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  1. Biographies Index - MacTutor Math History Archives
    An index of pages on famous mathematicians throughout history, arranged alphabetically or chronologically and searchable by keyword. There is also an index of female mathematicians, and a full alphabetical index. more>>

  2. Biographies of Women Mathematicians - Agnes Scott College
    Biographies in alphabetical and chronological order, and related resources on the Web. An ongoing project by students in math classes at Agnes Scott College in Atlanta, Georgia, to illustrate the numerous contributions by women to the field of mathematics. Included are the first Ph.D's in mathematics awarded to women (before 1930); and prizes, awards, and honors for women mathematicians. more>>

  3. Earliest Known Uses of Some of the Words of Mathematics - Jeff Miller, Gulf High School, New Port Richey, FL
    An extensive list, with examples, sources, and contributors. These pages attempt to show the first uses of various words used in mathematics. Research is ongoing, and the uses cited should not be assumed to be the first uses that occurred unless it is stated that the term was introduced or coined by the mathematician named. more>>

  4. Earliest Uses of Various Mathematical Symbols - Jeff Miller, Gulf High School, New Port Richey, FL
    An attempt to identify the individuals who introduced various common mathematical symbols, along with the dates and name of the document in which the symbol first appeared: symbols of operation; grouping symbols; symbols of relation; fractions and decimals; constants; variables; functions; symbols used in geometry, trigonometry, calculus; set notation and logic; number theory; written sources for the pages; and contributors. more>>

  5. Euclid's Elements - David Joyce; Dept. of Mathematics & Computer Science, Clark University
    A version of Euclid's Elements created by David Joyce to rekindle an interest in the Elements and to show how java applets can be used to illustrate geometry and to bring the Elements alive. The text of all 13 Books is complete. Joyce writes: "...deductive logic is learned almost exclusively in geometry... Modern mathematics and science use deductive logic as a primary tool of understanding. In mathematics, especially, nothing is considered to be known until it is proved." more>>

  6. Famous Problems in the History of Mathematics - Isaac Reed
    History of mathematics presented through some famous problems, with exercises and solutions. The problems include The Bridges of Königsburg; The Value of Pi; Puzzling Primes; Famous Paradoxes; The Problem of Points; A Proof of the Pythagorean Theorem; and A Proof that e is Irrational. Book reviews and references are also included. more>>

  7. The Galileo Project - Rice University
    On the life and work of Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) and the science of his time. The project has a searchable database and includes an online tour of Galileo's Villa; reference materials; the Catalog of the Scientific Community of the 16th and 17th Centuries; a glossary and bibliography; maps of Galileo's world; a timeline of Galileo's life and era; and activities for students. more>>

  8. History and Biography - Dave Rusin; The Mathematical Atlas
    A short article designed to provide an introduction to history and biography in mathematics. The study of the history of mathematics and its proponents includes several well-developed parts. The development of comparatively simple mathematics (through the calculus, for example) is now well documented, principally as part of the study of the development of scientific ideas in distinct human cultures through the 18th century. The development of mathematics in the last couple of centuries is instead more frequently studied thematically - that is, the worldwide development of algebra, or statistics, say - or through the lives of individual mathematicians. Applications and related fields and subfields; textbooks, reference works, and tutorials; software and tables; other web sites with this focus. more>>

  9. A History of Mathematical Notations - Florian Cajori
    "In this history it has been an aim to give not only the first appearance of a symbol and its origin, but also to indicate the competition encountered and the spread of the symbol among writers in different countries...." The first volume of Cajori's authoritative 1928 text consists of four chapters: "Numerical Symbols and Combinations of Symbols"; "Symbols in Arithmetic and Algebra"; "Topological Survey of the Use of Notations"; and "Symbols in Geometry." Illustrations include Babylonian tablets; Hieroglyphic, Heratic, and Coptic numerals; a computing table of Salamis; degenerate forms of Roman Numerals; Quipu from ancient chancay in Peru; Dresden Codex of Maya; and many more from the Greek, Hindu, Arabic, Byzantine, and Chinese civilizations. more>>

  10. History of Mathematics - David Joyce; Dept. of Mathematics & Computer Science, Clark University
    History sources, books and articles online. Sources by region (Babylonia, Egypt, China, Greece, India, Arab sphere, Japan, and Europe); Books and other nonweb resources (organizations, bibliography of source books, journals, bibliographies and catalogues, texts on the history of mathematics); Chronological list of mathematicians by century/decade; Timelines; Index of files. more>>

  11. History of Mathematics - David R. Wilkins, Trinity College, Dublin
    A directory of Web sites and pages around the world relating to the history of mathematics. Also biographies of some seventeenth and eighteenth century mathematicians, taken from A short account of the history of mathematics (4th edition, 1908) by W. W. Rouse Ball, and Mathematical papers and other material relating to certain mathematicians and philosophers, including Hamilton, Berkeley, Boole, Cantor and Newton. more>>

  12. History of Mathematics (Mathematics Archives) - University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)
    An alphabetical list of some of the best sites for math history on the Web, part of the Math Archives' collections of Math Topics. Icons provide more information about level, interactivity of site, Java, and presence of images or links. more>>

  13. History of Mathematics (MathPages) - Kevin Brown
    About 40 "informal notes" by Kevin Brown on math history: Zeno and the paradox of motion, Archimedes and the square root of 3, Mayan numeration, Hipparchus on compound statements, Planck's analysis of Kaufmann's experiment, the ten means of Ancient Greece, Kepler, Napier, and the Third Law, and many more. more>>

  14. Links to Web Sites on the History of Mathematics - British Society for the History of Mathematics (BSHM)
    A list of Web sites containing material relevant to the study of the history of mathematics: General sites; Web resources; Biographies; Regional mathematics; Museums with mathematics exhibits; Special exhibits; Books on-line; Student presentations; Miscellaneous; Bibliography; Societies; and Journals. more>>

  15. MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive - University of St. Andrews, Scotland
    The premier site on the Web for math history. Major features include biography, history topics, and famous curves indexes; mathematicians of the day, and a site search engine. Also, birthplace maps; anniversaries for the year; chronologies; search suggestions; societies, medals and honours; an index of female mathematicians; a general bibliography; Fields Medal and Nobel Prize winners; and other Web history sources. Biographies are cross-referenced to articles on the development of mathematical ideas and MacTutor also cross-references stacks in Calculus, Geometry, Algebra (in particular Group Theory), Graph Theory, Number Theory, History of Mathematics, Statistics, Matrices, and Complex Analysis. By John J. O'Connor and Edmund F. Robertson. more>>

  16. Mathematical Constants - Steven Finch, Clay Mathematics Institute Book Fellow
    "All numbers are not created equal; that certain constants appear at all and then echo throughout mathematics, in seemingly independent ways, is a source of fascination." Indulge your fascination, or discover a new one in Finch's book. This site provides errata and addenda to the book, as well sample essays from the book about integer compositions, optimal stopping and Reuleaux triangles. Here also are recent supplementary materials, organized by topic, some illustrated with Mathcad files (viewable with a free read-only version, linked from the site).