 1991 Mathematics Subject Classification (MSC)  Chris Eilbeck; HeriotWatt University, Edinburgh
A hypertext version of the 1991 MSC. The main purpose of the classification is to help readers to find the items of present or potential interest to them as readily as possible  in MR, in Zbl, or anywhere else where this classification system is used.
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 4000 Years of Women in Science  University of Alabama
Over 125 women scientists from our scientific and technical past, with biographies, references, and photographs. For Mathematicians, see Listing by Discipline.
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 The Abacus: The Art of Calculating with Beads  Luis Fernandes
A tutorial on using the abacus  a calculator whose earliest known use is circa 500 B.C. by the Chinese civilization. Addition, subtraction, division and multiplication can be performed on a standard abacus. Beginning in about 1600 A.D., use and evolution
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 The abstract group concept  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay offering an introduction to the theory of finite groups (the title of the famous text written by Walter Ledermann), based on a lecture given by Peter Neumann at a conference at the University of Sussex. With references and other related web
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 Abstract Linear Spaces  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay covering the beginning of the vector concept and the move away from coordinate methods through the beginning of the 20th century with Peano, Hilbert, Schmidt and Banach, with 13 references (books/articles).
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 ACMEScience  Samuel Hansen
Lighthearted mathematical podcast series Combinations and Permutations, Strongly Connected Components, and more.
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 The Ada Project (TAP)  Carol Frieze and Women@SCS; Carnegie Mellon University
Tapping Internet Resources for Women in Computer Science, this site serves as a clearinghouse for information and resources relating to women in computing: conferences, projects, discussion groups and organizations, fellowships and grants, notable women
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 Advanced Topics in Mathematics  Anthony Beckwith
Page for a high school course exploring fractals, the Global Positioning System, number theory, topology, chaos theory, and the history of mathematics. Syllabus and brief description of each topic.
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 A. Einstein: Image and Impact  American Institute of Physics
All about Albert Einstein. Essays, photographs, and stories; hear Einstein explain his famous equation E=mc^2. Contents: Formative Years; The Great Works; E=mc2; World Fame; Public Concerns; Quantum and Cosmos; The Nuclear Age; Science and Philosophy;
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 aeyoung.mathematician  Andrew E. Young
Papers from a Mathematics graduate from The University Of Sussex at Brighton: Number Theory: GCD and Prime Factorisation; Molien's Theorem, Invariant Theory and Gregor Kemper; A History of Equality.
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 Africa  Mathematics and the Liberal Arts  Todd Hammond
Notes on published articles: a resource for student research projects and for teachers interested in using the history of mathematics in their courses. Many pages focus on ethnomathematics and on the connections between mathematics and other disciplines.
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 AIMS Education Foundation
"Activities Integrating Mathematics and Science." A nonprofit, independent organization established to develop integrated math/science materials for grades K9. See, in particular, the AIMS Puzzle corner (a new puzzle each month), the AIMS@Kids Interactive
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 The Alan Turing Home Page  Andrew Hodges
A gateway and guide to a large site dedicated to Alan Turing (19121954); 25 pages of biographical information on this computer scientist, mathematician, and cryptographer, from the author of Alan Turing: the Enigma.
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 Albert Einstein Online  S. Morgan Friedman
Information about Einstein, pictures, organizations that bear his name. Biographies, Hong Kong Baptist Univ. and MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive; Einstein's History; Obituary; Information, David Joyce; Einstein's interview with the FBI; Why Socialism?
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 Algebra Help Tutorials
HelpAlgebra.com provides free algebra tutorials, glossaries, calculators, software reviews, and general algebra help.
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 Algebra (MathPages)  Kevin Brown
More than 50 "informal notes" by Kevin Brown on algebra. Kummer's Objection; irreducibility criteria, multiple linear regression, string algebra, characteristic polynomial of a matrix, iterated means, sums of powers, polynomials from Pascal's Triangle,
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 allmath.com  Arbor Media, Inc.
Math tools (flash cards, a metric converter); games (magic square), and reference pages: biographies, a glossary, the multiplication table, metric conversion factors, and an ask an expert service.
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 Amazeing Art  Christopher Berg
Free printable mazes of buildings, ships, ancient monuments, and more. The site features historical essays describing some of the mazes of ancient times, together with maze terminology and tips on drawing mazes. There are also maze products for purchase,
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 American Institute of Mathematics
The American Institute of Mathematics (AIM) "expands the frontiers of mathematical knowledge through focused research projects, sponsored conferences, and the development of an online mathematics library." See, in particular, the nonprofit organization's
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 The Americas  Mathematics and the Liberal Arts  Todd Hammond
Notes on published articles: a resource for student research projects and for teachers interested in using the history of mathematics in their courses. Many pages focus on ethnomathematics and on the connections between mathematics and other disciplines.
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 The Analyst  George Berkeley
A text based on the 1898 edition of the works of George Berkeley, edited by George Sampson, incorporating a small number of changes. Many mathematicians published replies to Berkeley's attack on contemporary mathematical practice in The Analyst. Included
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 The Analytical Engine  John Walker
The mathematician Charles Babbage designed an Analytical Engine, a mechanical precursor to the computer, in the late 1800s. Read historical documents related to the Engine, including Blaise Pascal's account of his mechanical adding machine (in French),
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 Ancient India's Contribution to Mathematics  Sudheer Birodkar
Algebra and Geometry in Ancient India, where mathematics had its roots in Vedic literature, nearly 4000 years old. Between 1000 B.C. and 1000 A.D. various treatises on mathematics were authored by Indian mathematicians in which
were set forth for the
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 Ancient Mathematics  SunSITE's Vatican Exhibit; Library of Congress
Math history: math and astronomy in the ancient world. Greek Mathematics, Ptolemy's Geography, Greek Astronomy. Scholarship supported science in this world where faith and science were not yet seen as two irreconcilable cultures. Euclid (Elements, Optics);
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 Ancient Writings Revealed!  The Exploratorium
Ancient ideas met modern science at the Exploratorium, San Francisco, CA, on August 4, 2006. Using stateoftheart scientific tools, oncehidden writings by the ancient Greek mathematician Archimedes were uncovered, revealing evidence of science not
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 Andrei Nikolaevich Kolmogorov  Alexander Adamchuk
Curriculum vitae, biography, conference announcement, memorial readings, and links about Andrei Nikolaevich Kolmogorov.
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 Appealing Numbers  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
A short history of amicable numbers  pairs in which each number is the sum of the proper divisors of the other. The smallest such pair is 220 and 284. The number 220 is evenly divisible by 1, 2, 4, 5, 10, 11, 20, 22, 44, 55, and 110, which add up to
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 Aquí Matemàtiques (Catalán)  Carlos Romero
Web and interactive materials in Catalán designed to facilitate and improve teacher training in mathematics. Goals: to provide curricular incentives for integrating technology into primary and secondary level teaching; facilitate access to curricula;
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 Arabic Mathematics  David Joyce; Dept. of Mathematics & Computer Science, Clark University
Resources on the history of Arabic mathematics, with a map, a list of mathematicians, sources, and a Bibliography.
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 Arabic mathematics: forgotten brilliance?  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay exploring the debt we owe to Arabic/Islamic mathematics. In many respects the mathematics studied today is far closer in style to that of the Arabic/Islamic contribution than to that of the Greeks. Certainly many of the ideas previously thought
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 Arabic Numerals (Islam and Islamic History)  Nawwab, Speers, Hoye; Arabian American Oil Co.
The system of numeration employed throughout the greater part of the world today was probably developed in India, but because it was the Arabs who transmitted it to the West, the numerals it uses have come to be called Arabic. This page shows the early
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 The Arabic numeral system  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay exploring the transmission of Indian numerals first to the Arabic/Islamic peoples and from them to Europe. The eastern and western parts of the Arabic world (North Africa and Spain) both saw separate developments of Indian numerals with relatively
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 Archimedes' Book of Lemmas  Alexander Bogomolny
Archemedes' Book of Lemmas included fifteen propositions. They are listed here, each with its own Java illustration and complete proof.
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 Archimedes  Chris Rorres, Drexel University
A collection of information on Archimedes' life and achievements, complete with historical quotes, illustrations, and animations. The site covers Archimedes' inventions and accomplishments: Archimedes' Claw, Burning Mirrors, the Golden Crown, the Archimedes
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 Archimedes Palimpsest  The Walters Art Gallery
An introduction to the people, places, times, and historical significance of the Archimedes Palimpsest, a compendium of mathematical treatises by Archimedes of Syracuse. The manuscript itself includes the only copy of the treatise Method of Mechanical
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 Archimedes' Square (Stomachion)  Kadon Enterprises, Inc.
Square puzzle dissected into 14 tiles, described in Archimedes' palimpsest. Oldest documented puzzle in history, from ca. 250 B.C. Now known to have 536 distinct solutions.
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 Archives Henri Poincaré  PierreEdouard Bour and Manuel Rebuschi
La laboratoire de Philosophie et d'Histoire des Sciences (LPHS) réunit des scientifiques intéressés à l'histoire et à l'épistémologie de leur disciplines et des philosophes et historiens prêts à
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 Archives of American Mathematics  The Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, The University of Texas at Austin
The only archival repository in the United States solely dedicated to collecting, preserving, and providing access to the records of American mathematicians and mathematical organizations for use by historians, mathematicians, educators, and others interested
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 Arithmetic (Funk & Wagnalls Multimedia Encyclopedia)  Lycos Zone: Mathematics
A short article on arithmetic: fundamental definitions and laws; theory of divisors; fractions; and decimals.
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 Arithmetic is Algebra Backwards  John Hays
A series of essays, including: Deriving integers as vectors of Naturals; rationals, vectors of integers; reals as infinite vectors of rationals by adjoining transfinite operation of LIMIT to arithmetic finite operations; complex numbers as vector of reals
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 Arithmetic with Roman Numerals  Jim Loy
"It is fairly obvious that Roman numerals are more difficult to use than our arabic numerals. They are fine for recording a date or indicating a chapter number. But, they make arithmetic somewhat difficult....Egypian numerals are essentially Roman numerals,
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 The Art of Renaissance Science: Galileo and Perspective  Joseph W. Dauben, McMurry University
A hypermedia essay devoted to the genius of Galileo and the relation between his role in the Scientific Revolution and the equally remarkable achievements of Renaissance artists reflected, in part, in the discovery and application of mathematical perpective.
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 arXiv.org ePrint archive  Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)
A major site for mathematics preprints that has incorporated many formerly independent specialist archives including alggeom, functan, dgga, qalg, autofms, cdhg, MAGNUS, Several Complex Variables, Logic Eprints, Commutative Algebra, Dynamical Systems,
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 Astronomiae Historia / History of Astronomy  International Astronomical Union, Astronomische Gesellschaft
General history of astronomy pages on the Web: a catalog of archives and libraries, museums, memorials, historical places and exhibits, research institutes and departments, publications, and other sources of information. Visitors can read five different
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 Australian Mathematics Trust
A national nonprofit organisation that conducts mathematics competitions and mathematics enrichment activities. Two subtrusts, each with equal status under the Trust Deed and represention on the Board: Australian Mathematics Foundation (conducts one
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 The Aztec Calendar: Math, Geometry, and Design  Charles William Johnson
A site that explores the relation between the mathematics of ancient reckoning systems, expressed in historically significant numbers (cited in the historical record), and designs within the geometry of ancient artwork. The complexity of design within
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 The Aztec Calendar  René Voorburg
Historical information and illustrations of the two more or less independent systems comprising the Aztec calendar, one having 365 days and based on the agricultural or solar year, the other with 260 days. A Calculator allows you to enter a date in the
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 Azulejos Que Ensinam  Museu Nacional de Machado de Castro
Catálago sobre uma coleção de azulejos que mostram Os Elementos de Euclides e otras figuras de matemáticas.
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 Babylonian and Egyptian Mathematics  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay describing the character and accomplishments of these two early mathematical systems, with references and other related web sites.
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 Babylonian numerals  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay exploring the development of the Babylonians' number system, with ideas inherited from the Sumerians and the Akkadians. From them came base 60, or the sexagesimal system, but neither the Sumerian nor the Akkadian system was a positional system
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