programming which approach the solution through the interior of the feasible polygon, rather than moving around the boundary from vertex to vertex, as simplex methods do. Background; thumbnail sketch; zipped Postscript
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 International Conference on Technology in Collegiate Mathematics (ICTCM) (Mathematics Archives)  Przemyslaw Bogacki, Managing Editor
Home site of the Electronic Proceedings of the International Conference on
Technology in Collegiate Mathematics (EPICTCM), an annual conference sponsored by AddisonWesley (on this site are conferences from 19941998). Papers are presented through an
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 International Federation of OR Societies (IFORS)
An international organization of national societies whose primary object is the advancement of Operational Research. It aims to develop Operational Research as a unified science and advance the field in all nations of the world. Information on publications
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 International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education  Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME)
The International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education is a group of researchers dedicated to promoting international contacts and the exchange of scientific information in the psychology of mathematics education; promoting and stimulating
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 International Mathematical Virtual Institute  DMBL (Scientific Society of Mathematicians Banja Luka)
The International Mathematical Virtual Institute (IMVI) promotes communication, cooperation and collaboration in the Balkans, elsewhere in Europe, and worldwide on research in (pure and applied) mathematics, history and philosophy of mathematics, and
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 The International Mathematics Teacher and Educator Network
The International Mathematics Teacher and Educator Network (IMTEN) "aims to bring together all those involved in mathematics education across the world.... by hosting and stimulating debates and discusssions, articles and blogs, and being a repository
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 International Numerical Relativity Group  NCSA/LCAPotsdamWashU
Physics at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications or its Potsdam/Germany mirror site, using supercomputers to study black holes, gravitational waves, and other phenomena predicted by Einstein's Theory of General Relativity. Search or browse
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 The Internet and its Uses in Education  Arun Kumar Tripathi
A paper that covers briefly many aspects of the Internet from the early days to what the future holds, looking at the Internet as a source of information for those involved in education and backing up the text with Web site addresses for further information.
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 Internet congestion stirs up data storms  Ivars Peterson  Science News Online
Frequent spikes of high activity occurring at random times and typically lasting a fraction of a second punctuate Internet traffic.
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 Internet Resources for Higher Education Outcomes Assessment  North Carolina State University
Links to general resources  Discussion Groups, Forums, Archives of Articles, Lists of Links, etc.; Assessment of specific skills or content; Individual institutions' assessmentrelated pages, and Accrediting bodies.
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 Internet Use by Teachers  Teaching, Learning, and Computing (TLC)
Teaching, Learning, and Computing has issued its first newsletter report, providing data collected in spring 1998 for a nationally representative sample of more than 2,000 teachers on how they use the Internet  or don't  and what distinguishes users
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 Introduction to Chaos Theory  Andrew Ho
Designed for those with little background in mathematics. Topics covered include bifurcation diagrams; the Lorenz, Rossler, and Henon strange attractors; KolmogorovArnoldMoser orbits; and fractal geometry, including the Sierpinski Triangle, Von Koch
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 An Introduction to Fourier Theory  Forrest Hoffman
A paper about Fourier transformations, which decompose or separate a waveform or function into sinusoids of different frequencies that sum to the original waveform. Fourier theory is an important tool in science and engineering. Contents: Introduction;
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 An Introduction to Fractals  Paul Bourke
"What is a fractal? B. Mandelbrot: A rough or fragmented geometric shape that can be subdivided in parts, each of which is (at least approximately) a reducedsize copy of the whole. Mathematical: A set of points whose fractal dimension exceeds its topological
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 Introduction to Generalized Functions With Applications in Aerodynamics and Aeroacoustics  Feri Farassat
An article in PDF format written to show the power of multidimensional generalized function theory in applications. Abstraction is kept to a minimal level so that it can be read by undergraduate students. I also recommend the
following article, which
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 Introduction to Modeling via Ordinary Differential Equations  Fioravante Patrone
PDF file: Introduction to modeling by means of differential equations, with critical remarks.
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 An Introduction to Wavelets  Amara Graps; Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
A paper giving an overview of wavelets: mathematical functions that cut up data into different frequency components, and then study each component with a resolution matched to its scale. Wavelets have advantages over traditional Fourier methods in analyzing
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 An Investigation of Subtraction Algorithms from the 18th and 19th Centuries  Nicole M. WessmanEnzinger
An exploration of different algorithms used during 18th and 19th century America, with discussion of implications for the modern teacher. This article, which originally appeared in the January 2014 issue of the Mathematical Association of America (MAA)
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 An Investigation using Parametric Equations  Jim Wilson; Dept. of Mathematics Education, Univ. of Georgia
A paper examining the movement of triangles when one vertex is moved along the xaxis and another is moved along the yaxis. The movement of the third vertex is traced.
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 Invitation to MasterMind  Cut the Knot!, Alexander Bogomolny, with Don Greenwell
Mastermind is a game played by a codemaker and a codebreaker. The codemaker selects a code, a sequence of four colors (digits, pegs or other symbols) chosen from a set of six colors (repetitions allowed). The codebreaker will then try to guess the code.
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 IQFlash.com  Sergey Melnikov
Logic and math games include a variation of Nim, Rhumb Line (similar to tictactoe), and Breakfast Brainstorm (rotate the pans in order to make each of the four numbers equal 20 as soon as possible). Strategy articles include games such as tictactoe,
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 Ira M. Gessel
This is a list of Ira Gessel's recent papers in combinatorics. Most of them must be downloaded in pdf, .dvi, or gzipped PostScript formats.
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 Irish Central Statistics Office (CSO)
Statistical information for the country of Ireland from the government body responsible for compiling Irish official statistics. Tables of important socioeconomic data, press releases and publications (available for download in PDF format), and ordering
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 Is Space Finite?  Luminet, Starkman, Weeks, Scientific American
Conventional wisdom says the universe is infinite. But it could be finite, merely giving the illusion of infinity. Upcoming measurements may finally answer this ancient question. Subtopics include: Comfort in the Finite; Eightfold; Cosmic Crystals; and
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 Is that a fact?  Keith Devlin (Devlin's Angle)
I'll bet that, like me, you have known for years that, as far as the brain is concerned, it's all down hill from the moment we get our driver's license. Every day, another ten thousand cells die. Or is it a hundred thousand? A million? No matter, it's
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 Istituto Nazionale di Statistica (National Statistical Institute) (ISTAT)  Italy
The Italian government office in charge of collecting and distributing statistics. Introduction and history of the institute; report on Italy's current economic state; Italy in Figures, available for download as a PDF document; press releases. More
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 It Can Take a While to Wander Home (Math Chat)  Frank Morgan, MAA Online
Solution to the challenge: How fast do you get home with a random walk on the line? in the plane? in threespace? in nspace? Eric Brahinsky reports that the median number of steps to get home is 24 on the line, about 32 in the plane, and infinite in
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 Iterated Function Systems  David Arnold; Mathematics Dept., College of the Redwoods, CA
What will the final image look like after you have plotted the infinite collection of points X1, X2, X3, ... generated by the chaos game? What if you plotted the infinite set of points generated by Barnsley's rules? This page provides a program that you
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 Iterated Prisoners' Dilemma  Delayaye, Mathieu, Beaufils
A comprehensive source of information on the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma, and on the representation, study of, and knowledge about cooperation (and evolution of cooperation) between agents. Strategies, references (papers in English and French, bibliography),
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 Iteration and Recursion  Harold Brochmann
New classes of mathematical objects have been uncovered in the last couple of decades, with names like Strange Attractors and Fractals. What they share is that they can only be revealed through computerbased mathematical operations called iterations
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 It's Fourth Down and What Does the Bellman Equation Say? A DynamicProgramming Analysis of Football Strategy  David Romer, Department of Economics, University of California, Berkeley
PDF download of David Romer's working paper. Reviewing almost 20,000 first quarter plays of National Football League regular season games, Romer analyzed fourth down decisionmaking and the rarelyquestioned consensus that it's better to punt than to
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 Ivan José online  Ivan José Varzinczak
Research on logicbased knowledge representation and reasoning in Artificial Intelligence. Research areas: logicbased knowledge representation and reasoning; description logics, ontology engineering and semantic web; nonmonotonic reasoning, belief revision
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 Jaap's Scratch Pad  Jaap Scherphuis
Java applets, generators, and solutions for sudoku, Rubik's Cube, "moving pieces" puzzles, permutation puzzles, and more, including sphere symmetries, polyform, Towers of Hanoi, and many lesser known puzzles from this collector. Scherphuis' articles range
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 Jackson Pollock's Fractals  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
How Pollock's approach was "more systematic than the chaotic results might suggest... Physicist Richard P. Taylor of the University of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia, who is also trained as an artist, has taken a mathematical look at Pollock's splatter
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 The Jahrbuch Project
A searchable archive of mathematical publications of the period 18681942 and a database based on the "Jahrbuch über die Fortschritte der Mathematik."
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 Jaina mathematics  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay on the period after the founding of Jainism up to around the time of Aryabhata in around 500 A.D., until recently thought to be a time of little mathematical activity in India. (Jainism is a religion and philosophy which was founded in India
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 James B. Calvert
Essays on a wide variety of topics, including mathematical, by an Associate Professor Emeritus of Engineering, University of Denver: The Beautiful Theory (The analytical mechanics of Euler, Lagrange, Hamilton and Jacobi, key to Relativity and Quantum
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 James Franklin
Research activities, books, articles, opinions, and more from the author of What Science Knows and The Science of Conjecture: Evidence and Probability Before Pascal. Franklin researches and teaches about the philosophy of mathematics in the School of
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 James Poon Online Classroom  James Poon
Online instructional mathematics videos; a discussion forum; and articles on study skills.
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 James Propp
James Propp studies tilings, games, and other aspects of combinatorics, probability, and dynamical systems. Many of his articles are available for download in PostScript and gzipped PostScript formats. Code for C programs related to tilings and cellular
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