 Big Picture: What Does 'Numeracy' Mean?  Iddo Gal
Numeracy is a term increasingly used in publications aimed at adult educators, yet its meaning and purpose may be unclear. This article briefly examines the importance of numeracy and the implications for those working with the GED Tests.
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 The Big Six Skills: Information Skills Instruction  Eisenberg, Berkowitz
Information and technology literacy programs. Big6 is a systematic approach to information problemsolving, useful whenever an individual has an informationoriented problem. Six skills are listed, with examples for potential uses, a store, a bibliography,
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 Billiards in the Round  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
On a level, rectangular table, a practiced billiard player can return the balls to their original positions, repeat a shot, and obtain an identical result. The geometry of the table, however, can greatly influence the types of motion possible in a game.
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 Binary Cubic Forms and Cubic Number Fields (Organic Mathematics Proceedings)  Henri Cohen
A paper presenting a small part of the theory of binary cubic forms, in particular its application to cubic number fields. Most of the results are due to DavenportHeilbronn, but the algorithmic applications seem to be new.
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 A biographical sketch of Ada Byron, Lady Lovelace  Dr. Betty Toole
A brief biography and book reference of Ada Byron, Lady Lovelace, one of the most picturesque characters in computer history, who suggested to Babbage a plan that is now regarded as the first "computer program." Also Ada Lovelace's Notes on her translation
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 Biographical Studies  Clark Kimberling; Dept. of Mathematics, Univ. of Evansville, Evansville, IN
Biographies of: Emmy Noether (18821935) mathematician; David Dale Owen (18071860) geologist; Joseph Granville Norwood (18071895) geologist; Margaret Chappellsmith (18061883) lecturer and writer; John Chappellsmith (18061895) artist and writer; Eduardo
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 Biographies Index  MacTutor Math History Archives
An index of pages on famous mathematicians throughout history, arranged alphabetically or chronologically and searchable by keyword. There is also an index of female mathematicians, and a full alphabetical index.
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 Biographies of Women Mathematicians  Agnes Scott College
Biographies in alphabetical and chronological order, and related resources on the Web. An ongoing project by students in math classes at Agnes Scott College in Atlanta, Georgia, to illustrate the numerous contributions by women to the field of mathematics.
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 Biography of M. C. Escher  Thames and Hudson's Escher Interactive
A biography of the wellknown, early 20th century artist. Escher's work is famous today for the imaginary worlds he created. He combined bizarre creatures and spatial illusions with craftsmanship and love of detail. Born in Holland in 1898, the son of
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 Biology and Other Natural Sciences, Behavioral Sciences  Dave Rusin; The Mathematical Atlas
A short article designed to provide an introduction to natural and behavioral sciences whose connections merit explicit connection in the MSC scheme: Chemistry, Biology, Genetics, Medicine, Psychology, Sociology, and other social sciences as a group.
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 BioTech: Life Sciences Resources and Reference Tools  Indiana University
A searchable site that assists in the location and use of biotechnology resources, including the biotechnology aspects of agriculture, medicine, veterinary science, and molecular biology/biochemistry (pure sciences). An illustrated Dictionary provides
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 Birthday Surprises  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
It's rather unlikely that you and I share the same birthday (month and date). The more people you pull into the group, however, the more likely it is that at least two people will have matching dates. Ignoring the minor technicality of leap years, it's
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 BitArt  Robert J. Krawczyk
Illustrated introductions to spirolaterals and strange attractors. See a selfrunning demonstration of a variety of spirolaterals, or generate one of your own and see all the reversals. The link of current exhibits lists installations showing strange
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 bitplayer  Brian Hayes
In Hayes' weblog, the author of the American Scientist Computing Science column elaborates on those articles, posts errata, records notes from conferences in progress, and explores other topics. The blog dates back to January, 2006, and includes articles
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 Blended Animated Teaching and eLearning  Dr. Massoud Hajsadr
Description of the author's pedagogical experiments with elearning and online animations.
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 Block Schedules and Student Performance on AP Examinations  Robert Smith and Wayne J. Camara  collegeboard.com, Inc.
Download a PDF article that concludes that "[t]he instructional schedule does affect student grades on the four AP Examinations in this 1998 study after they have been adjusted for group differences in student ability. The results from this study generally
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 Block Scheduling Effects on a State Mandated Test of Basic Skills  Veal, Schreiber; Education Policy Analysis Archives
A study that examined the effects of a trischedule on the academic achievement of students in a high school. The trischedule consisted of a traditional, 4x4 block, and hybrid schedules running at the same time in the same high school. The effectiveness
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 Block Scheduling: Structuring Time To Achieve National Standards in Mathematics and Science  Bernard Durkin
The national standards for science and mathematics education call for sufficient instructional time for inquiryoriented activities, accompanying discussion, and explanations of concepts involved. Several of the standards will require increased time to
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 Boaz Tsaban's Homepage
Includes three PostScript papers: Was Godel right? Was Pi known to ancient Rabbis? and On the Rabbinical Approximation of Pi. Also a links to a Jewish Mathematics page.
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 Boolean Algebra (Encarta Encyclopedia 2008)  Microsoft Encarta Online
Boolean Algebra, branch of mathematics having laws and properties similar to, but different from, those of ordinary high school algebra. Formally a Boolean algebra is a mathematical system consisting of a set of elements, which may be called B, together
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 Bottles in a Wine Rack  Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny
Arranging wine bottles in a rack leads, under certain circumstances, to a curious mathematical problem discussed in books by S. Wagon and R. Honsberger. The site arouse out of an attempt to illustrate their solution. The dynamic illustration quickly
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 Bounded Set Theory  Vladimir Sazonov
Bounded Set Theory (BST) is a weak version of the ordinary set theory. Its main feature is paying main attention to using bounded quantification (as in the ordinary everyday mathematical practice) and other analogous bounded constructs. The language of
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 The brachistochrone problem
 MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay on the brachistochrone problem, posed by Johann Bernoulli in Acta Eruditorum in June, 1696. With references and other related web sites.
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 Brain Science & ICT in Mathematics Education  Dave Moursund
An exploration of three major topics from a math education point of view: Brain Science Craft & Science of Teaching & Learning (C&S of T&L) Information & Communications Technology (ICT). Read the author's thoughts on constructivism,
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 Brainy Figuring  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
In the May 7 Science, Dehaene and collaborators at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology present the first hard evidence that two quite different modes of brain activity underlie our inborn capacity for mathematics. Their study indicates that learning
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 Bray Proves Penrose Conjecture in General Relativity (Math Chat)  Frank Morgan, MAA Online
In 1979 R. Schoen and S.T. Yau proved that the total mass of a universe must be positive. Last year [1998] G. Huisken and T. Ilmanen proved that the total mass is at least as large as the largest constituent mass: M >_ m1. Finally this year [1999] H.
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 Breaking Chocolate Bars  Cut the Knot!, Alexander Bogomolny
The chocolate bar puzzle has three parameters: two side lengths (m and n) and actual selection of lines along which to break the bar and its parts... An interactive column for MAA Online that uses a Java applet to simulate a puzzle or mathematical problem,
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 Brendt Wohlberg  University of Cape Town, South Africa
Fractal image compression resources: bibliography, publications.
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 The Bridges of Königsberg  Jim Loy
A brief introduction to Euler's Bridges of Königsberg problem, graph theory, and simple related puzzles.
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 A Brief History of Cosmology  MacTutor Math History Archives
A hypertext essay describing the course of cosmology from its beginnings in early Babylonian society through the present, with References.
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 A Brief History of Statistics  Richard Walker
Notes adapted from the article, The Development of Modern Statistics, by Dale Varberg which appears in Swetz, Frank (editor), From Five Fingers to Infinity: A Journey Through the History of Mathematics, Open Court, 1994.
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 Brightest Moon for Thousands of Millennia? (Math Chat)  Frank Morgan, MAA Online
Answer to the challenge: Was there any validity to the claim that the full moon of December 22, 1999 was the brightest that we shall see for millions of years? (Factors that coincided.) New challenge: Eric Brahinsky saw in an article on "New molecule
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 British Weights and Measures Association  Mr. Vivian Linacre, Edinburgh, UK
Views and aims; press releases; the association's publications and some articles from them; a list of patrons and officers; subscription details; an invitation to help; and contact information. "The British Weights and Measures Association opposes wanton
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 A Broken Calculator  Cut the Knot!, Alexander Bogomolny
Thoughts on the controversial question of using calculators in the classroom, and the author's belief that even a broken calculator may have its uses: the elementary mathematics curriculum may emphasize any or all of the paperandpencil, mental, or technologybased
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 Buffon's Needling Ants  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
The idea of estimating pi by randomly casting a needle onto an infinite plane ruled with parallel lines was first proposed by the naturalist and mathematician Georges Louis Leclerc Comte de Buffon (17071788). In recent years, computer
simulations have
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 Building a Virtual Museum Community  Jamie McKenzie
Virtual museums provide an excellent opportunity for museums to partner with schools. The Bellingham (WA) public schools recognized the potential of a partnership with the Whatcom County Museum of History and Art in Fall of 1995. This article describes
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 Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA)  U.S. Department of Commerce
The nation's economic accountant, preparing estimates that illuminate key national, international, and regional aspects of the U.S. economy. Regional, national, and international data, articles, and products.
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 Bureau of Justice Statistics  U.S. Department of Justice
The BJS collects, analyzes, publishes, and disseminates information on crime, criminal offenders, victims of crime, and the operation of justice systems at all levels of government. Key statistics by topic; list of publications, with abstracts, many of
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 Bureau of Labor Statistics  JoAnn L. Yu
The BLS collects information on the U.S. labor force, the economy, etc. Includes "The Economy at a Glance," press releases with relevant statistics, timeseries of various data, regional data, various publications, and information about jobs in the bureau.
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 Burning 1Hour Fuses in 45 Minutes (Math Chat)  Frank Morgan, MAA Online
You have two onehour fuses: lighting one end of a fuse will cause it to burn down to the other end in exactly one hour's time. You know nothing else about the fuses; in particular you don't know how long any segment of a fuse will burn, only that an
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 Bus Boarding and the Theory of Knots  Roy Lisker
This article is a humorous application of basic Knot Theory to the situations encountered when people are trying to board a bus in a great hurry. Their trajectories create braided patterns whicha are 'analyzed' with the help of the theory of knots.
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 Buses on Quantum Schedules  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Anyone who has waited for a bus in the city has probably casually observed that, after an inordinately long wait, two or three buses often come along at the same time. Mathematical models that simulate traffic flow confirm that bus bunching is a real
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 Bytes of Science: An Internet Magazine  David S. Mazel, Ed.
An Internet magazine on science and engineering, with tutorials and introductory articles on various areas of science, math, or engineering. Articles include: A Basis for Functions: The Fourier Series; The Fourier Transform: The Frequency in a Waveform;
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 Calculation and the Chess Master  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
In 1912, J. B. Shaw wrote in the Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society: "The game of chess has always fascinated mathematicians, and there is reason to suppose that the possession of great powers of playing that game is in many features very much
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 Calculatorium  Nenad Mitrovic
JavaScript calculators for determining area, perimeter, surface area, volume, trigonometry, algebra, statistics, finance, conversions, health, and more. See also Calculatorium's timed, autoscoring tests and typeset formulas.
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 Calculus & Higher Mathematics (Funk & Wagnalls Multimedia Encyclopedia)  Lycos Zone: Mathematics
An article defining and describing calculus, including differential and integral calculus, differential equations, and the development of calculus. Also articles on Bessel; complex numbers; Hamilton; Limits; Linear Algebra; Newton, and the Phase Rule.
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 Calculus Made Easy  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
There's something about calculus that can evoke a mixture of both wonder and dread. I was recently reminded of my first encounter with calculus by the announcement of the publication later this year of a new edition of the book Calculus Made Easy (Sylvanus
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 'The Calculus of Logic' by George Boole  D. R. Wilkins, School of Mathematics, Trinity College, Dublin
The paper "The calculus of logic" by George Boole, first published in The Cambridge and Dublin Mathematical Journal, vol. 3 (1848), is available here in various formats: HTML (with inlined images), LaTeX, DVI, PostScript (US Letter size), and PostScript
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 Calculus of Variations and Optimal Control; Optimization  Dave Rusin; The Mathematical Atlas
A short article designed to provide an introduction to calculus of variations and optimization, which seek functions or geometric objects that optimize some objective function. This includes a discussion of techniques to find the optima, such as successive
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 Calculus Reform Movements  Mathematics Education at the Math Forum
The Math Forum's suggested sites on calculus reform, including projects, discussions, conferences, and a bibliography.
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