 42eXplore  Annette Lamb and Larry Johnson
Web projects that offer definitions, activities, four good starting points, and many more links and resources for thematic topics such as charts and graphs; codes, ciphers and secret messages; fractals, tessellations, geometric shapes, and figures; number
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 Activity Group on Discrete Mathematics  Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (SIAM)
The SIAG on Discrete Mathematics focuses on combinatorics, graph theory, cryptography, discrete optimization, mathematical programming, coding theory, information theory, game theory, and theoretical computer science, including algorithms, complexity,
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 The Alan Turing Home Page  Andrew Hodges
A gateway and guide to a large site dedicated to Alan Turing (19121954); 25 pages of biographical information on this computer scientist, mathematician, and cryptographer, from the author of Alan Turing: the Enigma.
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 Alphametics  Mike Keith
Alphametics (also known as alphametrics) are puzzles that combine mathematical and word play, the first modern example of which was Dudeney's SEND + MORE = MONEY. From the "alphamenu," choose traditional alphametics, the doublytrue genre, new literary
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 Alphametics  Torsten Sillke
Cryptarithms are puzzles in which letters or symbols are substituted for the digits in an arithmetical calculation. If a cryptarithm uses letters in place of digits, and the letters form words or phrases, the puzzle is an alphametic. J. A. H. Hunter coined
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 The Bible Code That Wasn't  Keith Devlin (Devlin's Angle)
Just over a year ago, journalist Michael Dronin's book The Bible Code hit the bookstores  and soon after that the television screens and review pages of national newspapers  and quickly became an international bestseller. Both author and publisher made
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 Big Integers in JavaScript  Leemon Baird
A JavaScript library for arbitraryprecision integers. This page performs RSA in any base: binary, decimal, hexadecimal, base 64, and base 95 (whole keyboard), in which the message can be ordinary text. The library allows addition, subtraction, multiplication,
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 Bletchley Park  The Bletchley Park Trust
Also known as Station X, Bletchley Park is the home of the United Kingdom's Government Code and Cipher School (GC&CS). Read about its history, including decrypting the German Enigma code, Alan Turing's contribution of the "Bombe," and the various huts
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 Can You Crack the Enigma Code?  Richard Belfield
The official website accompanying Belfield's book, Can You Crack the Enigma Code? "As part of the book, Richard invited a team of experts from the Information Security Group at Royal Holloway, University of London, to create a challenging collection of
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 Centre for Innovation in Mathematics Teaching  University of Plymouth
A focus for research and curriculum development in mathematics teaching and learning with the unifying aim of enhancing mathematical progress in schools and colleges. The site includes: The Mathematics Enhancement Programme; Resources: worksheets in HTML
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 Challenges  RSA Security
Read about three cryptographic challenges: RSA Factoring Challenge, SecretKey Challenge, and DES Challenge III. For the solution of these cryptographic challenges, RSA offers cash prizes as "... modest rewards for some of the hard work that goes into
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 Chinks in Digital Armor  Ivars Peterson  Science News Online
Tampering with a smart card can force it into making errors in the calculations used for encrypting data, potentially allowing the code to be broken.
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 Cipher Challenge  University of Southampton
A cipher challenge for cryptographers under the age of 19. With solutions and comments about the breaking of sets of encoded messages, or ciphertexts, of increasing difficulties.
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 Communication and Information, including Encryption  Dave Rusin; The Mathematical Atlas
See the Report of the Working Group on Cryptology and Coding Theory National
Science Foundation, April 1718, 1997. History; applications and related fields and subfields; textbooks, reference works, and tutorials; software and tables; other web sites
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 Computation of Discrete Logarithms in Prime Fields  LaMacchia, Odlyzdo; AT&T Bell Laboratories, NJ
The presumed difficulty of computing discrete logarithms in finite fields is the basis of several popular public key cryptosystems. The secure identification option of the Sun Network File System, for example, uses discrete logarithms in a field GF(p)
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 Courses I Teach  John Cosgrave; St. Patrick's College, Dublin, Ireland
Lecture notes from three courses given at St Patrick's College, Dublin: Maple/Calculus/Analysis; Number Theory; Number Theory and Cryptography.
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 Cracking a Medieval Code  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
The first printed book on cryptology was written by Johannes Trithemius (14621516), an abbot in Spanheim, Germany, who was one of the leading intellectuals of his day. Bearing the title Polygraphiae libri sex ("Six Books of Polygraphy"), it was published
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 Cryptarithmetic Puzzle Solver  Naoyuki Tamura
Enter a cryptarithm or select an example, such as SEND + MORE = MONEY. Also, puzzle generators based on themes such as color names, fruits, vegetables, and numeral words in English, French, German, Spanish, and Italian.
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 Cryptarithms Online  Jorge Soares
Mathematical puzzles in which the digits are replaced by letters of the alphabet or other symbols. Brainteasers by the author; cryptarithms from the journal Sphinx; a primer; books on cryptarithms, and links to relevant sites on the Web.
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 Cryptoclub  Vera Pless, Janet Beissinger
This website includes tools to encrypt and decrypt messages, an
animated treasure hunt, a classroom message board to send and
receive encrypted messages, and a place to explore mathematics
topics related to cryptography, such as prime numbers and
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 The Crypto Drop Box of the American Cryptogram Association  Jerry Metzger
The American Cryptogram Association (ACA) is a nonprofit volunteer organization devoted to disseminating cryptographic knowledge. Members make up and solve their own creations strictly for the fun of it. Every two months, the ACA journal, The Cryptogram,
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 Cryptography  Corey Reed
An introduction to cryptography, in particular affine enciphering applied to the alphabet, focusing on the use of linear algebra. Includes a primer on bases and modulus algebra and extensions for deciphering an affine enciphered message, using keys to
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 Cryptography World  The Cryptography Introduction
An introduction to cryptography and cryptoanalysis. Includes space for a repository of papers on the subject; introductory text; cryptography news through Google; and links to providers.
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 CS22: Discrete Math  Brown University
An introduction to discrete math with a focus on proof, logic, proof by induction, cryptography and networks of processors: lessons, homework, solutions, and information. "Discrete mathematics" refers to the distinction between discrete sets (for example,
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 David Bruce Wilson
David Bruce Wilson researches probability, combinatorics, and theoretical computer science. Abstracts of his articles on these subjects are available on the web and may be downloaded in PostScript or .dvi formats. Software available for download includes
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 David Sumner's Home Page  David Sumner
Study guides, exams, quizzes, problem sets, exam review materials, utilities, programs and simulations, syllabi, and other materials for courses such as calculus, sequences and series, graph theory, number theory and cryptography, and probability. The
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 Decimals and Logarithms in the Works? And a Dyer's Hand too?  Penn Leary
Shakespeare, Decimals and Logarithms: What did Shakespeare know about mathematics, particularly logarithms and the decimal system? And when did he know it? An article partly from Leary's book, The Second Cryptographic Shakespeare.
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 Designs, Codes and Cryptography  Kluwer Online
An international, searchable, archived, peerreviewed technical journal publishing survey and original papers on design, codes, and cryptography.
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 DIMACS Research and Education Institute (DREI)  Rutgers University
An institute from the Center for Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science which takes the approach that research and education should work handinhand, that collaborations between researchers and educators are formed by understanding each
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 DIMACS  Rutgers & Princeton Universities, AT&T Bell Labs, BellCore
The Center for Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science, an NSF Science and Technology Center. DIMACS is devoted to the development of the interrelated fields of discrete mathematics and theoretical computer science, among the most rapidly
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 ECC Tutorial  Certicom
Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem Classroom introduces elliptic curves and how they are used to create a secure and powerful cryptosystem: elliptic curve groups over real numbers, over Fp, over F2m, and the discrete log problem. Certicom's 109bit and other
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 The Enigma Machine  Russell Schwager
This Java applet simulates the operation of an Enigma machine, based on the one used by the Germans in World War II to encrypt military messages. With information on the history and workings of the mechanical Enigma machine; a brief description of how
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 Euler Institute for Discrete Mathematics and its Applications (EIDMA)  Henk C. A. van Tilborg, Scientific Director
EIDMA's three main areas of research are: Discrete Algebra and Geometry; Coding Theory, Information Theory and Cryptology; and Combinatorial Optimization and Algorithms, Graph Theory. Its aim is to promote and organize research programs on a large scale,
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 A Few Aspects of Cryptology  David Hamer
Read about cipher machines such as Enigma, Geheimschreiber, NEMA, SIGABA and others; visit the gallery showrooms of the Crypto Simulation Group (CSG), a group of historians and researchers in the field of cryptology; download sample simulators and published
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 Fraction Message (SMILE)  Charles Harper, Goldblatt Elementary School
A lesson designed to teach students to find pictorial representations of fractions and to decode messages. From the Arithmetic section of a collection of almost 200 single concept lessons by the Science and Mathematics Initiative for Learning Enhancement.
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 Geometric Algorithms  Susan Landau; Univ. of Massachusetts at Amherst
Landau's interest in geometric algorithms has been in problems of an algebraic flavor: computeraided design, robotics, and other geometricrelated applications that have created a need for methods for embeddings, visualization, and algorithms for construction
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 Government Communications Headquarters  Government Communications Headquarters, United Kingdom
British intelligence: take a brief, illustrated tour of GCHQ history through World War I, World War II and cracking the German Enigma code, the Cold War, and the post Cold War world; read about career opportunities for mathematicians and others; apply
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 Hiding in DNA  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Spies might have to start boning up on molecular biology to pass along and decipher secret messages. During World War II, German spies used microdots to hide information in plain view. Consisting of a greatly reduced photograph of a typed page, a microdot
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 Hiding in Lattices  Ivars Peterson  Science News Online
An improved mathematical strategy for encrypting data: the mathematics of lattices offers an alternative basis for a publickey cryptosystem. A lattice is a regular array of points, each one specified by a set of coordinates. Two coordinates would designate
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 HIME: Huge Integer Math and Encryption Library  DevOTechS
Big number software library (dll) for huge integer mathematics. For encryption and number theory applications. This library also contains encryption functions for public and secret key encryption applications, hash functions, random number generators,
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 Homepage of Torsten Sillke  Torsten Sillke
A collection of puzzles statements, with references, on a variety of topics: operations research, such as crossing the bridge; logic, including liars and truth tellers, mastermind, and age problems; lateral thinking, also known as "situation puzzles";
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 How To Code Information With Error Detection  University of Toronto Mathematics Network
A short essay and a description of "two out of five code," a special case of Hamming code.
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 Information and Communication, Circuits  Dave Rusin; The Mathematical Atlas
A short article designed to provide an introduction to information and communication, circuits, which includes questions of particular interest to algebraists, especially coding theory (related to linear algebra and finite groups) and encryption (related
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 Institute of Discrete Mathematics  Prof. Dr. Harald Niederreiter; Austrian Academy of Sciences
Current projects and research areas such as: Cryptology; Computer Algebra; Finite Fields and Their Applications; Global Function Fields; QuasiMonte Carlo Methods; Construction of LowDiscrepancy Sequences; Numerical Integration; Pseudorandom Number Generation;
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 Internet Math Challenge  Dept. of Mathematics, University of Idaho
A weekly K12 math challenge from the math department at the University of Idaho, discontinued in 2004. Past puzzles and solutions are available.
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 Introduction To Cryptography  Lawrie Brown
This site provides a summarization of cryptography, including: definitions of terms, basic concepts, history, techniques, tools, and applications.
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 Jeffrey C. Lagarias
A member of the University of Michigan Department of Mathematics. List of publications, with many available for download in PostScript format; Lagarias' research interests include Number Theory, also Computational Complexity Theory, Cryptography, Discrete
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 Ken Shirriff
A researcher at Sun Microsystems. Annotated bibliographies on fractals and cryptography, and related papers, which may be downloaded in PostScript format. Graphics of Voronoi fractals (dividing the plane into regions closest to a given point) and fractals
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 "Kryptos"  Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
This page showcases the history and mystery of "Kryptos," a sculpture at the CIA by artist James Sanborn. See the Flash video introduction, and learn more about the sculpture, the code, and the artist. Textonly version available.
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 Lava Lamp Randomness  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Researchers have come up with a novel application of the mesmerizing movements of the lava lamp's globules. They use them as the starting point for generating a sequence of random numbers. Called lavarand, the randomnumber generator is the tongueincheek
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