 Computation of Discrete Logarithms in Prime Fields  LaMacchia, Odlyzdo; AT&T Bell Laboratories, NJ
The presumed difficulty of computing discrete logarithms in finite fields is the basis of several popular public key cryptosystems. The secure identification option of the Sun Network File System, for example, uses discrete logarithms in a field GF(p)
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 Computation Take a Quantum Leap  Ivars Peterson  Science News Online
A quantum computation involving a custombuilt molecule furnishes experimental evidence that a quantum computer can determine the order of a permutation more efficiently than can a conventional computer. For their quantum computer, Isaac L. Chuang of
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 Computer Aided Learning in Mathematics (CALM)  Department of Mathematics at HeriotWatt University, Edinburgh
Developments in ComputerAided Learning and Assessment, as well as software, academic papers and other information produced by the CALM group. Download the demo for Interactive PastPapers, an exam simulator and personal tutor. Links to course guide, worksheets
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 Computer Algebra and Problem Solving Environments  Stanly Steinberg
Abstract for Stanly Steinberg's article in Comparative CAS Reviews and Philosophy, suggesting six ways computer algebra systems could be improved.
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 Computer Algebra Systems in Calculus Reform  Lisa Denise Murphy
A literature review that starts with a brief history of the calculus reform movement and goes on to describe several studies in which computer algebra
systems (CAS) were used in introductory calculus courses. With the beginnings of an annotated list
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 The Computer Delusion  Todd Oppenheimer, The Atlantic Monthly magazine
A July 1997 article critical of the effects of the classroom use of computers.
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 Computerorientierter Mathematikunterricht zur Diskussion  Christian Wagenknecht
Computeroriented Math Teaching. Lernen und Lehren mit dem Computer. Theory and practice with the computer. A paper in German by Wagenknecht on computers and math teaching; integrating the computer into the classroom; impediments (fear of computers, reluctance
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 Computers and Education  Crawford Kilian
Links to interesting and useful sites, advice on how to join some good listservs, and some of Kilian's articles on what computers and educators are doing to each other, including "Why Teach Online," "Education@Home," "Spinning a New Web of Learning,"
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 Computer Science  Dave Rusin; The Mathematical Atlas
A short article designed to provide an introduction to computer science, today more accurately a separate discipline that considers a number of rather
mathematical topics. In addition to computability questions arising from many problems in discrete
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 Computers, Free Will, and Marching Ants (Math Chat)  Frank Morgan; Christian Science Monitor
Is it logically possible for a computer to have free will?
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 Computer Simulations in Physics  Maciej Matyka
Physically based modelling simulations. Examples: Simple Newton Dynamics; Particle Dynamics Engine; Waves equation; Cellular automata; Incompressible NavierStokes; Fluid Calculations; Quantum Mechanics; Rigid Cloth Behaviour Classical and quantum physics,
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 Computing at the Edge  Ivars Peterson  Science News Online
To study and predict boundary effects, researchers have struggled to accurately capture erratic, complicated behavior in a computer model. In recent years two schemes for calculating what happens at rapidly evolving interfaces have provided new insights
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 Computing in a Surreal Realm  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
Even among mathematicians, the study of surreal numbers is an obscure pastime. Only a few have occupied themselves in recent years exploring the peculiarities of a number system that includes different kinds of infinities and vanishingly small quantities.
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 Computing Science: A Question of Numbers  Brian Hayes; American Science
An article about the ISC (Inverse Symbolic Calculator) and numbers. "In my daydream, Neil Sloane and Simon Plouffe are contestants on "Jeopardy," the TV game show. Sloane picks the category "Integer Sequences" for $400, and Alex Trebek reads the answer:
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 Computing the Hausdorff Measure and Dimension of Fractals Generated by Möbius Transforms  Mark Krosky, Cornell University
An illustrated paper by a Cornell Univ. graduate student. Abstract: Möbius transforms are an important class of conformal maps. By studying fractals they generate, we can gain more information about groups of Möbius transforms. A discussion
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 Computing with the EDSAC  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
The celebration earlier this year of the fiftieth anniversary of the unveiling of the ENIAC, the first electronic, generalpurpose computer, has focused attention on the early history of computing. In the 1940s, there were no computer scientists, no software
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 The Concept and Teaching of PlaceValue  Rick Garlikov
A theoretical explanation about (the problem of) teaching PlaceValue to children, with a practical method given based on that explanation.
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 Condorcet.org  Blake Cretney
Theories on voting and social choice. Learn about an electoral method called "ranked pairs" and download software to tabulate other voting methods. The Election Methods Resource enumerates "single winner" and legislative approaches to running elections.
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 Conferences on the Teaching of Mathematics (CTM) (Mathematics Archives)  Husch, et al., Editors
Currently includes presentations and contributed papers from the Fifth Conference on the Teaching of Mathematics held on June 2122, 1996 in Baltimore, MD and the Sixth Conference on the Teaching of Mathematics held on June 2021, 1997 in Milwaukee, WI.
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 Confessions of an Engineering Washout  Douglas Kern
Article about the author's experiences with undergraduate education for engineering.
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 Confronting Technology  Lowell Monke
This site provides a variety of resources critically examining the relationship between human beings and technology, with specific resources on the way computers are used in education. They include: an annotated bibliography, a list of documents available
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 Conic Sections (Visual Dictionary of Special Plane Curves)  Xah Lee
A discussion of the history of conic sections, one of the oldest math subjects studied systematically and thoroughly, with a description, formulas, properties, a proof, Mathematica notebooks, the ellipse seen as a circle, second degree curves, intersection
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 Coniques en coordonnées barycentriques  Jean Marie Laborde, AbraCAdaBRI
Exemples des ellipses de Steiner; Théorème et Applications du
théorème de Pascal; Théorème de Carnot par les coordonnées barycentriques.
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 CONNECT: Everyone can do Math and Science  Colorado
Colorado's NSFfunded statewide systemic initiative in mathematics and science. CONNECT is charged to provide support and leadership to increase the achievement of all Colorado students in mathematics and science, kindergarten through baccalaureate (K16).
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 Constant Perimeter and Constant Area Rectangles (Connected Geometry)  Daniel Scher; Education Development Center, Inc. (EDC)
Interactive Java animations accompany the article "Theorems in Motion: Using Dynamic Geometry to Gain Fresh Insights" by Daniel Scher in the April 1996 issue of the Mathematics Teacher. The article outlines how dynamic geometry software can be used to
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 Constants, Units, and Uncertainty  National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
A reference with three sections: Fundamental Physical Constants (values of the constants and related information, and a searchable bibliography on the constants); the International System of Units (indepth information on the SI, the modern metric system),
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 Constructivism and Education: A Shopper's Guide  Moses A. Boudourides
A brief review of the various streams of constructivism in studies of education, society, science and technology: philosophical, cybernetic, educational, and sociological. A paper presented at the International Conference on the Teaching of Mathematics
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 Constructivism  Classroom Compass
The winter 1994 issue of Classroom Compass explores this theory of learning, including a brief literature summary and suggestions for the constructivist classroom. Two instructional activities (Which Container Holds the Most? for younger children and
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 Constructivism in Science and Mathematics Education  Michael R. Matthews
Matthews discusses constructivism, its scope and influence, and looks at the particular case of New Zealand, in this article from the 99th Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education.
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 Constructivism in the Classroom  Mathematics Education at the Math Forum
The Math Forum's suggested sites on constructivism in math education, including projects and Web resources (conference sessions, articles, reports). See also our page of selected Internet sites with a constructivist orientation or that offer readings
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 Constructivism: Vygotsky and the Internet  Mathematics Education at The Math Forum
The ideas of Lev Semenovich Vygotsky have sparked considerable thought on the topic of constructivism. The Math Forum has collected a list of links to sites, projects, and articles about Vygotsky, constructivism, and the Internet, including comparisons
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 A Constructivist View of Science Education  University of Massachusetts Physics Education Research Group (UMPERG)
Four premises of constructivism: knowledge is constructed, not transmitted; prior knowledge impacts the learning process; initial understanding is local, not global; and building useful knowledge structures requires effortful and purposeful activity;
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 Constructivist Views of Learning in Science and Mathematics (ERIC Digest)  Drew K. Ishii
An examination of constructivism and its implications for the classroom, with web and print resources for additional study.
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 Contingency Analysis  Glyn Holton
Information on financial risk management, including value at risk, derivative instruments, credit risk and financial engineering. Discussion groups of risk management professionals; fundamentals, with an overview of enterprise risk management; research
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 Continued Fractions and Chaos (Organic Mathematics Proceedings)  Robert M. Corless
From the Proceedings of the Organic Mathematics Workshop. This paper is meant for the reader who knows something about continued fractions, and wishes to know more about the theory of chaotic dynamical systems; it is also useful for the person who knows
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 Contradancing and Matrices  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
Bernie Scanlon, a mathematics instructor at Bakersfield College in California, has been dancing nearly every weekend since 1990, even traveling to distant parts of the country to join in the fun. His passion is contradancing  a dance form unknown to
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 Convex and Discrete Geometry  Dave Rusin; The Mathematical Atlas
Information on convex and discrete geometry. Applications and related fields and subfields; textbooks, reference works, and tutorials; software and tables; other web sites with this focus.
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 Cooperative Learning  Classroom Compass
The fall 1994 issue of Classroom Compass looks at some aspects of cooperative learning and ways it can be implemented in the classroom. Two instructional activities, one providing suggestions for elementary students (Pumpkin Exploration) and one for higher
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 Coping With Math Anxiety  B. Sidney Smith, Wendy Hageman Smith; Math Academy Online/Platonic Realms
A "minitext" concerning the potentially disabling fear of math. This site defines math anxiety, discusses its social and educational roots, addresses some widespread myths about math and learning math, and deals with possible strategies for overcoming
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 Core Concept: Comprehensive Assessment  Edutopia
The George Lucas Educational Foundation's compilation of resources on assessment in education, including videos, reallife examples, blog posts, articles, and interviews.
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 Cosmeo  Discovery Education, Inc.
Homework help from the Discovery Channel. Browse math help by topic to watch math Flash videos (many with closed captioning), read articles, play "brain games," and more. Walk through your math problem with WebMath. Cosmeo's video library has more than
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 Counterexamples in Clifford Algebras  Pertti Lounesto, Helsinki Institute of Technology
Counterexamples to theorems published and proved in recent literature on Clifford algebras, spinors, spin groups and the exterior algebra, many stemming from the failure of the authors to check their statements in low dimensions, or for small numbers
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 The Counterfeit Coin  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
The classic puzzle of the counterfeit coin has long served as a stiff test of one's reasoning power and ingenuity. In its standard form, the problem concerns 12 coins identical in size, shape, and appearance. One coin, however, is counterfeit, having
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 Counting by Twos  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
How much is a megabyte? Many people don't really know. The problem originated decades ago when computer professionals noticed that 2^10 is very nearly equal to 1,000, and they began using the metric prefix "kilo" to mean 1,024. That was okay when computers
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 Count Me In  JoAnne LeFevre, Director
Research on the effects of culture and language on preschool children's ability to learn to count and complete other early numeracy tasks. Participants include Turkish, Chinese and English speakers. Publications from the team of researchers from Carleton
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 Covering Up (MatheMUSEments!)  Ivars Peterson (Math Muse for Kids)
Have you ever wondered why the cover of a manhole is nearly always round? Why couldn't it be oval or square? The usual answer is that a circular lid, unlike a square or an oval cover, won't fall through the opening, but the circle isn't the only shape
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 The Cow in the Classroom  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
Math Curse by Jon Scieszka and Lane Smith spoofs the types of word problems that educators and textbook writers invent to dress up arithmetic exercises and, supposedly, to demonstrate the relevance of math to everyday life. Canadian economist and humorist
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 CPAIOR 2001: Third International Workshop
Third International Workshop on Integration of Artificial Intelligence and Operations Research Techniques in Constraint Programming for Combinatorial Optimization Problems. Wye College (Imperial College), Ashford, Kent UK; 810 April, 2001. Papers available
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 Cracking a Medieval Code  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
The first printed book on cryptology was written by Johannes Trithemius (14621516), an abbot in Spanheim, Germany, who was one of the leading intellectuals of his day. Bearing the title Polygraphiae libri sex ("Six Books of Polygraphy"), it was published
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 Cracking Kepler's spherepacking problem  Ivars Peterson; Science News Online
The familiar piles of neatly stacked oranges at a supermarket represent a practical solution to the problem of packing spheres as tightly as possible. Thomas C. Hales proved that no other arrangement of identical spheres fills space more efficiently,
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