 The Paper Challeran  Ryosuke Ito & TOSS
Starting with a score of 1, trace a route through the Paper Challeran. Add to, multiply, or subtract from this score, as indicated at every edge along the way. Compete by registering scores online. Numbers around each block change every month. Find rules,
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 Pascal's Triangle using Clock Arithmetic  Jay's Corner
Exploring Pascal's triangle when the modulus is a prime; when the modulus is a power of a prime; and when the modulus has at least two different prime divisors. From mod 2 to mod 12, illustrated. (See also Part II.)
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 Passalgebra.com
Pass algebra with this online study guide. Practice with hundreds of problems, with answers worked out step by step. Examples of study guide and exercises provided. $27 for 1 year; stepbystep instruction for $2.50/problem.
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 Path Puzzles  Erich's Puzzle Palace; Erich Friedman
Sixteen paththroughagrid puzzles; can you fill in the correct path? Answers provided.
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 Pat's Math & Problem Solving Links  Pat McQuatty
Site recommendations from the math consultant for the Western Quebec School Board. See, in particular, Special Days (Hundredth Day of school, Math with the number 2000  twenty suggested math activities for the year 2000). Also mathrelated links for
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 Patternbee Multiplayer Spatial Reasoning  Jordan Pollack
In this version of tangrams, pairs of learners create the puzzles for each other to solve, which can be at different levels of difficulty. Requires free registration to play, as this is an educational psychology research project.
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 Patterns and Magic Squares  Recmath
This page looks at a particular subset of Magic Squares, those of order four which are 'continuous' (also known as pandiagonal, Nasik and Jaina). It explores the patterns possible when the numbers in these kinds of squares are
represented by a set of
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 Patterns in Mathematics (Teachers' Lab)  Annenberg Media
This lab, based on the professional development series and workshops broadcast on the Annenberg/CPB Math and Science Project Channel, explores patterns as they occur in logic, numbers, and words, focusing on how to develop "function sense" without simply
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 Paul's Page of Pi  Paul A. Gusmorino 3rd
Most of the content of this site is focused on methods of calculating pi: Archimedes' method; Wallis' formula; Gregory, Leibniz, and Machin; Newton's fluxions; and Paul's 8192 digits. Also Pi Poems, Music of Pi, and Pi Links.
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 paulus gerdes's Storefront  Paulus Gerdes
Purchase print editions or download Gerdes' titles, some also available in Portuguese, Dutch, and French: Drawings from Angola: Living Mathematics, Enjoy Puzzling with biLLies, Puzzle Fun with BiLLies, The Bisos Game: Puzzles and Diversions, Introducing
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 PBS Teachers: Math  PBS Teachers
The Public Broadcasting System's Math Service, combining computing and telecommunications technologies to offer interactive data services and interactive video and voice services for education based on the NCTM Standards. The site features: resources,
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 PCTM Online Puzzle of the Week  Judy Brown; Pennsylvania Council of Teachers of Mathematics
Weekly illustrated math puzzle online competition from 199697, with an archive of past puzzles. Since 1997 this project has moved to the Math Forum to become its Middle School Problem of the Week.
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 Pédagogie  Olivier Batteux
MathsRix et Labymath sont des logiciels présenté sous forme de labyrinthe où il faut choisir des portes qui correspondent à des choix opératoires en vue des résoudre des problèmes concrets. Découvre
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 The Penrose Puzzle Room  World of Escher
Mathematically based Pentaplex Puzzles designed by Sir Roger Penrose, the wellknown English mathematician. The original 45 piece Gamebirds, 190 piece Perplexing Poultry  2 designs, 500 piece Jigsaw Puzzles  4 designs.
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 Pentangle  U.K.
To buy: wooden, mechanical, interlocking, mathematical and logical thinking puzzles; brainteasers, games, toys, gifts, threedimensional puzzles, promotional items, and collectors' puzzles,
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 Pentominoes  Robert Simms; Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, Clemson University
A Java applet spatial relations game. Try to place the pieces in the box with no overlapping. With detailed instructions, source code, development stages of the applet, and related links.
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 Pentomino  K.S.O. Glorieux Ronse, Belgium
An introduction to polyominoes, with a sitewide focus on pentominoes. The site features puzzles and contests, as well as galleries of pentomino constructions and problems, such as how to form letters of the alphabet and silhouettes of zoo animals. Available
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 Perfect Problems  Vasek Chvátal
Unsolved problems on perfect graphs, a collection for people with at least a basic knowledge of the subject. Contents include: Perfection of special classes of Berge graphs; Recognition of special classes of Berge graphs; Decompositions of perfect graphs;
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 Periodic Points of Quadratic Polynomials  Cut the Knot!, Alexander Bogomolny
The main purpose of the Mandelbrot set is to index Julia sets corresponding to various values of the parameter c... iterations inside M evolve differently depending on the value of c. (You may explore some iterations via the applet supplied.) An interactive
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 Perplexus  flooble
A large archive of mathematically inclined puzzles and problems displayed by category. Includes logic, number theory, geometry, probability and other problems. All are rated by difficulty and quality and discussed in depth by visitors. Most with solutions.
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 A PersonalMathOnlineHelp.com  Marko Ignjatijevic
Practice the basic operations of adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing singledigit and multidigit positive whole numbers. Submit your answers online to check them, or click the "show solutions" buttons to see the correct answers; the "try again"
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 Peter Ash's Thoughts on Math and Education  Peter Ash
Musings on doing and teaching mathematics, book reviews, and math problems both elementary and advanced from the creator of Cambridge Math Learning. Blog posts, which date back to August of 2007, include "Very Proper Fractions"; "Physical Models for NonEuclidean
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 Peter Winton's Radical Home Page
Math topics include puzzles, a gallery of fractals, and Visual Basic programs to download (count the grains of rice on a chessboard, or graph different curves).
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 Petran Mathematics  Petro Greffrath
From South Africa: grade 11 and 12 math problems, tests, and answers. Teachers may register their students (R360/year for 110 students; the Petran academic year starts 1st February and ends 31st January the following year). Includes access to an EnglishAfrikaans
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 Phenomenological Pizza (SMILE)  Robert Foote, Disney Magnet School
A lesson for the middle grades designed to teach students to calculate the area of a circle, find how many twotopping pizzas can be made using 14 toppings, and determine cost per square inch. From the Geometry and Measurement section of a collection
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 Physicscatalyst
Study notes, videos, formula sheets, solved examples, solutions from India's National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT), and more for middle and high school maths.
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 The Physics Classroom  Tom Henderson, hosted by StudyWorks! Online
A physics tutorial for high school students, including explanations, animations, quizzes, and practice problems.
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 Physics Problems for the Next Millennium  David Gross, Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara
The ten most important unsolved problems in fundamental physics, as formulated by participants of the University of Michigan's Strings 2000 Conference: Are all the (measurable) dimensionless parameters that characterize the physical universe calculable
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 Pi Across America  University of Phoenix
Join the "Pi Pilot" for a "journey to one of humankind's most intriguing and celebrated numbers." Activities include "The Great Chain of Pi," "Taking Pi to Court," "Your Place in Pi," "Freehand Circle Drawing Competition," "Pi Party," and "Pi Bee." Scenario
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 Pi and Square Roots  Don Cohen (The Mathman)
Kohler (a 5thgrader) follows Archimedes. A graph and a program for iterating the square root of 10. Sample problems with some answers from Chapter 10 of Don Cohen's worksheet book.
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 Pi and the Fibonacci Numbers  Ron Knott
Contents: How Pi is calculated (Measuring the steepness of a hill; The tangent of an angle; The arctan function; Gregory's Formula for arctan(t); Radian measure; Gregory's series and pi; Using Gregory's Series to calculate pi; Machin's Formula; Another
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 Pick's Theorem  Cut the Knot!, Alexander Bogomolny
A description with proof of Pick's theorem, including links to further pages including exercises with an applet for the geoboard, Farey Series, and SternBrocot Tree. An interactive column for MAA Online that uses a Java applet to simulate a puzzle or
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 'Picture This': Tangram Puzzles  Sarah A. Keith
Each week a new tangram puzzle is featured in "Picture This" in the Sunday cartoon section of newspapers worldwide. Children are invited to mail their tangrams for possible inclusion, and to be featured in the Kid's Gallery on the Web. Read the legend
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 The PiFactory  David Whitfield
Revision notes, boardshots, and Excel worksheets to download, from when the author used to teach in North London. The PiFactory includes an opensource assessment suite, classroom resources, and concept maps. The PiFactory conveniently pulls together
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 The Pi Pages  Centre for Experimental and Constructive Mathematics (CECM)
"Pi is one of the few concepts in mathematics whose mention evokes a response of recognition and interest in those not concerned professionally with the subject. It has been a part of human culture and the educated imagination for more than twenty five
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 The Pi Trivia Game  Eve A. Andersson
Test your knowledge of history, mathematics, and even a little physics. Here are 25 (given to you 5 at a time) pirelated questions, picked randomly from a pi question database. Also at http://cid.com/~eveander/trivia/.
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 Plane Geometry Web Pages  David Jaffe
Materials from a geometry course originally taught to future middle and high school teachers. Using definitions, theorems, proofs, and examples, the site introduces mappings; isometries and similarities; angles and trigonometry; congruence and similarity;
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 The Playground of Mathematics  Cilenia
JavaScript practice in addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, time, and comparison ("greater than, equal to, or less than"). Select difficulty, complexity, position of unknown, duration, and other settings. Also available in Russian, Italian,
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 A Playground of Thoughts  Takasugi Shinji
Takasugi's "Number Systems of the World" lists dozens of languages; how to count from zero to one hundred in each; and the mathematical meaning of the expressions for each numeral. For example, the French say "93" with quatrevingttreize, which means
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 POLYA: Cooperative Solutions of Difficult Problems in Elementary Mathematics  Paul Yiu and Xiaodong Zhang, Moderators; Department of Mathematical Sciences, Florida Atlantic University
An archived discussion group for the cooperative solution of difficult problems in elementary mathematics through calculus, "preferably nontechnical in nature."
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 Polyhedron: An application in solid geometry  Stelian Dumitrascu
Software based on "deductionfree geometry," which allows the user to perform various actions upon solids as if holding these solids in your hands. It simulates a number of tools, such as the ruler, protractor, setsquare, compass, bisector, saw, and eraser.
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 Polymath Love  Gary Smith
Free and lowcost Macintosh software for middle school mathematics: over
200 programs written by a classroom teacher. Program descriptions and some free programs are available to download from the Web, or order the CDROM for $100 U.S., which includes
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 Polyominoes  Cynthia Lanius
What do dominoes and Tetris have in common? Both games use pieces that are formed of squares placed side by side. Dominoes use 2 squares; Tetris pieces (or tetrominoes) use 4 squares. Mathematician Solomon Golomb, in a 1953 talk at the Harvard Mathematics
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 Polyominoes  Kevin Gong
Information and Polyominoes software to download. A polyomino is a piece made up entirely of squares connected edgetoedge. For example, a domino is a polyomino with 2 squares. In this program, you can use pentominoes, tetrominoes, trominoes, hexominoes,
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 Polyominoes  Slavik Jablan
A plane topological disk (i.e. a plane region without "holes") consisting of n edgetoedge adjacent squares is called a polyomino. This site offers a shape description: in every border square cell of a polyomino we could introduce twosided mirrors perpendicular
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 Ponder This  IBM Research
Match wits with the minds in IBM Research, who post a new puzzle every month (some suggested by users at large), and welcome your solutions. Archives of previous challenges.
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 Population Education  Population Connection
Browse the Population Connection's catalog for population education teaching materials and posters. The library contains newsletters, quick facts, reference materials such as free activities and frequently asked questions, quizzes, and more. Population
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 Portion Distortion  National Institutes of Health (NIH)
How do the portions served in today's fast food restaurants compare to those available 20 years ago? Take the "Portion Distortion" quizzes to learn exactly how much portions have "super sized," as well as the amount of physical activity required to burn
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 The postIMO97 web page  Olimpíada Matemática Argentina
Problems and results from the math olympics held in Argentina in July, 1997. Available in English and Spanish, with problems also in French, Russian, German, and a host of other languages.
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 Power Cards: A Mathematical Puzzle  Cynthia Lanius
Choose a number from 131. Tell me which cards below contain the number, and I can tell you the number. How do I do it? (A hint and directions for making more cards are given.)
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