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  1. Biographies Index - MacTutor Math History Archives
    An index of pages on famous mathematicians throughout history, arranged alphabetically or chronologically and searchable by keyword. There is also an index of female mathematicians, and a full alphabetical index. more>>

  2. Biographies of Women Mathematicians - Agnes Scott College
    Biographies in alphabetical and chronological order, and related resources on the Web. An ongoing project by students in math classes at Agnes Scott College in Atlanta, Georgia, to illustrate the numerous contributions by women to the field of mathematics. Included are the first Ph.D's in mathematics awarded to women (before 1930); and prizes, awards, and honors for women mathematicians. more>>

  3. Earliest Known Uses of Some of the Words of Mathematics - Jeff Miller, Gulf High School, New Port Richey, FL
    An extensive list, with examples, sources, and contributors. These pages attempt to show the first uses of various words used in mathematics. Research is ongoing, and the uses cited should not be assumed to be the first uses that occurred unless it is stated that the term was introduced or coined by the mathematician named. more>>

  4. Earliest Uses of Various Mathematical Symbols - Jeff Miller, Gulf High School, New Port Richey, FL
    An attempt to identify the individuals who introduced various common mathematical symbols, along with the dates and name of the document in which the symbol first appeared: symbols of operation; grouping symbols; symbols of relation; fractions and decimals; constants; variables; functions; symbols used in geometry, trigonometry, calculus; set notation and logic; number theory; written sources for the pages; and contributors. more>>

  5. Euclid's Elements - David Joyce; Dept. of Mathematics & Computer Science, Clark University
    A version of Euclid's Elements created by David Joyce to rekindle an interest in the Elements and to show how java applets can be used to illustrate geometry and to bring the Elements alive. The text of all 13 Books is complete. Joyce writes: "...deductive logic is learned almost exclusively in geometry... Modern mathematics and science use deductive logic as a primary tool of understanding. In mathematics, especially, nothing is considered to be known until it is proved." more>>

  6. Famous Problems in the History of Mathematics - Isaac Reed
    History of mathematics presented through some famous problems, with exercises and solutions. The problems include The Bridges of Königsburg; The Value of Pi; Puzzling Primes; Famous Paradoxes; The Problem of Points; A Proof of the Pythagorean Theorem; and A Proof that e is Irrational. Book reviews and references are also included. more>>

  7. The Galileo Project - Rice University
    On the life and work of Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) and the science of his time. The project has a searchable database and includes an online tour of Galileo's Villa; reference materials; the Catalog of the Scientific Community of the 16th and 17th Centuries; a glossary and bibliography; maps of Galileo's world; a timeline of Galileo's life and era; and activities for students. more>>

  8. A History of Mathematical Notations - Florian Cajori
    "In this history it has been an aim to give not only the first appearance of a symbol and its origin, but also to indicate the competition encountered and the spread of the symbol among writers in different countries...." The first volume of Cajori's authoritative 1928 text consists of four chapters: "Numerical Symbols and Combinations of Symbols"; "Symbols in Arithmetic and Algebra"; "Topological Survey of the Use of Notations"; and "Symbols in Geometry." Illustrations include Babylonian tablets; Hieroglyphic, Heratic, and Coptic numerals; a computing table of Salamis; degenerate forms of Roman Numerals; Quipu from ancient chancay in Peru; Dresden Codex of Maya; and many more from the Greek, Hindu, Arabic, Byzantine, and Chinese civilizations. more>>

  9. History of Mathematics - David Joyce; Dept. of Mathematics & Computer Science, Clark University
    History sources, books and articles online. Sources by region (Babylonia, Egypt, China, Greece, India, Arab sphere, Japan, and Europe); Books and other nonweb resources (organizations, bibliography of source books, journals, bibliographies and catalogues, texts on the history of mathematics); Chronological list of mathematicians by century/decade; Timelines; Index of files. more>>

  10. History of Mathematics - David R. Wilkins, Trinity College, Dublin
    A directory of Web sites and pages around the world relating to the history of mathematics. Also biographies of some seventeenth and eighteenth century mathematicians, taken from A short account of the history of mathematics (4th edition, 1908) by W. W. Rouse Ball, and Mathematical papers and other material relating to certain mathematicians and philosophers, including Hamilton, Berkeley, Boole, Cantor and Newton. more>>

  11. History of Mathematics (Mathematics Archives) - University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)
    An alphabetical list of some of the best sites for math history on the Web, part of the Math Archives' collections of Math Topics. Icons provide more information about level, interactivity of site, Java, and presence of images or links. more>>

  12. History of Mathematics (MathPages) - Kevin Brown
    About 40 "informal notes" by Kevin Brown on math history: Zeno and the paradox of motion, Archimedes and the square root of 3, Mayan numeration, Hipparchus on compound statements, Planck's analysis of Kaufmann's experiment, the ten means of Ancient Greece, Kepler, Napier, and the Third Law, and many more. more>>

  13. Links to Web Sites on the History of Mathematics - British Society for the History of Mathematics (BSHM)
    A list of Web sites containing material relevant to the study of the history of mathematics: General sites; Web resources; Biographies; Regional mathematics; Museums with mathematics exhibits; Special exhibits; Books on-line; Student presentations; Miscellaneous; Bibliography; Societies; and Journals. more>>

  14. MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive - University of St. Andrews, Scotland
    The premier site on the Web for math history. Major features include biography, history topics, and famous curves indexes; mathematicians of the day, and a site search engine. Also, birthplace maps; anniversaries for the year; chronologies; search suggestions; societies, medals and honours; an index of female mathematicians; a general bibliography; Fields Medal and Nobel Prize winners; and other Web history sources. Biographies are cross-referenced to articles on the development of mathematical ideas and MacTutor also cross-references stacks in Calculus, Geometry, Algebra (in particular Group Theory), Graph Theory, Number Theory, History of Mathematics, Statistics, Matrices, and Complex Analysis. By John J. O'Connor and Edmund F. Robertson. more>>

  15. Mathematical Constants - Steven Finch, Clay Mathematics Institute Book Fellow
    "All numbers are not created equal; that certain constants appear at all and then echo throughout mathematics, in seemingly independent ways, is a source of fascination." Indulge your fascination, or discover a new one in Finch's book. This site provides errata and addenda to the book, as well sample essays from the book about integer compositions, optimal stopping and Reuleaux triangles. Here also are recent supplementary materials, organized by topic, some illustrated with Mathcad files (viewable with a free read-only version, linked from the site). more>>

  16. Mathematical Quotations Server - Furman University
    A searchable collection of mathematical quotations culled from many sources. Pages are listed alphabetically by author's last name. A random quotation is generated regularly or you may use the Random Quotation Generator to find your own. more>>

  17. Mathematicians of the African Diaspora - Scott Williams
    Web pages created to exhibit the accomplishments of the peoples of Africa and the African Diaspora within the Mathematical Sciences. Included are areas on the ancients in Africa, modern historical significance, the greatest Black mathematicians, Black research mathematicians, profiles of Black mathematicians, outside North America, special articles such as mathematicians of the last two centuries, sources/references, scholarships and fellowships, and related links. more>>

  18. Mayan Math - Karen M. Strom
    The Mayans devised a counting system that was able to represent very large numbers by using only 3 symbols, a dot, a bar, and a symbol for zero, or completion, usually a shell. Charts here show the number cycle, as well as principles of arithmetic. more>>

  19. The Princeton Mathematics Community in the 1930s: An Oral History Project - Charles C. Gillispie, Albert W. Tucker, and William Aspray
    Transcripts, with abstracts, of interviews with mathematics faculty and students at Princeton University during the 1930s, recounting that decade when Kurt Gödel studied spatially homogeneous cosmological models; Albert Einstein worked on a unified field theory; John von Neumann accepted his one and only doctoral student; Richard Feynman, Arthur Stone, Bryant Tuckerman, and John Tukey created flexagons together -- all in the University's recently constructed Fine Hall. more>>

  All Sites - 637 items found, showing 1 to 50

  1. 1991 Mathematics Subject Classification (MSC) - Chris Eilbeck; Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh
    A hypertext version of the 1991 MSC. The main purpose of the classification is to help readers to find the items of present or potential interest to them as readily as possible - in MR, in Zbl, or anywhere else where this classification system is used. ...more>>

  2. 4000 Years of Women in Science - University of Alabama
    Over 125 women scientists from our scientific and technical past, with biographies, references, and photographs. For Mathematicians, see Listing by Discipline. ...more>>

  3. The Abacus: The Art of Calculating with Beads - Luis Fernandes
    A tutorial on using the abacus - a calculator whose earliest known use is circa 500 B.C. by the Chinese civilization. Addition, subtraction, division and multiplication can be performed on a standard abacus. Beginning in about 1600 A.D., use and evolution ...more>>

  4. The abstract group concept - MacTutor Math History Archives
    Linked essay offering an introduction to the theory of finite groups (the title of the famous text written by Walter Ledermann), based on a lecture given by Peter Neumann at a conference at the University of Sussex. With references and other related web ...more>>

  5. Abstract Linear Spaces - MacTutor Math History Archives
    Linked essay covering the beginning of the vector concept and the move away from coordinate methods through the beginning of the 20th century with Peano, Hilbert, Schmidt and Banach, with 13 references (books/articles). ...more>>

  6. ACMEScience - Samuel Hansen
    Light-hearted mathematical podcast series Combinations and Permutations, Strongly Connected Components, and more. ...more>>

  7. The Ada Project (TAP) - Carol Frieze and Women@SCS; Carnegie Mellon University
    Tapping Internet Resources for Women in Computer Science, this site serves as a clearinghouse for information and resources relating to women in computing: conferences, projects, discussion groups and organizations, fellowships and grants, notable women ...more>>

  8. Advanced Topics in Mathematics - Anthony Beckwith
    Page for a high school course exploring fractals, the Global Positioning System, number theory, topology, chaos theory, and the history of mathematics. Syllabus and brief description of each topic. ...more>>

  9. A. Einstein: Image and Impact - American Institute of Physics
    All about Albert Einstein. Essays, photographs, and stories; hear Einstein explain his famous equation E=mc^2. Contents: Formative Years; The Great Works; E=mc2; World Fame; Public Concerns; Quantum and Cosmos; The Nuclear Age; Science and Philosophy; ...more>>

  10. aeyoung.mathematician - Andrew E. Young
    Papers from a Mathematics graduate from The University Of Sussex at Brighton: Number Theory: GCD and Prime Factorisation; Molien's Theorem, Invariant Theory and Gregor Kemper; A History of Equality. ...more>>

  11. Africa - Mathematics and the Liberal Arts - Todd Hammond
    Notes on published articles: a resource for student research projects and for teachers interested in using the history of mathematics in their courses. Many pages focus on ethnomathematics and on the connections between mathematics and other disciplines. ...more>>

  12. AIMS Education Foundation
    "Activities Integrating Mathematics and Science." A non-profit, independent organization established to develop integrated math/science materials for grades K-9. See, in particular, the AIMS Puzzle corner (a new puzzle each month), the AIMS@Kids Interactive ...more>>

  13. Alan Turing Centennial - The Trustees of Princeton University
    Held May 10-12, 2012, the Princeton Turing Centennial Celebration honored Turing's time at Princeton, where he earned a Ph.D. in 1938. This event also celebrated the pivotal role that Turing's thesis played in the evolution of computer science, and the ...more>>

  14. The Alan Turing Home Page - Andrew Hodges
    A gateway and guide to a large site dedicated to Alan Turing (1912-1954); 25 pages of biographical information on this computer scientist, mathematician, and cryptographer, from the author of Alan Turing: the Enigma. ...more>>

  15. Albert Einstein Online - S. Morgan Friedman
    Information about Einstein, pictures, organizations that bear his name. Biographies, Hong Kong Baptist Univ. and MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive; Einstein's History; Obituary; Information, David Joyce; Einstein's interview with the FBI; Why Socialism? ...more>>

  16. Algebra Help Tutorials
    HelpAlgebra.com provides free algebra tutorials, glossaries, calculators, software reviews, and general algebra help. ...more>>

  17. Algebra (MathPages) - Kevin Brown
    More than 50 "informal notes" by Kevin Brown on algebra. Kummer's Objection; irreducibility criteria, multiple linear regression, string algebra, characteristic polynomial of a matrix, iterated means, sums of powers, polynomials from Pascal's Triangle, ...more>>

  18. allmath.com - Arbor Media, Inc.
    Math tools (flash cards, a metric converter); games (magic square), and reference pages: biographies, a glossary, the multiplication table, metric conversion factors, and an ask an expert service. ...more>>

  19. Amazeing Art - Christopher Berg
    Free printable mazes of buildings, ships, ancient monuments, and more. The site features historical essays describing some of the mazes of ancient times, together with maze terminology and tips on drawing mazes. There are also maze products for purchase, ...more>>

  20. American Institute of Mathematics
    The American Institute of Mathematics (AIM) "expands the frontiers of mathematical knowledge through focused research projects, sponsored conferences, and the development of an on-line mathematics library." See, in particular, the nonprofit organization's ...more>>

  21. The Americas - Mathematics and the Liberal Arts - Todd Hammond
    Notes on published articles: a resource for student research projects and for teachers interested in using the history of mathematics in their courses. Many pages focus on ethnomathematics and on the connections between mathematics and other disciplines. ...more>>

  22. The Analyst - George Berkeley
    A text based on the 1898 edition of the works of George Berkeley, edited by George Sampson, incorporating a small number of changes. Many mathematicians published replies to Berkeley's attack on contemporary mathematical practice in The Analyst. Included ...more>>

  23. The Analytical Engine - John Walker
    The mathematician Charles Babbage designed an Analytical Engine, a mechanical precursor to the computer, in the late 1800s. Read historical documents related to the Engine, including Blaise Pascal's account of his mechanical adding machine (in French), ...more>>

  24. Ancient India's Contribution to Mathematics - Sudheer Birodkar
    Algebra and Geometry in Ancient India, where mathematics had its roots in Vedic literature, nearly 4000 years old. Between 1000 B.C. and 1000 A.D. various treatises on mathematics were authored by Indian mathematicians in which were set forth for the ...more>>

  25. Ancient Mathematics - SunSITE's Vatican Exhibit; Library of Congress
    Math history: math and astronomy in the ancient world. Greek Mathematics, Ptolemy's Geography, Greek Astronomy. Scholarship supported science in this world where faith and science were not yet seen as two irreconcilable cultures. Euclid (Elements, Optics); ...more>>

  26. Ancient Writings Revealed! - The Exploratorium
    Ancient ideas met modern science at the Exploratorium, San Francisco, CA, on August 4, 2006. Using state-of-the-art scientific tools, once-hidden writings by the ancient Greek mathematician Archimedes were uncovered, revealing evidence of science not ...more>>

  27. Andrei Nikolaevich Kolmogorov - Alexander Adamchuk
    Curriculum vitae, biography, conference announcement, memorial readings, and links about Andrei Nikolaevich Kolmogorov. ...more>>

  28. Appealing Numbers - Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
    A short history of amicable numbers - pairs in which each number is the sum of the proper divisors of the other. The smallest such pair is 220 and 284. The number 220 is evenly divisible by 1, 2, 4, 5, 10, 11, 20, 22, 44, 55, and 110, which add up to ...more>>

  29. Aquí Matemàtiques (Catalán) - Carlos Romero
    Web and interactive materials in Catalán designed to facilitate and improve teacher training in mathematics. Goals: to provide curricular incentives for integrating technology into primary and secondary level teaching; facilitate access to curricula; ...more>>

  30. Arabic Mathematics - David Joyce; Dept. of Mathematics & Computer Science, Clark University
    Resources on the history of Arabic mathematics, with a map, a list of mathematicians, sources, and a Bibliography. ...more>>

  31. Arabic mathematics: forgotten brilliance? - MacTutor Math History Archives
    Linked essay exploring the debt we owe to Arabic/Islamic mathematics. In many respects the mathematics studied today is far closer in style to that of the Arabic/Islamic contribution than to that of the Greeks. Certainly many of the ideas previously thought ...more>>

  32. Arabic Numerals (Islam and Islamic History) - Nawwab, Speers, Hoye; Arabian American Oil Co.
    The system of numeration employed throughout the greater part of the world today was probably developed in India, but because it was the Arabs who transmitted it to the West, the numerals it uses have come to be called Arabic. This page shows the early ...more>>

  33. The Arabic numeral system - MacTutor Math History Archives
    Linked essay exploring the transmission of Indian numerals first to the Arabic/Islamic peoples and from them to Europe. The eastern and western parts of the Arabic world (North Africa and Spain) both saw separate developments of Indian numerals with relatively ...more>>

  34. arbitrarilyclose - Annie Perkins
    Blog by a secondary math teacher in the Minneapolis Public Schools for whom the phrase arbitrarily close "encapsulates the things I can control, the things I cannot, the impossibility of this craft [of teaching], and the beauty of the exploration despite ...more>>

  35. Archimedes' Book of Lemmas - Alexander Bogomolny
    Archemedes' Book of Lemmas included fifteen propositions. They are listed here, each with its own Java illustration and complete proof. ...more>>

  36. Archimedes - Chris Rorres, Drexel University
    A collection of information on Archimedes' life and achievements, complete with historical quotes, illustrations, and animations. The site covers Archimedes' inventions and accomplishments: Archimedes' Claw, Burning Mirrors, the Golden Crown, the Archimedes ...more>>

  37. Archimedes Palimpsest - The Walters Art Gallery
    An introduction to the people, places, times, and historical significance of the Archimedes Palimpsest, a compendium of mathematical treatises by Archimedes of Syracuse. The manuscript itself includes the only copy of the treatise Method of Mechanical ...more>>

  38. Archimedes' Square (Stomachion) - Kadon Enterprises, Inc.
    Square puzzle dissected into 14 tiles, described in Archimedes' palimpsest. Oldest documented puzzle in history, from ca. 250 B.C. Now known to have 536 distinct solutions. ...more>>

  39. Archives Henri Poincaré - Pierre-Edouard Bour and Manuel Rebuschi
    La laboratoire de Philosophie et d'Histoire des Sciences (LPHS) réunit des scientifiques intéressés à l'histoire et à l'épistémologie de leur disciplines et des philosophes et historiens prêts à ...more>>

  40. Archives of American Mathematics - The Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, The University of Texas at Austin
    The only archival repository in the United States solely dedicated to collecting, preserving, and providing access to the records of American mathematicians and mathematical organizations for use by historians, mathematicians, educators, and others interested ...more>>

  41. Arithmetic (Funk & Wagnalls Multimedia Encyclopedia) - Lycos Zone: Mathematics
    A short article on arithmetic: fundamental definitions and laws; theory of divisors; fractions; and decimals. ...more>>

  42. Arithmetic is Algebra Backwards - John Hays
    A series of essays, including: Deriving integers as vectors of Naturals; rationals, vectors of integers; reals as infinite vectors of rationals by adjoining transfinite operation of LIMIT to arithmetic finite operations; complex numbers as vector of reals ...more>>

  43. The Art of Renaissance Science: Galileo and Perspective - Joseph W. Dauben, McMurry University
    A hypermedia essay devoted to the genius of Galileo and the relation between his role in the Scientific Revolution and the equally remarkable achievements of Renaissance artists reflected, in part, in the discovery and application of mathematical perpective. ...more>>

  44. arXiv.org e-Print archive - Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)
    A major site for mathematics preprints that has incorporated many formerly independent specialist archives including alg-geom, funct-an, dg-ga, q-alg, auto-fms, cd-hg, MAGNUS, Several Complex Variables, Logic E-prints, Commutative Algebra, Dynamical Systems, ...more>>

  45. Astronomiae Historia / History of Astronomy - International Astronomical Union, Astronomische Gesellschaft
    General history of astronomy pages on the Web: a catalog of archives and libraries, museums, memorials, historical places and exhibits, research institutes and departments, publications, and other sources of information. Visitors can read five different ...more>>

  46. Australian Mathematics Trust
    A national non-profit organisation that conducts mathematics competitions and mathematics enrichment activities. Two subtrusts, each with equal status under the Trust Deed and represention on the Board: Australian Mathematics Foundation (conducts one ...more>>

  47. The Aztec Calendar: Math, Geometry, and Design - Charles William Johnson
    A site that explores the relation between the mathematics of ancient reckoning systems, expressed in historically significant numbers (cited in the historical record), and designs within the geometry of ancient artwork. The complexity of design within ...more>>

  48. The Aztec Calendar - René Voorburg
    Historical information and illustrations of the two more or less independent systems comprising the Aztec calendar, one having 365 days and based on the agricultural or solar year, the other with 260 days. A Calculator allows you to enter a date in the ...more>>

  49. Azulejos Que Ensinam - Museu Nacional de Machado de Castro
    Catálago sobre uma coleção de azulejos que mostram Os Elementos de Euclides e otras figuras de matemáticas. ...more>>

  50. Babylonian and Egyptian Mathematics - MacTutor Math History Archives
    Linked essay describing the character and accomplishments of these two early mathematical systems, with references and other related web sites. ...more>>

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