 Elsevier Science
"Information Provider to the World." Elsevier's mission is "to advance science, technology and medical science by fulfilling, on a sound commercial basis, the communication needs specific to the international community of scientists, engineers and associated
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 Emilio Segrè Visual Archives  American Institute of Physics (AIP)
A collection of some 25,000 historical photographs, slides, lithographs, engravings, and other visual materials, focusing on American physicists and astronomers of the twentieth century, but including many scientists in Europe and elsewhere, in other
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 English Attack on the Longitude Problem  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay covering the period from the mid17th through the mid18th century, with 9 references (books/articles).
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 ENIAC 50th Anniversary Celebration  University of Pennsylvania
The Birth of the Information Age: an 18 month celebration of the invention and enduring impact of ENIAC, the world's first electronic, large scale, generalpurpose computer, activated at the University of Pennsylvania in 1946. Links to opening address
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 Eric Weisstein's World of Scientific Biography  Eric Weisstein. Wolfram Research
The World of Biography briefly outlines the discoveries and advances of over 250 mathematicians, and includes links to publications with more historical details about the individuals. Each notecardlike bio puts a face to the entries in MathWorld, Weisstein's
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 Eskimo Pi  Keith Devlin (Devlin's Angle)
"As everyone knows, in the last century, the State of Indiana passed a law legislating the value of pi to be 3. Well, perhaps it's a bit of an exaggeration to say that everyone knows it, but most people do. But that alone is very odd, since it is not
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 e Teaching Assistance Program  eTAP, Inc.
Lesson plans, examples and exercises, review checks, and other instructional materials, including audio downloads, on the language of mathematics; basic operations; order of operations and combining terms; fractions; multiplying and dividing fractions;
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 Euclid and his Elements  Donald Lancon, Jr.; University of Houston
A paper written for a Survey of Math class at Bellaire High School(Bellaire, Texas): a discussion of what is known about Euclid's life and his works other than the Elements, followed by a systematic study of the Elements, examining its content, structure,
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 Euclid's Algorithm  Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny
An explanation of Euclid's algorithm for finding the greatest common divisor (gcd) of any pair of numbers, and a relation to the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, with links to related pages on Euclid's Game, binary Euclid's Algorithm, more on the gcd
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 Euclid's Fourteenth Book  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
Officials of the Foundation for Old Occidental Languages announced today that, after a year devoted to authentication and analysis, they are prepared to release the text of a manuscript that appears to be a Latin translation of research notes jotted down
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 Euclid's Geometry: History and Practice  Alex Pearson, The Episcopal Academy, Merion, Pennsylvania
A series of interdisciplinary lessons on Euclid's Elements, researched and written by a Classicist and hosted by the Math Forum. The material is organized into class work, short historical articles, assignments, essay questions, and a quiz.
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 Euler 2007
A celebration of Euler's 300th birthday in April 2007. Papers and abstracts from the various symposia and colleges are archived here, and further links to resources and web pages are offered.
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 The Euler Archive
The Euler Archive is an online resource for Leonhard Euler's original works and modern Euler scholarship. The searchable database provides access to his original publications, references to available translations, and current research. Also available
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 The Euler Society
The Euler Society was founded in 2002, and over the last six years has been highly successful in reinvigorating the teaching, learning, and wider understanding of Euler's role in mathematics and in the history of science. The Society continues to use
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 Europe  Mathematics and the Liberal Arts  Todd Hammond
Notes on published articles: a resource for student research projects and for teachers interested in using the history of mathematics in their courses. Many pages focus on ethnomathematics and on the connections between mathematics and other disciplines.
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 Everything you always wanted to know about Maths (but were afraid to ask)  Liz Richards
A site designed to give students an understanding of the history and purpose of maths and some of the major figures in the world of Mathematics
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 Evolution of Arabic (Roman) Numerals from India  B. B. Vishnu
A description of the development of our number signs, from India throughout the rest of the world, with highlights of how mathematics was helped and hindered by concepts of numbers. From Mathematics and the Spiritual Dimension.
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 Extracts from Thomas Hirst's diary  MacTutor Math History Archives
Quotations from Thomas Hirst's journals concerning the following mathematicians: Bertrand, Boole, Brioschi, Cayley, Chasles, Chebyshev, Cremona, De Morgan, Dirichlet, Gauss, Kovalevskaya, Liouville, Maxwell, Poinsot, and Steiner.
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 Faces of Mathematics  Marc Atkins, Nick Gilbert; HeriotWatt University, Edinburgh
Portraits of twenty living influential mathematicians, each with a textbased display panel on the subject's research interests and personal viewpoint on mathematics and a video of the subject in conversation about their research and other mathematical
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 Factasia: Mathematics  Roger Bishop Jones
Math essays organized into three categories: general (threads in the web of mathematics and reuse and abstraction); real numbers (a logical development, some history, and computing with reals); and history (a short history of rigour in mathematics, classical
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 Famous Curves Applet Index  MacTutor Math History Archive
From Astroid, Cardiod, Catenary, and Cayley's Sextic to the Trisectrix of Maclaurin, Tschirnhaus' Cubic, Watt's Curve, the Witch of Agnesi  and many more  click on the name of a curve to experiment with some of its associated curves.
(Your browser
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 Famous Curves Index  MacTutor Math History Archive
Links to pages illustrating more than 60 mathematical curves, with information on their history and associated curves. Anyone with the Mathematical MacTutor system or a Javaenabled browser can investigate these curves and their associated curves interactively.
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 The Famous Wonders of the Mind / Les Merveilles de l'Esprit  Nan Zhu, Yifei Zhu  ThinkQuest '99
Math and science stories teach students some famous tricks and formulae through history, games, and short essays on the golden section, the Fibonacci sequence, Pascal's triangle, logarithms, the Bridges of Konisberg, the binary system, etc. In English
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 Fashioning a World Brain  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
When Peterson read about a revolutionary means of storing and distributing information, he couldn't help thinking about the current explosion of activity in electronic publishing, the Internet, and the World Wide Web. But the words were actually written
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 Fermat's Last Theorem (FLT)  Math Forum, Ask Dr. Math FAQ
What is the current status of Fermat's Last Theorem?
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 Fermat's Last Theorem  MacTutor Math History Archives
Essay describing Fermat's theorem with links to mathematicians such as Sophie Germain, Legendre, Dirichlet, Shimura and Taniyama, etc., from its inception through Andrew Wiles' proof, with another web site and 17 references (books/articles).
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 Fermat's Little Theorem  Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny
A description with proof involving modular arithmetic, and related links.
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 FermiEffect.com  Alice Caton
Links to biographies of Enrico Fermi and his granddaughters, computers and chaos theory, Fermi questions, and the Fermi paradox.
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 The Fibonacci Numbers  David Schweizer; Math Department, College of the Holy Cross
A directory of material related to the Fibonacci numbers. Math material  the Fibonacci numbers' appearance in the Mandelbrot set; the first 500 Fibonacci numbers in blocks of 100; factorizations; Web resources.
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 Fields Medals and Rolf Nevanlinna Prizes  The International Mathematical Union (IMU)
Information about these mathematics awards, with lists of recipients.
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 Finding the Center of a Circular Starting Line in an Ancient Greek Stadium  Rorres, Romano; SIAM Review
A 1997 essay by Chris Rorres and David Gilman Romano, which presents and compares two methods for finding the center and radius of a circular starting line of a racetrack in an ancient Greek stadium. Graphs and tables are included. Introduction, ThreePoints
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 Flatland: A romance of many dimensions  Edwin A. Abbott
A geometrical story about a twodimensional square who visits one and threedimensional worlds. Full text of the 2nd and revised edition, illustrated, 1884.
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 Foundations of Greek Geometry  Michael Tirabassi; Tufts University
A linked historical essay outlining the contributions of Thales, Pythagoras, and Plato to the study of geometry.
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 The Four Color Theorem  Robertson, Sanders, Seymour, Thomas; Georgia Tech
A brief summary of a new proof of the Four Color Theorem, with a fourcoloring algorithm found by Neil Robertson, Daniel P. Sanders, Paul Seymour and Robin Thomas, illustrated using a map of the United States. Contents: History; Why a new proof?; Outline
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 The Four Colour Theorem  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay describing work on the theorem from its posing in 1852 through its solution in 1976, with two other web sites and 9 references (books/articles).
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 Fractal Past, Fractal Future  Ivars Peterson  Science News Online
Fractals have invaded the popular imagination. Calendars, computer screens, and books feature vivid, phantasmagorical images of weirdly branched, wildly swirling structures. Some fractal history, and an essay about the geometric complexity of natural
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 Fractals and Chaos Theory  Fractional Sanity
A brief introduction to chaos and fractals.
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 Fractions, Cycles, and Time  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
In ancient times, people had to confront awkward numbers in astronomical contexts when they compared the motions of the sun and moon. The unfailing, daily passages of the sun across the sky and the corresponding movements of the stars at night represented
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 Fragments of the Past  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
Historians of mathematics now generally agree that scholars in China, India, and the Islamic world produced remarkably sophisticated mathematics between the fifth and the fifteenth centuries. However, most would probably still argue that Europeans in
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 Fred Rickey's History of Mathematics Page  Fred Rickey, Department of Mathematical Sciences, United States Military Academy
Information about courses Rickey and others have taught about the history of mathematics. Historical notes for calculus teachers cover Torricelli's trumpet,
Clepsydra, the history of the brachistochrone, the bridge and the catenary, Cauchy's famous wrong
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 Free Math Help  Ted Wilcox
Free tutorials, glossary, study tips, calculator advice, and more, including annotated links to other resources.
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 Frequently Asked Questions in Mathematics  Alex LópezOrtiz and the Sci.Math FAQ Team
The sci.math FAQ. Nontrivial mathematical trivia from the newsgroup sci.math: a compilation of math history and knowledge of interest to most professional and amateur mathematicians, ranging from advanced topics such as Wiles' proposed proof to Fermat's
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 From Counting to Writing  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
Abstract numbers are the product of a long cultural evolution. They also apparently played a crucial role in the development of writing in the Middle East. Indeed, numbers came before letters, contends archaeologist Denise SchmandtBesserat of the University
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 The Fundamental Theorem of Algebra  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay covering from Cardan in the 1500's to the Euler and Argand proofs through the 1800's, with 8 references (books/articles).
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 Futility Closet  Greg Ross
"An idler's miscellany of compendious amusements." Math posts, which date back to January, 2005, have included puzzles, curios, and trivia from the lives of famous mathematicians  all "selfcontained and written as concisely as possible"  such as
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 GalaxyGoo
An interdisciplinary, volunteer thinktank dedicated to exploring expressions of science and math with online technologies, for public benefit. Read interviews of scientists; explore math such as the sine curve with Flash, participate in forums and blogs,
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 Gallica  Bibliothèque nationale de France
Une sélection de documents numérisés qui montrent la diversité des collections manuscrites de la Bibliothèque nationale de France: les oeuvres de Joseph Liouville, Augustin Cauchy, Joseph Fourier, Henri Poincaré, Janos
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 The Galois Story  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
The life and death, myth and reality, of Evariste Galois, with a short bibliography.
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 GEM: Gateway to Educational Materials  National Library of Education (NLE)
A database for education links, intended to be more useful for teachers than a search engine. It records the resources of its consortium members (information on joining the consortium is available onsite). Users are able to: browse through lists organized
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 General Mathematics, AM (Funk & Wagnalls Multimedia Encyclopedia)  Lycos Zone: Mathematics
Short articles on basic mathematics, including biographical information about mathematicians, from the abacus to Gaspard Monge.
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