 A Common Book of Pi  Neal Carothers
A brief history of extended precision approximations of pi, including Archimedes' method for estimating pi, a proof that pi is irrational, a page full of formulas used to estimate pi over the centuries, and a brief look at a modern algorithm used to compute
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 Comparative Chronology of Money  Glyn and Roy Davies
This site chronicles monetary history from ancient times to the present day. The information presented is based on the book, "A History of Money." The timeline starts from 9000 BC and goes through 2002 AD.
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 Compasswallah
Hoping to "exhume the analog geometry of ancient discoveries for a confrontation with the digital age," Compasswallah analyzes and looks at the history of astronomy, surveying, geodesy, cartography, geomagnetism, geometry, scientific instruments, analog
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 Comptometer  Biography of a Machine  Brooke W. Boering
A site on the early development of the business calculator around the turn of the twentieth century in America. Learn about the various models of comptometers, their features, and how to identify them; Dorr Eugene Felt, their inventor, and the company
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 Computer History Museum
The Computer History Museum presents and preserves for posterity the artifacts and stories of the information age. Exhibits include histories of the Internet and of computer chess; and a working model of the Babbage Engine, first undertaken by that mathematician
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 Computers and Internet : Hardware : Calculators : Hewlett Packard  Yahoo
Yahoo's Web page of sites having to do with HP Calculators.
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 Computing Before Computers  Brian Borchers, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology
Online introductions, with PostScript or PDF downloads, of Napier's Bones and of the GenailleLucas Rulers. Pictures of statistical computing devices such as the Pickett N525ES Statrule, the cumulative binomial probability computer, the General Dynamics
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 Computing with the EDSAC  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
The celebration earlier this year of the fiftieth anniversary of the unveiling of the ENIAC, the first electronic, generalpurpose computer, has focused attention on the early history of computing. In the 1940s, there were no computer scientists, no software
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 Compvter Romanvs (Natural Math)  Edward R. Hobbs
A Roman numeral calculator. "Caesar has proclaimed Compvter Romanvs to be the official calcvlator of the Roman Empire. Yov now have at yovr disposal the latest in high technology to assist in all manner of nvmerical problems. Yes, whether yov're bvilding
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 Connect with Music  Finn, Rudolph, O'Malley, Frankel, Ordway, and Langol
Thirty free interdisciplinary lesson plans that use multimedia, music, and technology to aid in the instruction of Language Arts, Mathematics, and Science at the middle school level. Lesson plans include comprehensive scoring rubrics, links to standards
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 Continued Fractions: an Introduction  Adam Van Tuyl
A brief introduction to the field of continued fractions, including some basic theory about the subject; the history of continued fractions, tracing some of the major developments in the field in the past 2500 years; some interactive applications that
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 Contributions of 20th Century Women to Physics  Nina Byers; Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of California at Los Angeles
A searchable archive of data on 86 twentieth century women who have made original and important contributions to physics, including to the field of mathematical physics. Graphics include an annotated photo gallery and a poster montage of famous females
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 Convergence  Mathematical Association of America (MAA)
An online magazine encouraging the use of mathematics history as a learning and teaching tool. Convergence will include: math history articles that have a special pedagogical or learning appeal; sharing of classroom experiences; animated mathematical
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 Conversation about A Beautiful Mind, with Sylvia Nasar and Dave Bayer  archived by the Commonwealth Club of California
A conversation with Sylvia Nasar (biographer of John Nash) and
Dave Bayer (math consultant on A Beautiful Mind). Streaming audio
of event sponsored by MSRI that took place May 2002.
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 Cool Math Sites  Nina Heal
A links list in the following categories: puzzles, algebra, geometry, calculus, discrete math, statistics and probability, trigonometry and precalculus, books and reference, calculators and other technology, data, history, other links sites and internetbased
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 Count On  Department for Education and Employment, UK
Activities and resources  some simple and some fancy  for parents, teachers, and students. Resources offers, among other things, guides: to mathematical misconceptions; for parents helping with homework; for promoters of math fairs; and for providers
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 Cracking a Medieval Code  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
The first printed book on cryptology was written by Johannes Trithemius (14621516), an abbot in Spanheim, Germany, who was one of the leading intellectuals of his day. Bearing the title Polygraphiae libri sex ("Six Books of Polygraphy"), it was published
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 Cubic surfaces  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay on the history of surfaces of order three.
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 Daina Taimina
Hyperbolic crochet, talks, publications, and other resources from the mathematician and fiber artist. See and read more about Taimina's fiber sculptures by visiting her artwork and blog. Books by this adjunct associate professor in the Department of Mathematics
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 Datamath Calculator Museum  Joerg Woerner
Historical calculators and educational toys, primarily from Texas Instruments. History of calculators, technical details, many interesting sidelights, including downloadable emulators.
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 David Bailey's World of Tessellations  David Bailey
Some high quality tessellations of a "representational" nature, as exemplified by M.C. Escher. Includes notes on the designs themselves, the design process, the history of tessellations, and references.
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 Decimal Coins of the UK  Tony Clayton
The change to decimal coinage: Decimalisation Day. DDay was February 15th 1971. On that day the United Kingdom changed from the centuries old tradition of using 12 pence to the shilling and 20 shillings to the pound to a new decimal 100 new
pence to
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 Decimals and Logarithms in the Works? And a Dyer's Hand too?  Penn Leary
Shakespeare, Decimals and Logarithms: What did Shakespeare know about mathematics, particularly logarithms and the decimal system? And when did he know it? An article partly from Leary's book, The Second Cryptographic Shakespeare.
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 Defending the Roman Empire  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Questions of military strategy can be handled mathematically. Charles S. ReVelle of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore and Kenneth E. Rosing, recently retired from Erasmus University Rotterdam, describe their approach in the AugustSeptember American
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 The Development of Group Theory  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay describing the rise and progress of group theory from the 18th through the 19th centuries, with references (books/articles).
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 De Viribus Quantitatis  The University of Bologna
Luca Pacioli, a Franciscan monk, mathematics tutor, and colleague of Leonardo Da Vinci, wrote this foundational text of modern magic and numerical puzzles between 1496 and 1508. De Viribus Quantitatis (On the Powers of Numbers) contains the first ever
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 A Dictionary of Units  Cleave Books
A summary of units of measurement worldwide (current units and a few of historical interest); conversion factors to the SI (Systeme International); an outline of the SI; its basic defining standards and some of its derived units; all the SI prefixes
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 A Different Kind of Multiplication  David P. Stern
Roman numerals were an improvement on older notation and useful for the abacus, but seemingly impractical for multiplication. Yet a multiplication method was developed, and is described here. The Romans did not understand why it worked, but we now realize
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 The Digit Connection  Lizzie
A tribute to the number pi through music, poetry, and fiction. (Meet Sailor Pi!) Also includes a brief history of pi with some ways to calculate it, a quote collection, and ways to celebrate the number  even if it's not Pi Day.
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 Discover Magazine  The Walt Disney Company
The monthly magazine of science and technology. Covers space, biology, health, medicine, AIDS, computers, new technology, the environment, astronomy, ancient life, archeology, evolution, physics, mathematics, ecology, and more. Available online: selected
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 Discussions  Math Forum
The Math Forum's discussions include mathematics and math educationrelated newsgroups, mailing lists, and Webbased discussions. Read recent and older messages, find out how to subscribe to a mailing list that interests you, read an MAA Online article
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 Dissections: Plane & Fancy  Greg Frederickson, Cambridge University Press
A book that explores an area of mathematical recreations, called geometric dissections, or the cutting of one or more figures into pieces that can be rearranged to form other figures. With an emphasis on using as few pieces as possible, these geometrical
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 Division with Roman Numerals  Jim Loy
Roman numeral division can be very easy or fairly difficult, depending on the two numbers. An example of division by pieces, and a general method using repeated subtraction.
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 DIY Calculator  Clive (Max) Maxfield and Alvin Brown
Order the book How Computers Do Math, or preview its table of contents. The book's interactive laboratories guide you in the creation of a simple calculator program to run on your DIY Calculator; its accompanying CDROM contains a virtual "DoitYourself
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 DNA, Computers, and Killer Apps  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
When computer scientists look at DNA, they see information storage and processing. They view the four bases of DNA as something akin to the zeros and ones of the binary code by which computers store and process information. They look for algorithms, theorems,
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 Donald Coxeter, Mathematician and Geometer  Great Canadian Scientists (GCS)
Harold Scott MacDonald Coxeter, Professor Emeritus, Math Dept., Univ. of Toronto, is best known for his work in hyperdimensional geometries and regular polytopes  geometric shapes that extend into the 4th dimension and beyond. In 1926 he discovered a
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 Draft version of MSC2000  European Mathematical Society (EMS)
The proposed revision of the 1991 Mathematics Subject Classification (MSC), the classification used by the two reviewing journals Mathematical Reviews (MR) and Zentralblatt für Mathematik (Zbl) since the beginning of 1991. MSC2000 is the result of
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 Early Calculators  David G. Hicks
Some history on slide rules and their types and makers, as well as basic instructions on their use. Also Planimeters, Calculating Machines (adding machines, four function mechanical calculators, how calculating machiens worked), and Early Electronic Models.
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 Early History of Mathematics  Project MATHEMATICS!, California Institute of Technology
A 30minute videotape that uses motion, color, music, and images of original documents to outline some of the important developments in the early history of mathematics, from Babylonian calendars on clay tablets produced 5000 years ago, to landmark events
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 Earth/matriX: Science in Ancient Artwork & cience Today  Charles William Johnson GonzálezCasanova
Analyses of ancient reckoning, a summation of Fermat's Last Theorem through simple addition and lastdigit patterns, the AntiRadian, ancient Pi, an
alternative proof of the Pythagorean Theorem to the power of three, the
ancient mediatio/duplatio
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 Educational Interests  Keith Lynn
See, in particular, Lynn's Math Modeling Project, which features Java applets to produce quadratic and sine examples; and Dynamics Project, on the Julia and Mandelbrot sets.
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 Education Index  Frank Quinn, Department of Mathematics, Virginia Tech
Download Quinn's articles: "Contemporary Proofs for Mathematics Education," "A ScienceofLearning approach to Mathematics Education," "A Revolution in Mathematics? What really happened a century ago, and why it matters today," and "What should students
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 Education: Mathematics  The Mining Company
Web resource lists of sites: see sciences  physical/computer and, beneath, mathematics by Kristin Matherly, with links to sites "in the spotlight" and topics: Algebra; Applied Math; Books; Business Math; Careers; Calculus; Communities; Competitions;
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 Egyptian Mathematics  Mark Millmore
A clearlywritten description of the Egyptian numerical system, with some practice problems from John Heaton and Pam B. Newberry to test your understanding. Java calculator adds, subtracts, multiplies, and divides in Egyptian numerals.
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 Egyptian Number Translation  Poseidon Software and Invention
A calculator that takes a decimal number and translates it into Egyptian hieroglyphs.
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 Egyptian numerals  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay on the Egyptians' base 10 system of hieroglyphs for numerals, with separate symbols for one unit, one ten, one hundred, one thousand, one ten thousand, one hundred thousand, and one million. With references and other related web sites.
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 Einstein Archives Online  The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Freely view thousands of Einstein's writings, digitized from the manuscripts held by the Albert Einstein Archives at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem: scientific correspondence, travel diaries, family letters, and more. The site also enables access
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 Elementary Math Enrichment  Beth Schaubroeck
Free mathematics enrichment materials for accelerated 4th and 5th graders. The 70 lessons, grouped into 12 different units, include solutions and teacher guides: Ancient Mathematics (Mayan math, in base 20; and Egyptian math, which lacks zero), Baseball
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 Elliptic Functions and Integrals  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay covering 1655 through 1694, with accompanying description of the subject and 8 references (books/ articles).
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 Elsevier Historical Books  Elsevier BV
This video tour of the Elsevier Heritage Collection illuminates the scholarly life of the 17th century, revealing littleknown facts about the House of Elzevier, from which the modern Dutch publisher takes its name. Rare books mentioned include Galileo
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