 US Third in Math Olympiad (Math Chat)  Frank Morgan, MAA Online
Answer to the Challenge: a small creature needs to find its way from a random point on an milewide strip of land to the sea on either side, by going distance r in a random direction and then (if it has not yet found the water), turning once t degrees
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 Vagn Lundsgaard Hansen
A personal home page with links to: a mathematical story "I am the greatest," solving and proving/explaining the isoperimetric problem for quadrilaterals; Mathematics and the Public  some experiences with the popularization of mathematics; and Mathematics
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 The Valuation Theory Home Page  FranzViktor Kuhlmann
A forum for all mathematicians who work in valuation theory or apply valuation theoretical results in their own field of research. The home page offers: information about conferences and special events; names and email addresses of mathematicians working
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 Valuing as the Key to Unsilencing  Suzanne Alejandre
"At the heart of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) Initiative is the valued learner, a learner with an active voice in his/her own learning. Under No Child Left Behind (NCLB) practices and assessment many students' voices have fallen silent.... Valuing
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 VedicMaths.Org  Clive Middleton, Kenneth Williams, and Mark Gaskell
Learn about the ancient system of mathematics of the Vedas through interactive tutorials, research and teaching articles, recommended books and websites, a list of sutras translated from the original Sanskrit, a calendar of events, newsletter, and references
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 The Vertex Coloring Algorithm  Ashay Dharwadker
A polynomialtime algorithm for coloring the vertices of a graph with a new constructive proof of Brooks' theorem.
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 The Vertex Cover Algorithm  Ashay Dharwadker
A polynomialtime algorithm for finding minimal vertex covers in a graph.
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 The Vibonacci Numbers (Computing Science)  Brian Hayes, American Scientist
A new mathematical constant, from a branch of the Fibonacci number family in which, instead of always adding two terms to produce the next term, you either add or subtract, depending on the flip of a coin at each stage in the calculation. Hayes writes,
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 Victor Shoup's Home Page
Download research papers on cryptographic protocols and on algorithms for solving problems in the area of number theory and algebra. The Courant Institute researcher freely offers a standard for publickey encryption, a simple LaTeX class for preparing
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 Viewing Fourdimensional Objects in Three Dimensions  Barbara Hausmann; The Geometry Center
"Given that humans only visualize three dimensions, how is it possible to visualize four dimensional, or higher, objects? This question is the underlying idea of a short novel written over a hundred years ago by Edwin A. Abbot called Flatland. Flatland
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 Views from Flatland (MatheMUSEments!)  Ivars Peterson (Math Muse for Kids)
What do you think the world would look like if you and everything in it were squished flatter than a pancake? Like shadows, you and your friends would freely flit about the surface. But if you couldn't rise above or below the surface, objects with any
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 A Viral Dilemma  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
An article that discusses how, in effect, a virus is caught up in a version of the prisoners' dilemma, a widely studied game in which acting for individual advantage clashes with acting for the collective benefit. Game theorists devised the prisoners'
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 Viral shell game  Ivars Peterson  Science News Online
The success of a virus in infecting its host depends largely on how well its outer coat functions. Made up of protein building blocks, this tightly closed shell usually has a geometric structure... Mathematical research suggests that sets of simple rules,
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 Virtual Math Museum  Richard Palais
A virtual "mathematical museum" being developed and improved by an international group of mathematicians called the 3DXM Consortium (the same group responsible for the development of the 3DXplorMath mathematical visualization program). Topics include
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 Virtual Trips to Black Holes and Neutron Stars  Robert Nemiroff
A published paper understandable to undergraduates: "Visual Distortions Near a Black Hole and Neutron Star," Nemiroff, R. J. 1993, American Journal of Physics, 61, 619. Gravitational Principles and Mathematics; General Description of Visual Distortion
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 Visiting Artlandia  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Have you ever admired any of the bold, colorful designs splashed across a variety of fabrics used for scarves, neckties, shirts, and other apparel? There's a chance that you may come across the work of a physicist. Igor Bakshee got into fabric design
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 A visit to James Clerk Maxwell's House  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay outlining the life and work of Edinburghborn mathematician James Clerk Maxwell, with an outline of his childhood, pictures of his home, some mathematical poetry, and references (books/articles).
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 Visualization of Complex Dynamical Systems  Visualization and Animation Group, Institute of Computer Graphics, Vienna University of Technology
Software or technical reports to download (in gzipped PostScript format) related to the graphical representation of complex dynamical systems.
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 Visual Mathematics (VisMath): Art and Science Electronic Journal of ISISSymmetry  Nagy, Jablan
The electronic journal of ISISSymmetry (International Society for Interdisciplinary Studies of Symmetry), published by the Mathematical Institute, Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Papers, conferences, the Nexus Network Journal of Architecture and Mathematics Online,
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 Visual Modelling Group  University of Brighton
This research group focuses on giving formal semantics to existing notations, developing new visual notations, and reasoning with them. The Visual Modelling Group has developed a constraint diagram notation that visually expresses mathematical constraints
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 Vladimir Trifonov's Research Page  Vladimir Trifonov
The site includes papers "Natural geometry of nonzero quaternions" (International Journal of Theoretical Physics 46 (2) (2007) 251257) and “GRfriendly description of quantum systems” (IJTP, DOI 10.1007/s1077300794743).
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 Vladimir Voevodsky
Lectures, publications, a library of Coq files, and more by the mathematician developing univalent foundations, which start with a view of mathematics where sets parametrize collections of objects without "internal structure" while more general homotopy
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 Vygotsky  Cristina Guerra
A brief description of Vygotsky's theories about thought, language, and intellectual development.
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 Vygotsky's Distinction Between Lower and Higher Mental Functions and Recent Studies on Infant Cognitive Development  Eugene Subbotsky; Psychology Department, University of Lancaster, UK
One of the major theoretical advances of Vygotsky's approach to cognitive development was his thesis that human mental functions are social in origin. In making this claim, Vygotsky was confronted with the difficulty of reconciling it with the fact that
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 Vygotsky  Trish Nicholl
This paper includes sections entitled Higher and lower mental functions; Intramental vs intermental abilities; The zone of proximal development (ZPD); Psychological tools; and Semiotic potential and the decontextualisation of mediational means. With references.
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 WallaceBolyaiGerwien Theorem  Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny
According to the WallaceBolyaiGerwien theorem, all simple polygons of equal area are equidecomposable by dissection. The site offers a proof of the theorem and several dynamic illustrations of equidecomposition in special cases.
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 Wanted: A New Mix  Keith Devlin (Devlin's Angle)
An essay on the insularity of mathematicians. "...mathematics as a whole should be prepared to embrace as a useful and bona fide part of the enterprise, collaborative investigations involving mathematicians together with experts in other disciplines."
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 Waterloo Fractal Compression Project  Edward R. Vrscay
A research project dedicated to the study of fractal analysis and Iterated
Function Systems/Fractal Transforms from theoretical and practical perspectives, focussing on image and signal compression. Both mathematical and nonmathematical introductions
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 Wavelet Digest: wavelet.org  Wim Sweldens
A free monthly newsletter with all kinds of information concerning wavelets; announcement of conferences, preprints, software, questions, etc. The latest issue and searchable copies of back issues (beginning in 1992) are available; links to other wavelet
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 The Wavelet Tutorial  Robi Polikar
The engineer's ultimate guide to wavelet analysis: a tutorial that explains basics of signal processing with a focus on the technique of wavelet transformations (WT). Basic concepts of importance in understanding wavelet theory; Short Term Fourier Transform
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 WebCalC  The WebMath Group
An online calculus course with easy to read text, fully worked examples, problem solutions, quizzes, and online linking. To view WebCalC, you need the software Scientific Notebook (a free viewer version is available). The site includes links to publications
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 Weighing the Evidence  Keith Devlin (Devlin's Angle)
Hundreds of thousands of years of evolution have equipped us with many useful mental abilities  our instinct to avoid many dangerous situations and our use of language are two obvious examples. However, evolution has not equipped us to handle statistical
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 Weird Dice (MatheMUSEments!)  Ivars Peterson (Math Muse for Kids)
In the dice game Piggy, you and your opponent take turns rolling a pair of ordinary dice. Your score is the sum of the face values of the dice, so if you roll a three and a four, you get seven points. The first player to reach 100 points wins. Suppose
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 Welcome to PERTH: PEerless on EaRTH  Dave Watson
Dave Watson's main interest is computational geometry, and he specializes in spatial interpolation. Books/software on Contouring (a survey of published bivariate contouring and interpolation methods), Tessellations, Spherical Tessellations, Isolines,
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 The Western Reserve Reading Project  The Ohio State University
With over four hundred pairs of twins participating in annual data collection sessions over the past ten years, the Western Reserve Reading Project (WRRP) explores how the environment affects children's ability to learn "by evaluating how genes and environmental
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 We Use Math  BYU Mathematics Department
From actuary to urban planner, read short descriptions of the scores of careers that use math  or log in to submit your own career entry. Each occupation's writeup includes its salary range, educational background, the specific math courses it requires,
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 What Can Mathematics Do For The Businessperson?  Keith Devlin (Devlin's Angle)
In business, the ability to dig beneath the surface of a problem to see what
the real underlying issues are, and the capacity for clear and logical thought, can be extremely valuable. And learning mathematics provides an excellent way to develop that
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 What Does It Take to Be an Expert Problem Solver?  Annie and John Selden; Mathematical Association of America
Organized into five sections: ExpertNovice Studies Have Often Concentrated
on Textbook Problems; Solving Nonroutine Problems; Are Mathematicians Expert Problem Solvers? How Might One Teach Problem Solving? and The Importance of Affect. From the MAA's
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 What do we know about mathematics curricula?  Alan Schoenfeld, Journal of Mathematical Behavior
In the absence of either largescale empirical proof of success or the existence of compelling and documentable standards, there is reason to be cautious. The traditionalists are nervous for good reason. It should be noted, however, that the resistance
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 What, How, and the Web  Cut the Knot!, Alexander Bogomolny
More on place value. "There is an obvious confusion there between two questions, what to teach and how to teach it. Does the failure of the New Math to present a specific topic necessarily imply that teaching this topic has no merit? The New Math has
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 What is the best way to lace your shoes?  Burkard Polster, Nature
"The two most popular ways to lace shoes have historically been to use 'crisscross' or 'straight' lacing  but are these the most efficient? Here we demonstrate mathematically that the shortest lacing is neither of these, but instead is a rarely used
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 What Is the Collaborative Classroom? (NCREL)  M.B. Tinzmann, B.F. Jones, T.F. Fennimore, J. Bakker, C. Fine, and J. Pierce
New learning and thinking curricula require collaboration. An article that addresses shared knowledge and authority among teachers and students; teachers as mediators; heterogeneous groupings of students; teacher and student roles; interactions; challenges
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 What Is Your Answer to That Question?  Cut the Knot!, Alexander Bogomolny, with Don Greenwell
The question  Why study mathematics?  appears in a multitude of guises and a plethora of variants... Mathematics is often compared to art. Like literature, mathematics has metaphor, ambiguity, paradox, and mystery. It has history. Mathematics has contributed
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 What's Going On During Mathematics Awareness Month  Keith Devlin (Devlin's Angle)
"This year's theme is mathematics and biology. Two important examples of how mathematics is used in biology are: in developing computer models of the human heart, which are helping us to understand how the heart works and, more importantly, how it goes
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 What Should I Look For in a Math Classroom?  Mathematical Sciences Education Board (MSEB)
A set of practical guidelines, with explanations of their relevance. From the Mathematical Sciences Education Board of the National Research Council.
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 What's Noteworthy on Learners, Learning & Schooling  Midcontinent Regional Educational Laboratory (McREL)
"The major challenges for educational reform today are putting the pieces together to create sustainable systemic change and scaling up systemic reform to encompass all schools, all programmatic areas, all levels of schooling and diverse social contexts."
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 What's Sophisticated about Elementary Mathematics?  HungHsi Wu
"The characteristics of coherence, precision, and reasoning are not just niceties; they are a prerequisite to making school mathematics learnable." In this American Educator article originally published Fall, 2009, the author goes on to unpack whole number
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 What Will Be the Effect of a Standardsbased Education on College Students?  Judith Roitman
This article, by Judith Roitman of the University of Kansas, appeared in the April 1995 FOCUS, the newsletter of the MAA. Among other things, Roitman discusses the need for dialog between K12 teachers and their college counterparts, and difficulties
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 What Works Clearinghouse
Reviews of the effectiveness of educational intervention programs, products, practices, and policies. Among other curricula, the WWC has reviewed studies of the Middle School Math Curricula interventions Cognitive Tutor, Compass Learning, Connected Mathematics
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 When mathematics has to be theater  Keith Devlin (Devlin's Angle)
A mathematician's entry into the world of commercial multimedia  the creation of an interactive calculus textbook on CDROM.
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