 Powersums, Fermat, Waring; Quotes, History...  Nico F. Benschop
Links to papers on the ideas of Fermat, Waring, Goldbach, Cantor, Hensel, HasseMinkowski, and Selmer, and the following mathematical concepts: semigroups, sequential logic synthesis, cubic roots, and state machines and their sequential closure. With
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 Prime Numbers  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay describing the work on primes from Pythagoras through Gauss, Legendre, Riemann, and Valee Poussin, with additional sections on still unsolved problems, the latest prime records, and other web sites, as well as 21 references (books/articles).
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 The Prime Pages  Chris Caldwell; Dept. of Mathematics & Computer Science, Univ. of Tennessee at Martin
An index of information on prime numbers. Definition; Articles and information on primes, including how to find and prove primality, and a wealth of historical information. Lists of primes and prime factorizations, including the first x primes and the
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 Prime Theorem of the Century  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
"Prime numbers have always fascinated mathematicians," Underwood Dudley of DePauw University in Indiana wrote in a 1978 textbook. "They appear among the integers seemingly at random, and yet not quite: There seems to be some order or pattern, just a little
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 Principia Mathematica  A.D.Irvine; Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
The philosophy encyclopedia's entry on Principia Mathematica, the landmark work on mathematical logic and the foundations of mathematics written by Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell. Next to Aristotle's Organon, it is the most influential book
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 Profile (John H. Conway): Not Just Fun and Games  Mark Alpert, Scientific American
A short biography of the Englishborn Princeton University mathematician and a discussion of some of his major mathematical contributions. ...over the past three decades Conway has made some of his greatest contributions to mathematical theory by analyzing
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 A Progression of Primes  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Searches for patterns among prime numbers  whole numbers exactly divisible only by themselves and one  have long served as stiff tests of the ingenuity and perseverance of mathematicians. In recent years, the use of computers has brought a steady stream
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 Projet Folium
Folium est un ensemble organisé d'articles sur les mathématiques, du cours aux biographies de mathématiciens célèbres, en passant par les exos les plus classiques et les théorèmes les plus puissants. Articles
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 Pronunciation Guide to Mathematicians  Gary S. Stoudt, Mathematics Dept., Indiana Univ. of Pennsylvania
Pronunciations of the names of mathematicians frequently encountered by undergraduate students, with links to information about them in the MacTutor History of Mathematics archives. Note on Pronunciation: Not all of the phonetic pronunciation symbols
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 Prophet of Chaos  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
"'...it may happen that small differences in the initial conditions produce very great ones in the final phenomena. A small error in the former will produce an enormous error in the latter. Prediction becomes impossible, and we have the fortuitous phenomenon.'
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 Ptolemy's Ptools  ThinkQuest 1998
Easytounderstand math projects for students to do by themselves or with adult direction. Triangle investigations of the perspectives of the 3D video games Star Fleet Academy, Quake II, and Sub Culture Submarine Adventure. "Quadrant projects" involve
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 Pythagoras: Music and Space  J. BoydBrent
A brief introduction to Pythagoras' observations on the relation between music and number. Graphics show music intervals expressed as mathematical ratios. Pythagoras observed that when the blacksmith struck his anvil, different notes were produced according
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 Pythagoras Plays Ball  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
Spring, baseball, statistics, math. In many ways, baseball is a numbers game: Strikeouts, home runs, batting averages, innings pitched, complete games, earned run averages, number of players left on base in scoring position in the bottom of the ninth
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 Pythagoras' Theorem in Babylonian Mathematics  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay examining four Babylonian tablets that all have some connection with the Pythagorean theorem. With references and other related web sites.
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 The Pythagorean Theorem and the Maya Long Count  Charles Wm. Johnson; Science in Ancient Artwork 
Various essays dealing with the possible extension of the Pythagorean Theorem to the third power in relation to the mathematical and geometrical appearance of the Maya long count fractals within progressive series of right triangles. It would appear that
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 Pythagorean Theorem  Greg Huberty, Univ. of Georgia
President James Garfield is credited with a proof of the Pythagorean theorem unlike other proofs in that it does not use squares of the sides; rather, it uses two triangles of sides a, b, and c along with a triangle with legs of c to create a trapezoid.
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 Quadralay's Cryptography Archive  Quadralay Corporation
Encryption standards, frequently asked questions (FAQs), and newsgroups. Clipper, Digital Telephony, History of Cryptology, Internet Security, Kerberos, PGP, RIPEM, and a glossary.
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 Quadratic, Cubic, and Quartic Equations  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked article describing the progress made on these equations from the Babylonians through Leibniz in 1673, with another Web site and 12 references.
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 The Quantum Age Begins  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay describing the beginnings of quantum theory, from Kirchoff's blackbody radiation work in 1859 to Bohr, Einstein, and von Neumann in the 1930's, with 33 references (books/articles).
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 Qu'estce qu'un nombre? Edoc Mathématiques  Service du Film de Recherche Scientifique (SFRS)
Site basé sur le livre de S. Houzel, qui retrace l'histoire du nombre depuis l'Antiquité. In French. Site based on the book by S. Houzel, retracing the history numbers.
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 QuizStar  Advanced Learning Technologies, Center for Research on Learning at The University of Kansas
Create online quizzes and organize the results. Features include the ability to attach multimedia files to questions, to make quizzes in multiple languages, and more.
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 The R. Buckminster Fuller FAQ  Christopher J. Fearnley
The Frequently Asked Questions and Answers (FAQ) Resource on R. Buckminster
Fuller, based primarily on the history of the discussions, interests, and needs of the readers of the BITNET mailing list Geodesic and its USENET gateway bit.listserv.geodesic.
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 R. Buckminster Fuller on PBS  Thirteen / WNET
A biography of R. Buckminster Fuller, with explanations and illustrations of inventions such as the Dymaxion house, Dymaxion car, Dymaxion bathroom, and geodesic dome. Explore Fuller's Dymaxion map, John Kuhtik's Fly's Eye Dome, the World Game, and the
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 Rebecca Newburn
Links to this California teacher's Math 7 blog, and to her professional blog, a "fusion of best teaching practices, integrating technology and increasing compassion in and outside of the classroom." See also Newburn's select compilation of explanations,
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 Recommended Mathematics Literature  International Mathematics Olympiad (IMO)
A page of readings recommended by the International Mathematics Olympiad in association with Amazon.com Books. Major sections include: Problem Solving; Collections of Mathematical (Competition) Problems; Anthologies and Surveys; Number Theory; Analysis;
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 Recursos de Matemáticas en Internet  Flavio P.
Información buscable, dividida en categorías que contienen enlaces comentados: altas, actividades, actualización, apuntes, buscadores, congresos, debate, enlaces, Escher, fractales, historia, lista general, Olimpiadas, publicaciones,
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 Resource Room (Math Central)  University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada
French version: Centre de ressources. A service of Math Central that allows mathematics educators to share resources having to do with math teaching. Submissions are stored in a database that can be browsed by educational level and curriculum strand,
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 The Return of Odysseus and the Elements of Euclid  Andrew Wiesner; Classics Dept., Colorado College
The author's 1994 honors thesis, which attempts to shed new light on the origins of Greek mathematics.
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 Return of the Mathematical Tourist  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
In the newly published, updated edition of The Mathematical Tourist, Peterson writes, "...computers have become commonplace tools used by nearly all mathematicians, not only to communicate with each other but also to explore mathematical questions...
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 The Rise of Calculus  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay describing the history of Calculus from the Greeks through Newton and Leibniz, with 28 references (books/articles).
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 Risorse Internet per la storia della matematica  Claudia Lamberti
Internet resources for mathematics, science, and engineering history selected from the University of Pisa Libraries.
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 Rivendell Educational Archive  Leigh Denault
An educational archive of materials in botany, history, math, science, drama, literature, philosophy, and art. Math resources include mathematician biographies, a fractal image gallery, and a bibliography.
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 A Romance With Numbers  K. Venkatasubramanian
Biographical information and thoughts about Srinivasa Ramanujan, from The Hindu, December 24, 1993.
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 Roman Numeral Date Conversion Guide  Christopher Handy
A guide to deciphering Roman numeral year dates as commonly found in both modern and early printed books, including a Java applet that accepts Roman numeral input in the range 14,999 and converts it to Arabic form. The page explains the basic principles
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 Roman Numerals and Dates  Paul Lewis
An illustrated introduction to Roman numerals, including Roman dates and calendar conversion, history and uses, a page on The Great 1999 Question, and a quiz. Three conversion tables are provided: Numerical 11449; Numerical 14502100; and Alphabetical
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 Roman numerals and decimals (Classics log)  John Durham
A letter to a Classics mailing list about the origin of and ease of calculation with Roman numerals.
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 Roman Numerals  Math Forum, Ask Dr. Math Common Question
A selection of answers to questions about Roman numerals, such as how they represented decimals and fractions; with memory aids for remembering what letter represents what value.
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 Roman Numerals  Math Forum, Ask Dr. Math FAQ
Basics: How do I read and write Roman numerals? What are the rules for subtracting letters? How do I write large numbers? Web resources: introductions, charts, calculators, and converters. Calculations: Did the Romans use fractions?
How can I use Roman
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 The Roman Press, Inc.  Steven Roman
Home page of a California mathematics professor, including research articles, books and textbooks, and software.
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 The Roots of the Equation  James Cleveland
Blog by a high school algebra teacher in New York City "trying to figure out how it all fits together ... [and] creating interdisciplinary problems, projects, and thinking." A Math for America (MfA) fellow, Cleveland has blogged since June, 2011, with
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 SACNAS Biography Project  Society for the Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science
Highlights of the life stories and professional contributions of Native American, Chicano and Latino scientists, mathematicians, and engineers. The Project was created so that K12 students could see themselves reflected in the stories of the lives that
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 Sampling and the Census  Ivars Peterson  Science News Online
Despite strong support from statisticians, the Census Bureau's plan to increase the use of sampling in the next census has met resistance in Congress.
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 Sangaku  Hiroshi Kotera
Click on the map of Japan to see photographs of sangaku  Euclidean geometry theorems rendered as colored drawings on wooden tablets, and hung in shrines or temples  dating to the Edo period (16031867). Also, learn how to use counting rods, called
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 Sangaku: Reflections on the Phenomenon  Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny
A collection of sangaku problems with Java simulations and complete solutions, preceded by an introductory article that promotes an unorthodox view point on the wonderful phenomenon of Temple Geometry.
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 The Saqquara Ostrakon  A. D. Conner
An article with background history and a new analysis: A unique 3rd Dynasty (~2600 B.C.) Egyptian artefact thought to be an architect's drawing has heen reevaluated by the author and the geometry reveals surprising results.
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 ScienceMakers Video Archive  The HistoryMakers®
Thousands of stories from life oral history interviews of dozens of contemporary African Americans at the forefront of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM): Shirley Ann Jackson, chairman of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and president
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 Science, Math, and Technology Tutorial (SMATT)  ThinkQuest 1996
Topics: Math History (biography of Descartes); Logic (how to construct logical arguments and put them into proofs); Math Tutorial (Basic Algebra with problems and solutions); Environmental Science (ozone in the atmosphere); Astronomy (implications of
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 Science News for Kids  Science Service
Science articles written for kids, along with activities for kids to try on their own and ways for kids to comment, ask questions, or submit their own work through the site. Also includes: brain teasers and Javabased games; science fiction discussions
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 Scientist Cards  All Too Flat
Trading cards, humorously based on Topps and Fleer baseball cards, list the writing preference, dominant cortex, university, and key contributions of Richard Feynman, James Clerk Maxwell, Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein, Claude Shannon, Leonhard Euler,
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 SciPhilately: A Selective History of Science on Stamps  Maiken Naylor; Science and Engineering Library, Univ. at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY
Stamps from the personal collection of the author, Maiken Naylor, in the following categories: Astronomy and Cosmology; Instruments and Measurements; Mathematics and Computation; Chemistry; Evolution and the Fossil Record; Biology; Heredity and the Genetic
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