 Similarity  Project MATHEMATICS!, California Institute of Technology
A videotapeandworkbook module that explores a basic topic in high school mathematics in ways that cannot be done at the chalkboard or in a textbook. Scaling multiplies lengths by the same factor and produces a similar figure. It
preserves angles and
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 Sines and Cosines, Part 2 (Trigonometry)  Project MATHEMATICS!, California Institute of Technology
A videotapeandworkbook module that explores a basic topic in high school mathematics in ways that cannot be done at the chalkboard or in a textbook. This program focuses on trigonometry, with special emphasis on the law of cosines and the law of sines,
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 Sines and Cosines, Part 3 (Addition formulas)  Project MATHEMATICS!, California Institute of Technology
A videotapeandworkbook module that explores a basic topic in high school mathematics in ways that cannot be done at the chalkboard or in a textbook. Animation relates the sine and cosine of an angle with chord lengths of a circle, as explained in Ptolemy's
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 Sir Roger Penrose  World of Escher
Recreational math is the passion of Sir Roger Penrose, who was recently knighted for his outstanding contributions to mathematics. Penrose is a professor of mathematics at the University of Oxford in England, where he pursues an active interest in recreational
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 Sir William Rowan Hamilton  D.R. Wilkins; School of Mathematics, Trinity College, Dublin
Material relating to Sir William Rowan Hamilton, including his letters and papers describing mathematical optics and conical refraction, dynamics, the theory of algebraic couples (complex numbers), the theory of equations, and quaternions; a memorial
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 Slates, Slide Rules, and Software: Teaching Math in America  Smithsonian National Museum of American History, Behring Center
An exhibit on mathematics teaching devices from the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History, focusing on innovations in mathematics teaching from the blackboard to graphing calculators and computer software.
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 The Slide Rule Universe  Sphere Research Corporation
Slide rule information, lessons, archives, links and an online marketplace: buy, bid for, or swap restored classics, new slide boxes still in the box, and low cost first student rules; learn to operate and care for your slide rule, from Hartung's "A
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 Slocum Puzzles  Jerry Slocum
Puzzle collector and author's site. Features puzzle descriptions, shop, descriptions of books written by Slocum and collaborators, and a history of Slocum's famous Puzzle Parties.
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 Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service (SITES)
"The Smithsonian in your state." Each year, millions of people in more than 250 venues beyond Washington, D.C. visit SITES exhibitions on view in local museums, libraries, science centers, historical societies, aquariums, community centers, and schools.
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 Social and Historical Aspects of Mathematics  Thompson, Wilkinson; Univ. of Wolverhampton (UK)
Math history: the development of counting systems and notations (includes Egyptian, Sumerian, Babylonian, and HinduArabic numerals); of notation and concepts in algebra; Changing systems of geometry from Euclid to Klein's programme (includes New Geometries,
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 Society for Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science (SACNAS)
The mission of SACNAS is to encourage Chicano/Latino and Native American students to pursue graduate education and obtain the advanced degrees necessary for research careers and science teaching professions at all levels. Their Biography Project, for
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 Soddy's Formula  Pat Ballew
Descartes' Circle Theorem, an example of giving the credit to the wrong person. The formula is about the relation of the radii of four mutually tangent circles and is sometimes called the Kissing Circles Theorem: if four circles are all tangent to each
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 Solve This!  ThinkQuest 2003
Information about eight famous mathematicians, with interactive quizzes, static problems and games.
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 Solving the Quintic by Iteration [PDF]  Peter Doyle, Curt McMullen
This paper, which appeared in Acta Mathematica, gives explicitly a new solution to the quintic polynomial, in which the transcendental inversion of the icosahedral map (due to Hermite and Kronecker) is replaced by a purely iterative algorithm. The algorithm
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 Solving the Quintic with Mathematica  Wolfram, Inc.
Solving the Quintic  The impossibility of solving general quintics in radicals, Tschirnhaus's transformation, Klein's approach to the quintic, Solutions based on series, Solutions based on differential equations, Equations of higher degree. Steps to
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 Some Mathematical Works of the 17th & 18th Centuries  Ian Bruce
This website has a number of books in PDF format translated from Latin, as well as papers by Euler, Bernoulli, etc. The books translated include Briggs' Arithmetica Logarithmica, Trigonometria Britannica, Gregory's Optica Promota, Harriot's Praxis, and
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 Some Solid (Threedimensional) Geometrical Facts about the Golden Section  Ron Knott
Phi and threedimensional geometry  Dice Shapes; Coordinates and other statistics of the 5 Platonic Solids; The Greeks and the platonic solids; Quasicrystals and Phi; Footnotes on Plato and Euclid, and on shapes for fair dice.
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 Sophie's Diary  Dora Musielak
Historical fiction based on mathematician Sophie Germain. Site includes book excerpts, a Spanish version of the main page, a press release, information about the author, favorite links, contact information, and illustrations from the book of Paris in
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 Sources in the history of algebra: arithmetical and recreational problems  Albrecht Heeffer
A comprehensive database of arithmetical and algebraical problems from sources before the 18th century, for research and educational use.
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 Special Relativity  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay describing the history of special relativity from Newton's laws through Lorentz and Einstein, with 12 references (books/articles).
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 Spreading the Word  Keith Devlin (Devlin's Angle)
History of and commentary on early calculus texts. "The first calculus text hit the shelves in 1696. They have been growing steadily in size (if not mathematical content) ever since. That first genresetting volume was Guillaume Francois Antoine de l'Hospital's
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 Square of the Hypotenuse  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Some history of the legend of the discovery of the Pythagorean theorem: in his textbook The History of Mathematics, Roger Cooke of the University of Vermont describes how the Babylonians might have discovered the Pythagorean theorem more than 1,000 years
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 Srinivasa Ramanujan Aiyangar  S.Prasad
A short biography of Ramanujan, with links to related Web pages.
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 Srinivasa Ramanujan  Sociedad Andaluza de Educación Matemática THALES
Biografía de Ramanujan: Presentación; Formación; Trabajo; En Cambridge; Su obra; Bibliografía; Otras páginas de interés
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 Statistics & Probability (Funk & Wagnalls Multimedia Encyclopedia)  Lycos Zone: Mathematics
Short articles on probability and statistics, covering: average, Babson, demography, mode, Neumann, probability, queuing theory, statitics, and vital statistics.
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 Stealing Copernicus  Keith Devlin (Devlin's Angle)
The theft of a first edition copy of Nicolaus Copernicus's classic text De revolutionibus orbium coelestium ("On the revolution of the heavenly spheres") was the seventh such disappearance of this valuable work in recent years  a chain of thefts that
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 The Story of Mathematics  Luke Mastin
Summary of major mathematicians and developments of mathematical thought over the centuries, "from its roots in ancient Mespotamia, Egypt and Greece to the abstraction of the modern era.... without getting too technical or getting bogged down in too much
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 Student Math Projects, Interlochen Arts Academy  Taoufik Nadji, Malek Physix Inc.
Student essays on various math history topics from around the world. The pages are loaded with graphics, animations, and sounds, and (sometimes backgrounds that result in illegible text. Subjects covered include: Early Math Period (Egyptian, Chinese,
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 Studying Polyhedra  Suzanne Alejandre
What is a polyhedron? A definition and a Java applet to help in exploring the five regular polyhedra to find how many faces and vertices each has, and what polygons make up the faces. Also links to a page of information about buckyballs, stories written
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 Symbol, Form and Number in Ancient Egypt  Franz Gnaedinger
A book on early mathematics in Egypt, with some social and religious background. Includes a discussion of the use of Pythagorean triples in Egyptian architecture, and hypotheses on the calculation with unit fractions and the approximation of the area
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 Teaching Resources Online  Bert G. Wachsmuth
Seton Hall University professor's syllabi, online handouts, sample programs, scripts and software to download, exams and answers, general information, and other teaching resources for his computer science and mathematics courses: Intro to Computer Science,
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 Teaching with Original Historical Sources in Mathematics  Laubenbacher, Pengelley; Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, New Mexico State Univ.
Excerpts, many in .dvi or postscript formats, and links to extensive information from a book on teaching mathematics with original historical sources: courses, books, and materials available at the undergraduate and high school levels, work with school
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 Temple Circles  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
One tradition that flourished 200 years ago in Japan, during its period of isolation from the western world, involved Euclidean geometry. Scholars and others would inscribe geometric problems on wooden tablets, then hang the tablets under the eaves of
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 Thomas Harriot's manuscripts  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay: Thomas Harriot died in 1621. He had published no mathematical or astronomical works during his lifetime, but he left his papers in reasonably good order and set out his wishes in his will that they should be properly edited and published.
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 Tides and Tide Prediction  Tony Phillips; Dept. of Mathematics, SUNYStony Brook
General information about tides and tide prediction: Priming/Lagging: a calculus with calculators exercise demonstrating the priming and lagging of the tides at Stony Brook. Samples of current tide predictions from the National Ocean Service. TideSounds:
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 Timelines and Scales of Measurement  Niel Brandt
TEX, DVI, PDF, Postscript, and ASCII files: Science / Technology History Timeline; Evolutionary / Geological Timeline; Cosmological Timeline; Scales of Measurement.
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 THE TITANIC: What Can Numbers Tell Us About Her Fatal Voyage?  Todd Atkins, Barbara McManus; Louisiana State University
What do you know about the Titanic, its passengers, and its crew? This Webquest, designed for students who have some familiarity with the use of spreadsheets for creating tables and graphs and with the use of databases for gathering information, explores
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 Topology Enters Mathematics  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay describing the development of topology as a mathematical discipline from Euler through the early 20th century, including 17 references (books/articles).
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Tour: M.C. Escher  Life and Work  National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC
A tour of four virtual rooms devoted to the art of M. C. Escher. For each graphic a larger picture with accompanying commentary is available by clicking on a small picture. The gallery has more than 400 works by Escher with many images available online.
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 Tricky Crossings  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
Have you heard the one about an itinerant entertainer traveling with a wolf, a goat, and a basket of cabbages? The showman comes to a river and finds a small boat that holds only himself and one passenger. For obvious reasons, he can't leave the wolf
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 The Trigonometric Functions  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay sketching trigonometry from its beginnings out of the early correspondence between astronomy and mathematics through the 18th century, with 17 references (books/articles).
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 Triumph of the Nerds: A History of the Computer  Robert X. Cringely; PBS Online
A companion Web site for the Public Broadcasting System television special hosted by Robert Cringely, "Triumph of the Nerds: The Rise of Accidental Empires." Learn how youthful amateurs, hippies, and selfproclaimed "nerds" accidentally changed the world.
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 The Tunnel of Samos  Project MATHEMATICS!, California Institute of Technology
A videotapeandworkbook module that explores a basic topic in high school mathematics in ways that cannot be done at the chalkboard or in a textbook. This video describes a remarkable engineering work of ancient times: excavating a onekilometer tunnel
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 Turn of the Screw  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Mathematician Chris Rorres of Drexel University in Philadelphia has taken a close look at Vitruvius's specifications for constructing an Archimedes screw... Recent years have seen a revival of interest in the Archimedes screw, particularly for its proven,
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 Tversky's Legacy Revisited  Keith Devlin (Devlin's Angle)
"Amos Tversky died earlier this year. To mathematicians, the Stanfordbased psychologist is best known for the research he did with his colleague Daniel Kahneman in the early 1970s, into the way people judge probabilities and estimate likely outcomes
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 Uncle Kenny's Mathematics Pronunciation Guide  Kent Kromarek
Billed as a "megametamathematical guide for proper American English
pronunciation of terms and names, for the diacritally challenged," this guide
includes many mathematicians and mathematical terms encountered in high school
and the first two years
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 Undusting Napier's Bones  Alexandros Diploudis; HeriotWatt University, UK
Biographical information about the Scottish mathematician John Napier, generally considered the inventor of logarithms, with a Java simulation of Napier's bones, a method for performing arithmetic operations by the manipulation of rods (called "bones"
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 The United States and the Metric System  Office of Information Services, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
A capsule history, with questions and answers, a metric chocolate chip cookie recipe, and some sample size relations (kilogram of butter to pound, etc.).
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 VEE: The Visual Elements of Euclid  Ralph Abraham
The Euclid Project is an exfoliation of the Elements of Euclid, the most important math text of all time. It will encompass several books, a CDROM, and an educational environment on the World Wide Web. Its components are: The Visual Elements of Euclid
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 Video Lectures in Mathematics  Jerry Farlow
An online pinboard gathering thousands of visual links to a broad range of math videos. Categories include applications of math; famous mathematicians; math education; math humor; math on TV, movies; STEM math initiatives; and "instructional: K12." Farlow
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