 General Relativity  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay describing the history of general relativity from Aristotle's notion of the motion of bodies through Lorentz and Einstein in the 20th century, with 29 references (books/articles).
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 Geometry Algorithms  Dan Sunday, softSurfer
Resources for developing geometry algorithms and computer graphics software: overviews, histories of geometry, a gift shop, and more. The archive of algorithms includes areas of triangles and polygons; lines and distances of a point to a line; fast winding
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 Geometry.Net
An online learning center offering extensive lists of links to sites with material in Basic Math; Pure and Applied Math; Computer & Internet; Technology; Biographers; Physics; Biology; and Sports.
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 The Geometry of War, 15001750  Museum of the History of Science, Oxford
A virtual version of an exhibition from The Museum of the History of Science in Oxford on the uses of geometry in the art of warfare during the Renaissance. The site includes summaries that list the instruments and books in the exhibit and also provide
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 Geometry Then and Now  Jordana Wiener; Tufts University
Final paper for a Greek Science course at Tufts. Introduction: Although present day society is technically dimensions ahead of the ancient Greeks, we owe much of our progress to them. What is amazing is not so much that we are more scientifically advanced
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 George Pólya  Australian Mathematics Trust
A biography of the mathematician that discusses his solution of the random walk problem, influential books on problemsolving, Enumeration Theorem and Necklace Theorem, and efforts in curriculum development, reform, and competitions. The biography mentions
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 George Washington School Copy Book  Library of Congress
Scans of a school copy book handwritten by the future first U.S. President in 1745, when 14 or 15 years old. Together with a second book, these reveal geometrical definitions and problems, surveying, mensuration, multiplication and division, simple interest,
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 George Washington: Surveyor and Mapmaker  Library of Congress
An essay on George Washington's lifelong association with geography and cartography, "Tracing the Maps in George Washington's Life" contains the chapters Washington as Public Land Surveyor  Boyhood and Beginnings; Washington as Public Land Surveyor 
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 Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann (History of Mathematics Archive)  David R. Wilkins
A biography and selected papers of Bernhard Riemann, available online or for download in various formats. A lecture on geometry and the paper which contains the Riemann Hypothesis are available in English translation; the other papers remain in the original
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 The Golden Ratio  Andi, Mel, and Shuj
An introduction to the golden ratio, also known as phi: its connection to the Fibonacci sequence, related constructions (star, line segment, rectangle, and spiral), and connections to biology, history, and aesthetics. Site also includes a glossary and
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 The Golden ratio  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay on the history of the golden ratio (golden number, golden section), from Euclid through Martin Ohm's book, Die reine ElementarMatematik. With references and other related web sites.
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 The Golden Section Ratio: Phi  Ron Knott
Contents: What is the Golden Ratio (or Phi)?  A simple definition of Phi, A bit of history; Phi to 2000 decimal places; Phi and the Fibonacci numbers  Another definition of Phi, A formula for Phi using a continued fraction, Rational Approximations
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 Googolplex  Frank Pilhofer
The American mathematician Edward Kasner once asked his nineyearold nephew to invent a name for a very large number, ten to the power of one hundred; and the boy called it a googol. He thought this was a number to overflow people's minds, being bigger
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 Goudreau Museum of Mathematics in Art & Science  Stephanie Killian
When you visit the Math Museum in New York, you can build a math model; explore games and puzzles; view exhibits demonstrating how math is used in the arts and sciences; experience challenging but nonthreatening specialized programs and workshops in math;
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 Grandma Got STEM  Rachel Levy
Levy, a Professor in the Mathematics Department at Harvey Mudd College, blogs to collect public awareness and art projects that use grandmothers' pictures, names, and connections to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in order to
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 Grassmann's Theory of Dimension  Desmond FearnleySander
The theory of dimension for finitelygenerated linear spaces was created by Hermann Grassmann and is given in detail in Chapter 1 of his Ausdehnungslehre of 1862. The main part of the present paper is an annotated translation of the relevant portion of
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 The Greatest Mathematicians of All Time  James Dow Allen
Rankings and capsule mathematical biographies of the 100 greatest mathematicians of all time, with discussion that covers great mathematicians' own selfappraisals; prizes and medals; omissions; proposed candidates; comparisons with other "top 100" lists
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 The Greatest Math Teacher Ever  Keith Devlin (Devlin's Angle)
An article about the individual who, Devlin suggests, could justifiably be described as the American university mathematician who, through his teaching, has
had the greatest impact on the field of mathematics... He was a pioneer in one of the most important
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 Greek Astronomy  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay tracing the history of Greek astronomy from its beginnings with
Thales, in philosophy and timekeeping, through Pythagoras, Eratosthenes,
Hipparchus, Ptolemy, Plato, Aristotle, Aristarchus, and many others; with
references to relevant
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 Greek Mathematics and its Modern Heirs  SunSITE's Vatican Exhibit; Library of Congress
Classical roots of the scientific revolution. An essay on the history of Greek Math, with sample math problems. Covers Euclid's Elements and Optics, Archimedes' Works, Piero della Francesca's De quinque corporibus regularibus, and links to Ptolemy's Geography
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 Greek number systems  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay on the history of the Greek number systems, notably the acrophonic system used in the first millennium BC, and the alphabetical numerals. With references and other related web sites.
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 Greek Science, Oral Report: Greek Mathematics  Chris Weinkopf
An oral report on the WWW, with links to relevant materials at the Perseus Project. The Four Divisions; Aristotelian Reclassification; Arithmetic; Geometry. Archytus, Plato, Aristotle, arithmetic as a function of logic, numbers as expressions of worth.
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 The Grothendieck Biography Project  Ferment Magazine
The ongoing translation of Alexandre Grothendieck's Récoltes et Semailles into English.
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 Grothendieck Circle  Leila Schneps et al.
Alexandre Grothendieck's published articles, unpublished research, letters, and translations: The Cohomology Theory of Abstract Algebraic Varieties, Standard Conjectures on Algebraic Cycles, Hodge's General Conjecture Is False for Trivial Reasons, Groupes
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 Groups, Graphs, and Paul Erdös  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
The relative isolation that Andrew Wiles sought in solving Fermat's Last Theorem is certainly not the rule in mathematical research. Doing mathematics is really a remarkably social process. The abundance of meetings, conferences, workshops, colloquia,
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 HAKMEM  Beeler, Gosper, Schroeppel; Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, MIT
A list of math and computerrelated problems, unsolved in 1972 when the list originated, compiled "with the hope that a record of the random things people do around here can save some duplication of effort  except for fun." Topics include: Geometry,
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 Hankies, Snarks, and Triangles  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
Both Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the LookingGlass and What Alice Found There contain many examples of Dodgson's passion for mathematical games, puzzles, logic paradoxes, riddles, and all sorts of word play. Indeed, his fascination with
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 Hebrew Letters / Consonants  Amerisoft Inc.
A Hebrew letter and number chart from the At Home With Hebrew computer tutorial.
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 Hermann Grassmann and the Prehistory of Universal Algebra  Desmond FearnleySander
A definition of universal algebra, with a sketch of its prehistory. "...abstract algebras are divided by a very simple scheme into selfcontained `species'. Within each species a perfect duality is found between families of formal laws and the families
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 Histoire des maths et des mathématiciens  Franck Duffaud
Duffaud, enseignant dans le 93, a dédié son site à l'histoire des maths.
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 HistoriaMathematica  Julio Gonzalez Cabillon
A closed, unmoderated mailing list whose purpose is to provide a virtual forum for scholarly discussion of the history of mathematics among those with a serious interest in the field. English, Portuguese, and Spanish are the official languages, and abstracts
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 Historical Mathematics Monographs  Cornell University Library
More than 550 books in English, French, German, and Italian, scanned from originals held by the Cornell University Library. The Collection is indexed, can be browsed by author and title, and is freely available online to the public.
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 Historical Tidbits  Paul Golba
Biographical and mathematical information (from an online interactive textbook on Real Analysis by Bert G. Wachsmuth) on Niels Abel, Archimedes, Johann Bernoulli, Bernard Bolzano, Georg Cantor, Augustin Cauchy, Augustus De Morgan, Euclid, Leonhard Euler,
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 The history of cartography
 MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay on how map making has played an important role in the development of mathematics.
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 History of Compactness  Manya Raman
Download a paper that discusses the development of the concept of compactness, one of the most important and useful notions in advanced mathematics and a sort of gatekeeper topic to higherlevel mathematics. By presenting an historical treatment of this
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 The History Of Computing  Dept. of Computer Science, Virginia Tech
Index of the items in a collection of math history materials related to the history of computing by J. A. N. Lee, EditorinChief of the IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, constructed as part of the course materials for the "Professionalism in Computing"
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 The History of Mathematics
Notes from a History of Mathematics course given at the Univ. of South Australia and a Graduate Certificate in Mathematics Education project. Topics include a chronological study of the development of number from a European and Eastern perspective; the
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 History of Mathematics  Carl Eberhart; Dept. of Mathematics, Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY
Information and Maple worksheets on Egyptian fractions and geometry, Babylonian numeration, Hippias and his Quadratix, cubic equations, trigonometry until Ptolemy, curves, and more. Also examples of student projects. A spring 1999 course on the history
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 The History of Mathematics in Clerihew  Joel R. Burgeson, Newman University
A clerihew is a humorous, unmetrical, biographical verse of four short lines — two closed couplets  with the first rhyme a play on the name of the subject. Read clerihews about Apollonius, Euclid, Pythagoras, Hero(n), Brahmagupta, Ramanujan, Turing,
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 History of Measurements  Tiffany Chambers
Capsule histories of measurement (length, volume, weight, time) and select measurement tools (the sundial, water clock, hourglass, and chronometer; the barometers; the mercury hermometer).
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 History of Science and Math
A "free, communitydriven Q&A" for those interested in the history and origins of science and mathematics. Post, answer, and vote up or down questions such as "Ancient Chinese numbering system," "What evidence is there that Fermat had a proof for
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 History of Science, Technology, and Medicine  WWW Virtual Library (WWWVL)
A searchable online service established to keep track of information facilities in the history of science, technology and medicine. Sites are available alphabetically or by scientific field, source, exhibitions, institutions, regions, a historical biographical
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 A history of the Burnside problem  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay on the development of the questions: Is a finitely generated periodic group necessarily finite? Is a finitely generated periodic group of bounded exponent necessarily finite?
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 A history of time: 20th century time
 MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay on the dramatic changes in ideas about time in the 20th century.
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 A history of time: Classical time
 MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay on the central role time has played in mathematics from its very beginnings.
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 The history of voting
 MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay on the history of electoral systems.
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 A history of Zero  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay on the development of the concept of zero. There are two important but different uses of zero: one as a empty place indicator in our placevalue number system, and one as a number itself in the form we use it as 0. There are also different
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 História da Matemática  Centro de Competência Nónio da Malha Atlântica
Uma colecção de problemas de diferentes civilizações, ao longo de diferentes períodos da história. Contandose a origem e história de alguns problemas ou tipo de problemas. Cultúras incluem Egipto,
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 História da Matemática  história dos problemas  Maria João Lagarto
Uma colecção de problemas de diferentes civilizações, ao longo de diferentes períodos da história. Contandose a origem e história de alguns problemas ou tipo de problemas. Cultúras incluem Egipto,
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 HO History and Overview (Front for the Mathematics ArXiv)  Univ. of California, Davis
Math History and Overview preprints, from the U.C. Davis front end for the xxx.lanl.gov ePrint archive, a major site for mathematics preprints that has incorporated many formerly independent specialist archives. Search by keyword or browse by topic.
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