 How a Slide Rule Works  Peter Fox
An explanation of how slide rules work, beginning with a rudimentary logarithm calculator and log tables, featuring a logarithmic scale to print out to make your own slide rule, and concluding with "tricks from the slide rule era."
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 How do we know about Greek mathematicians?  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay examining how the dates of Diocles given in the MacTutor archive have been determined, and other ways to gain information about the ancient Greek mathematicians, with references and other related web sites.
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 How do we know about Greek mathematics?  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay illustrating the way that Greek mathematical texts have come down to us by looking first at perhaps the most famous example, Euclid's Elements, and Archimedes' palimpsest, with references and other related web sites.
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 Hypatia of Alexandria: Mathematician, Astronomer, and Philosopher  David Fideler; Alexandria on the World Wide Web
A brief biographical sketch, along with three source materials: The Life of Hypatia from The Suda; The Life of Hypatia by Socrates Scholasticus; and The Life of Hypatia by John, Bishop of Nikiu. (This Christian writer spoke with approval of the murder
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 Images des Mathématiques  Fabrice Planchon, EditorinChief
Des articles sur la recherche mathématique contemporaine — en particulier, française — et le métier de mathématicien. Hébergé par le Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS).
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 Images of Mathematicians on Postage Stamps  Jeff Miller, Gulf High School, New Port Richey, FL
An alphabetical list of mathematicians whose images appear on postage stamps (Abel, Archimedes, Cauchy, Descartes, Euler, Galois, Gauss, Kovalevskaya, Laplace, Leibniz, Newton, Pascal, Poincaré, Ramanujan, and more), with countries, dates of issuance,
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 Indian numerals  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay on the method of expressing every possible number using a set of ten symbols (each symbol having a place value and an absolute value), which emerged in India. With references and other related web sites.
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 The Indian Sulbasutras  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay on the Sulbasutras, appendices to the Vedas that contain all that is known of Vedic mathematics, and give rules for constructing altars. (The Vedic people entered India about 1500 BC from the region that today is Iran. The word Vedic describes
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 Infinity  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay on the mathematical, philosophical, and religious aspects of infinity. With references and other related web sites.
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 Infinity: You Can't Get There From Here!  B. Sidney Smith; Math Academy Online/Platonic Realms
A "minitext" offering a concise introduction to the concept of infinity. Includes historical background, Cantor's set theory, and an introductory discussion of cardinality, as well as suggested reading.
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 Institut Henri Poincaré
The "embassy" of French mathematics and theoretical physics. Founded in 1928, the Institut Henri Poincaré (IHP) hosts quarterly thematic programs; doctoral courses; seminars such as Mathematic Park, a biweekly miniclass for high school and university
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 Instituto Nacional de Matemática Pura e Aplicada (IMPA)
A research institute and graduate school within the Brazilian Ministry for Science, Technology and Innovation (MCTI). The Instituto Nacional de Matemática Pura e Aplicada (IMPA) convenes a thousand students and researchers in mathematics, applied mathematics,
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 International Mathematical Virtual Institute  DMBL (Scientific Society of Mathematicians Banja Luka)
The International Mathematical Virtual Institute (IMVI) promotes communication, cooperation and collaboration in the Balkans, elsewhere in Europe, and worldwide on research in (pure and applied) mathematics, history and philosophy of mathematics, and
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 International Slide Rule Museum  Mike Konshak
Scans and pictures of over 1000 unique actual slide rules. Search the gallery, or browse it by manufacturer. Also, learn how to use a slide rule, and determine its date. With terms, encyclopedia, manuals, a graphical table of slide rule scales, and more.
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 International Society for Bayesian Analysis (ISBA)
Promotes the development of Bayesian statistical theory and its application to problems in science, industry and government. News, history and minutes, archive of abstracts, information about the Reverend Thomas Bayes, and open positions in the field.
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 International Study Group on the Relations between History and Pedagogy of Mathematics
By combining the history of mathematics with the teaching and learning of mathematics, the International Study Group on the Relations between History and Pedagogy of Mathematics links the past and the future of mathematics. The group stresses the conception
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 The Internet and its Uses in Education  Arun Kumar Tripathi
A paper that covers briefly many aspects of the Internet from the early days to what the future holds, looking at the Internet as a source of information for those involved in education and backing up the text with Web site addresses for further information.
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 The Internet Classics Archive  Daniel C. Stevenson, Web Atomics
A searchable archive of works by Greek and Roman authors in translation. The texts are provided in HTML format, but raw text files are also available. Each work has been segmented into the different books, sections, parts, etc. whenever possible. Also
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 The Intrepid Mathematician  Anthony Bonato
Blog by a professor at Ryerson University (Toronto) "about mathematics in popular culture and my own journey as an academic, thinker, and writer." Posts, which date back to early 2015 and address nonmathematicians, have included "Caitlyn Jenner and the
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 An Introduction to Kolmogorov Complexity and Its Applications  Li, Vigányi
2nd edition textbook on the subject, which can be ordered through the Web. A postscript file of contents is also available. The incompressibility method and Kolmogorov complexity is a versatile mathematical tool, a sharper relative of classical information
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 Inventing Science: From Thales to Euclid  Gregory Crane, Tufts University
Classics 189: Greek Science. Euclid's synthesis remains the most successful single book on math every written, but advances were made in many other fields such as geography, astronomy and the natural sciences. Aristotle, in particular, laid the foundations
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 An Investigation of Subtraction Algorithms from the 18th and 19th Centuries  Nicole M. WessmanEnzinger
An exploration of different algorithms used during 18th and 19th century America, with discussion of implications for the modern teacher. This article, which originally appeared in the January 2014 issue of the Mathematical Association of America (MAA)
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 Is Mathematical Teaching a Function of Time?  Andrej and Elena Cherkaev, eds.
A page of math humor, including definitions, anecdotes, math education jokes, theorems, puns, limerics, and links.
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 Is that a fact?  Keith Devlin (Devlin's Angle)
I'll bet that, like me, you have known for years that, as far as the brain is concerned, it's all down hill from the moment we get our driver's license. Every day, another ten thousand cells die. Or is it a hundred thousand? A million? No matter, it's
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 The Jahrbuch Project
A searchable archive of mathematical publications of the period 18681942 and a database based on the "Jahrbuch über die Fortschritte der Mathematik."
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 Jaina mathematics  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay on the period after the founding of Jainism up to around the time of Aryabhata in around 500 A.D., until recently thought to be a time of little mathematical activity in India. (Jainism is a religion and philosophy which was founded in India
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 James Franklin
Research activities, books, articles, opinions, and more from the author of What Science Knows and The Science of Conjecture: Evidence and Probability Before Pascal. Franklin researches and teaches about the philosophy of mathematics in the School of
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 JavaSlide: the WWW's very first Java Slide Rule  Davie, Kessler
This Java applet implements a fully functional slide rule on your computer screen. The graphics may take some time to download, but you may start using the slide rule immediately. Also an explanation of what a slide rule is and how to use one.
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 John Allen Paulos
John Allen Paulos is a mathematician and author of the books Mathematics and Humor, I Think, Therefore I Laugh, Innumeracy  Mathematical Illiteracy and Its
Consequences, Beyond Numeracy  Ruminations of a Numbers Man, A Mathematician Reads the Newspaper,and
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 Josh Hertel
Hertel serves the University of WisconsinLa Crosse as an assistant professor in the mathematics department. He completed his Ph.D. in Mathematics Education at Illinois State University with the freely downloadable dissertation "Investigating the Purpose
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 K12 Teaching Materials (Mathematics Archives)  University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)
An extensive list of Internet sites with significant collections of materials that can be used in the teaching of mathematics at the K12 level. Organized into categories: lesson plans, schools, software and other K12 Internet math sites.
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 Kepler's Sphere Packing Problem Solved  Keith Devlin (Devlin's Angle)
Mathematician Thomas Hales of the University of Michigan announced in 1998 that — after six years effort — he had proved that a guess Kepler made back in 1611 was correct. The problem asks what is the most efficient way to pack equalsized
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 KeyedIn Magazine  nelsonthornes.com
Weekly puzzles, quizzes, features of great mathematicians, fun with numbers, and strategy games. An Internet quest and "the serious stuff" offer selfscoring problems. Teacher resources provide links and ideas for each chapter of the Nelson Thornes Key
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 The King of Infinite Space: Donald Coxeter, The Man Who Saved Geometry  Siobhan Roberts
As a companion to The King of Infinite Space, a biography of Donald Coxeter, this website provides photographs, archives, papers, video footage, links and other resources, allowing readers to further explore Donald Coxeter’s infinite passion for geometry.
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 The Klein Project
Revisiting the intent of Felix Klein's Elementary Mathematics from an Advanced Standpoint on the centenary of its publication, this IMU/ICMIcommissioned project aims to produce a book for upper secondary teachers that communicates the breadth and vitality
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 Knot Theory  ThinkQuest 1997
A short course on knot theory, including tutorials on the basics, knot invariants, knot properties, and knot arithmetic; biographical information on historical and contemporary figures working with knot theory; applications of knot theory; a discussion
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 Know Your Roman Numerals  George W. Metz
"What a Roman Legionary needs to know in order to count in Ancient Rome": a chart of numbers, with their names in Latin and the corresponding Roman numerals.
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 Kolmogorov.com
A site dedicated to the mathematician A. N. Kolmogorov, including a bibliography of his works (some available in PDF format), information on his students, and on the school founded by him and which bears his name, which is looking for books for its library.
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 Lanchester Press, Inc.
Books by and about F. W. Lanchester. What are Lanchester's Equations? Lanchester's Linear Law is an equation of combat that relates to individual confrontations between soldiers where the outcome is dependent on the ratio of weapon efficiency (E) of the
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 La pagina della classificazione matematica: MSC2000 librerie Hvolumi  Antonella De Robbio, Alberto Marini, Dario Maguolo
Italian version of Mathematics Subject Classification version 2000 (MSC2000); different points of views, with a comparison of MSC1991 and MSC2000. Includes a description of the project, links to relevant pages, and a preprint of "La versione Draft2000
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 Late Renaissance Thought and the New Universe (Mathematics Across the Curriculum)  Wallace, Sciortino; Dartmouth College
A course taught in the spring of 1997 that examined the Copernican controversy in its historical and social context, and how it influenced and was influenced by contemporary upheavals. The site contains the syllabus and lesson plans for the course.
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 Lathisms
Featuring a different Latin@ or Hispanic in the mathematical sciences each day from September 15 to October 15 in celebration of Hispanic Heritage Month.
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 Laws of Thought  Keith Devlin (Devlin's Angle)
"What Zeno of Citium actually did was found the Stoic school of logic. Though modern mathematical logic is popularly credited as having its beginnings in the syllogistic logic of Aristotle, most of the fundamental notions of contemporary propositional
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 Lee's Roman Numeral Converter  Lee K. Seitz
Convert a number into Roman numerals and back again online. Site also includes a brief introduction to Roman numerals, a FAQ, and some comments on the structure of the converter program.
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 Leonardo OnLine  International Society for the Arts, Sciences and Technology (ISAST)
A journal founded in 1968 in Paris by kinetic artist and astronautical pioneer Frank Malina. Today, it covers the application of contemporary science and technology to the arts and music. This site includes an art gallery with texts by the artists, excerpts
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 Leonardo, Water, and Math  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
Leonardo da Vinci had a special interest in water, both practical and theoretical. Between the years 1506 and 1510, as he shuttled between projects in Milan and Florence, Leonardo jotted down his thoughts in a scientific notebook. His intention was to
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 Lesson Plan Search  Google
Free math lesson plans that make use of Google Earth, Google Calendar, Exploring Computational Thinking, and other products and projects of the search engine company: Telling time & Google Calendar; Human Dimensions Project; Median of Latitude Data;
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 Lessons and Curriculum  MSTE, University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign (UIUC)
Browse lessons predominantly for middle and high school students, from the Office for Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education (MSTE) and from other sources.
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 Lewis Carroll's Logic Game  Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny
Discussion of an invention of Lewis Carroll's that competes with Venn diagrams for solving logical problems. Topics include the bilateral and trilateral diagrams, syllogisms, two Java applets, sample soriteses, and Carroll's Game of Logic.
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 Linear Methods of Applied Mathematics  Evans M. Harrell II and James V. Herod
An online textbook suitable for a first course on partial differential equations, Fourier series and special functions, and integral equations. Organized into nineteen chapters: Linearity, The geometry of functions, Fourier series, Calculating Fourier
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