 Irrational Numbers  Jim Loy
Pythagoras is said to have discovered irrational numbers, showing that the square root of 2 could not be expressed as any whole fraction m/n. Here's the proof...
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 Is Space Finite?  Luminet, Starkman, Weeks, Scientific American
Conventional wisdom says the universe is infinite. But it could be finite, merely giving the illusion of infinity. Upcoming measurements may finally answer this ancient question. Subtopics include: Comfort in the Finite; Eightfold; Cosmic Crystals; and
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 Is that a fact?  Keith Devlin (Devlin's Angle)
I'll bet that, like me, you have known for years that, as far as the brain is concerned, it's all down hill from the moment we get our driver's license. Every day, another ten thousand cells die. Or is it a hundred thousand? A million? No matter, it's
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 Istituto Nazionale di Statistica (National Statistical Institute) (ISTAT)  Italy
The Italian government office in charge of collecting and distributing statistics. Introduction and history of the institute; report on Italy's current economic state; Italy in Figures, available for download as a PDF document; press releases. More
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 It Can Take a While to Wander Home (Math Chat)  Frank Morgan, MAA Online
Solution to the challenge: How fast do you get home with a random walk on the line? in the plane? in threespace? in nspace? Eric Brahinsky reports that the median number of steps to get home is 24 on the line, about 32 in the plane, and infinite in
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 Iterated Function Systems  David Arnold; Mathematics Dept., College of the Redwoods, CA
What will the final image look like after you have plotted the infinite collection of points X1, X2, X3, ... generated by the chaos game? What if you plotted the infinite set of points generated by Barnsley's rules? This page provides a program that you
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 Iterated Prisoners' Dilemma  Delayaye, Mathieu, Beaufils
A comprehensive source of information on the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma, and on the representation, study of, and knowledge about cooperation (and evolution of cooperation) between agents. Strategies, references (papers in English and French, bibliography),
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 Iteration and Recursion  Harold Brochmann
New classes of mathematical objects have been uncovered in the last couple of decades, with names like Strange Attractors and Fractals. What they share is that they can only be revealed through computerbased mathematical operations called iterations
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 It's Fourth Down and What Does the Bellman Equation Say? A DynamicProgramming Analysis of Football Strategy  David Romer, Department of Economics, University of California, Berkeley
PDF download of David Romer's working paper. Reviewing almost 20,000 first quarter plays of National Football League regular season games, Romer analyzed fourth down decisionmaking and the rarelyquestioned consensus that it's better to punt than to
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 Ivan José online  Ivan José Varzinczak
Research on logicbased knowledge representation and reasoning in Artificial Intelligence. Research areas: logicbased knowledge representation and reasoning; description logics, ontology engineering and semantic web; nonmonotonic reasoning, belief revision
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 Jaap's Scratch Pad  Jaap Scherphuis
Java applets, generators, and solutions for sudoku, Rubik's Cube, "moving pieces" puzzles, permutation puzzles, and more, including sphere symmetries, polyform, Towers of Hanoi, and many lesser known puzzles from this collector. Scherphuis' articles range
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 Jackson Pollock's Fractals  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
How Pollock's approach was "more systematic than the chaotic results might suggest... Physicist Richard P. Taylor of the University of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia, who is also trained as an artist, has taken a mathematical look at Pollock's splatter
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 The Jahrbuch Project
A searchable archive of mathematical publications of the period 18681942 and a database based on the "Jahrbuch über die Fortschritte der Mathematik."
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 Jaina mathematics  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay on the period after the founding of Jainism up to around the time of Aryabhata in around 500 A.D., until recently thought to be a time of little mathematical activity in India. (Jainism is a religion and philosophy which was founded in India
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 James B. Calvert
Essays on a wide variety of topics, including mathematical, by an Associate Professor Emeritus of Engineering, University of Denver: The Beautiful Theory (The analytical mechanics of Euler, Lagrange, Hamilton and Jacobi, key to Relativity and Quantum
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 James Franklin
Research activities, books, articles, opinions, and more from the author of What Science Knows and The Science of Conjecture: Evidence and Probability Before Pascal. Franklin researches and teaches about the philosophy of mathematics in the School of
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 James Poon Online Classroom  James Poon
Online instructional mathematics videos; a discussion forum; and articles on study skills.
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 James Propp
James Propp studies tilings, games, and other aspects of combinatorics, probability, and dynamical systems. Many of his articles are available for download in PostScript and gzipped PostScript formats. Code for C programs related to tilings and cellular
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 Janet Bowers  Janet Bowers
Current research projects, such as investigating multimedia case studies as a tool for preservice teacher development, the MEASURE project (SimCalc  San Diego), and reforming the preparation and professional development of elementary and middle school
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 Japanese Association of Mathematical Sciences (JAMS)
A scientific research organization whose main activity is to publish scientific journals in English, French or German, in particular Scientiae Mathematicae Japonicae. Journal and submission information, newsletter, and meetings. Also available in Japanese.
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 Java Exploration Tool for Dynamical Systems  R. Wegenkittl and E. Gröller
A Java Applet for the visualization and exploration of twodimensional analytical defined dynamical systems. The system is defined by a set of two differential equations, which are evaluated within the chosen region to form a twodimensional vector field.
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 Jazzing Up Euclid's Algorithm  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Early in 2000, the journal Computing in Science & Engineering (CISE) published a list of the top 10 algorithms of the century. Many of the selections are now familiar, finely tuned, heavily used tools. The Metropolis algorithm for Monte Carlo methods,
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 Jean Marie Linhart
Courses taught, outreach activities, teaching statement and philosophy, and more from this Lecturer at the University of Texas at Austin. See, in particular, Linhart's web page on Success at Math, a PDF of her Mathematical Models of a Zombie Outbreak
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 Jeffrey C. Lagarias
A member of the University of Michigan Department of Mathematics. List of publications, with many available for download in PostScript format; Lagarias' research interests include Number Theory, also Computational Complexity Theory, Cryptography, Discrete
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 Jim Loy's Gambling Page  Jim Loy
This is a set of short articles about the risk of gambling, your probability of going bankrupt, and pyramid schemes.
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 Jim Loy's Mathematics Page  Jim Loy
This is an informal collection of articles on many different mathematics problems. Topics include Algebra, Geometry, Calendars, Number Theory, and reviews of mathematicsrelated books. See also Jim Loy's Puzzle Page and Jim Loy's Logic Page.
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 Jim Wilson's Home Page  Dept. of Mathematics Education, Univ. of Georgia
Jim Wilson's page lists courses taught (e.g. Computers and Algorithms in Mathematics Education, Problem Solving in Mathematics), and papers on topics in geometry: Ratio of areas of two squares; Capturing Area and A Solution; Curve Building; Orthotravels;
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 Jo Boaler
From the author of What's Math Got to Do with It?: How Parents and Teachers Can Help Children Learn to Love Their Least Favorite Subject. Watch a YouTube clip of Boaler teach using Inquiry Based Learning method, or click through her presentation entitled
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 John Allen Paulos
John Allen Paulos is a mathematician and author of the books Mathematics and Humor, I Think, Therefore I Laugh, Innumeracy  Mathematical Illiteracy and Its
Consequences, Beyond Numeracy  Ruminations of a Numbers Man, A Mathematician Reads the Newspaper,and
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 John Baez's Stuff  John Baez
The site features the author's column "This Week's Finds in Mathematical Physics," with archives dating back to 1993. "Fun stuff" includes old posts and email on Bayesianism in probability theory and quantum mechanics; some rambling lectures on knot polynomials,
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 John Lott's Home Page  John Lott, Department of Mathematics, University of Michigan
Lott's research papers, seminar notes, and "officiousness" (CV and bibliography). Download PDFs of journal articles and preprints such as "Notes on Perelman's papers"; "Weak curvature conditions and Poincaré inequalities"; "Ricci curvature for
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 John MacFarlane
Papers, books, talks, courses, and other resources by the member of the University of California, Berkeley's Group in Logic and the Methodology of Science and a coorganizer of the Working Group in the History and Philosophy of Logic, Mathematics, and
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 John Mason's Projects  John Mason
Projects by the author of Thinking Mathematically and former director of the Centre for Mathematics Education: Structured Variation Grids and other animations and applets; studies in algebraic thinking; mathematical explorations; MEMEs (Meaning Enquiry
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 Johnny might not be mathchallenged  Keith Devlin (Devlin's Angle)
His problem could just be that he's an auditory learner. An essay on learning styles and how they affect mathematics learning.
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 John Olive's Home Page  John Olive, Department of Mathematics Education, The University of Georgia
Course descriptions and requirements for Computers in Mathematics Education and Investigations into the Teaching of Mathematics Grades 712. Recent articles, available online, include Computer Tools for Interactive Mathematical Activity in the Elementary
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 John Stembridge
John Stembridge researches algebra and combinatorics. His papers on these subjects are available online as gzipped PostScript files. The site contains an archive of related research data such as lists of posets on 8 or fewer vertices and Coxeter graph
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 John Taylor's Home Page  John Taylor; University of Brighton
Taylor's other activities include Maple generated animations: vary gradients or intercepts in equations for a straight line, change coefficients of quadratic curves or cubic curves, draw tangents to conics, model a nondifferentiable surface, and construct
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 Jon Kleinberg's Homepage  Jon Kleinberg, Department of Computer Science, Cornell University
Read Kleinberg's research on algorithms that exploit the combinatorial structure of networks and information. His work includes techniques for analyzing and modeling link structure in the World Wide Web and related information networks; discrete optimization
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 Joseph Malkevitch's Home Page  Joseph Malkevitch, York College (CUNYThe City University of New York)
Malkevitch's interests include geometry (polytopes, graph theory, tilings, etc.), discrete mathematics, and mathematical modeling (especially models dealing with fairness and equity issues and codes of all kinds). Most of his research concerns using combinatorial
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 The Jose Vilson  José Luis Vilson
Blog by a math educator for a middle school in the Inwood and Washington Heights neighborhoods of New York. Posts, which date back to February, 2007, have included "On The Reason Why You May Only Get One Black Male Teacher Ever In Your Life (If At All),"
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 Journal of Applied Mathematics & Decision Sciences (JAMDS)  Mahyar A. Amouzegar, Managing Editor
The primary aim of this journal is to rapidly publish refereed papers on applied problems of Mathematics, Operations Research, and Statistics without compromising mathematical precision. Papers that address both the theoretical aspects and the application
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 Journal of Basketball Studies  L. Dean Turcoliver
A searchable site that attempts to use wellfounded mathematical and scientific tools to study basketball. Contents include an overview of established methods and a list of statistical repositories on the Web. A collection of research articles contains
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 Journal of Difference Equations and Applications
This journal presents papers on difference equations and the academic, analytical and engineering problems in which they arise. The journal is composed of original research, expository and review articles, as well as papers that present new concepts in
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 Juggling by Design  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
The earliest known depiction of juggling is on the wall of an Egyptian tomb nearly 4,000 years old. The painting shows a woman keeping three balls aloft. It's only in the last decade or so, however, that juggling has become the subject of serious mathematical
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 Juggling by Number (MatheMUSEments!)  Ivars Peterson (Math Muse for Kids)
Mathematicians have invented a way to write down juggling patterns as sets of numbers. They look at the order in which balls are tossed into the air and then caught. Each toss or catch happens on a particular beat, as if the juggler were keeping time
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 Juggling Drops and Descents (Organic Mathematics Proceedings)  Joe Buhler, Ron Graham
A discussion of the permutations f of the integers Z satisfying $f(x) \ge x$, with applications to juggling patterns. Demonstrations are included and the site includes QuickTime movies.
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 Justice Research and Statistics Association (JRSA)
A national organization of analysts, researchers, and members of the U.S. criminal justice system. Introduction to the JRSA with membership information, links to state Statistical Analysis Centers, current programs and research with associated data,
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 K12 Multimedia Math Education  Sparkle Productions
Software and research: reports and articles are available, with print and web references and resources, in the Motivation and Learning Center, which provides suggestions for parents on increasing their child's intrinsic desire to learn. Their math materials
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 The K12 View from Oregon  Keith Devlin (Devlin's Angle)
Comments by Sir Roger Penrose, Ivars Peterson, Ralph Abraham, and Keith Devlin at an Oct. 2 1997 "Math Summit" on the question: "Outline what you think is important in a mathematics education to prepare students for life in the next millennium." Education
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 Karla Hoffman
A specialist in operations research and combinatorial optimization. Papers in PDF, PostScript, or HTML formats include articles on airline scheduling, set covering, and the traveling salesman problem. Resume and curriculum vitae and syllabus, project,
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