 An overview of Babylonian mathematics  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay exploring the arithmetic and geometry of the Babylonians, who lived in Mesopotamia, a fertile plain between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The Babylonian civilization replaced the Sumerian civilisation and the Akkadian civilisation; this
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 An overview of Egyptian mathematics  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay on the development of the Egyptian number systems, and the arithmetical methods they devised to work with their numerals. With references and other related web sites.
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 An overview of Indian mathematics  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay on the contributions of Indian mathematics, in particular the number system invented by the Indians, on which much of mathematical development has rested. With references and other related web sites.
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 Overview of the History of Mathematics  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked overview from the Babylonians through topics from the twentieth century, with additional sections on notation and communication, brilliant discoveries, how we view history, and a challenge, as well as a 700item general bibliography.
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 Panagiotis Stefanides
Geometry presented at national conferences in Greece. Contents include: Quantization of Circle Duality; Logos Pyr Chronos; 'Buena Fortuna' (artwork); Geometric Mean Ratio (T) by Ruler and Compass; Quadrature Master Theorem; Corollary (Circle Circumference
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 Papers on the History of Mathematics  Gregory Cherlin, Rutgers University
A random selection of term papers submitted in undergraduate, onesemester courses on the history of mathematics. Topics include zero, Fermat, Euler, Newton, Euclid's proof of the Pythagorean Theorem, Fibonacci, Vieta, conic sections, mathematics at Princeton
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 Pascal's Triangle from Top to Bottom  Matthew Hubbard and Tom Roby
A comprehensive resource for the study of Pascal's Triangle. The section "Applications" addresses questions such as "What types of questions are answered by the binomial coefficients?" and "What number greater than 1 shows up most often in Pascal's Triangle?"
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 Pascal's Triangle  Math Forum/USI
A Web unit designed to support workshops given by the Math Forum for the Urban Systemic Initiative (Philadelphia and San Diego). Read about the history of Pascal's triangle and learn to construct it; view illustrations of number patterns to be discovered;
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 Pascal's Triangle: Number Patterns  Math Forum
Some history and an interactive exploration of number patterns and an exploratory Internet Web unit for elementary, middle school, and high school, with lessons, number pattern studies, and links to relevant sites on the Web.
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 Pascal Triangle Applet  Sergey Butkevich
An applet that graphically presents Pascal's triangle modulo an integer number p; i.e. it computes the binomial coefficients. It can draw triangles with up to 650 rows with a p value between 2 and 30,000 (though it's not very clear above 15,000). The
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 Past Lectures  Gresham College
Dozens of video lectures by Robin Wilson, Gresham Professor of Geometry and former Visiting Professor in the History of Mathematics: "The Great Mathematicians," "Early Mathematics Day," "Lewis Carroll in Numberland," "Topics in the History of Financial
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 Paul Erdos: An Infinity of Problems  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
Paul Erdos died of a heart attack on Sept. 20 [1996] at the age of 83. Considered by many as one of the great mathematicians of this century and certainly one of the most prolific ever, he will be missed. For more than 50 years, Erdos wandered the globe
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 paulus gerdes's Storefront  Paulus Gerdes
Purchase print editions or download Gerdes' titles, some also available in Portuguese, Dutch, and French: Drawings from Angola: Living Mathematics, Enjoy Puzzling with biLLies, Puzzle Fun with BiLLies, The Bisos Game: Puzzles and Diversions, Introducing
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 Pell's equation
 MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay on the indeterminate quadratic equation. With references and other related web sites.
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 Pentium Bug Revisited  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
The incident that triggered a barrage of ridicule occurred in the fall of 1994, a few months after Intel had introduced its Pentium microprocessor. The furor started with an email message from Thomas R. Nicely, a mathematician at Lynchburg College in
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 A Perfect Collaboration  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
Euclid and Euler seem an unlikely pairing. One was the most prominent mathematician of antiquity, best known for his treatise on geometry, the Elements. The other was the most prolific mathematician in history, the man whom his 18century contemporaries
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 Perfect Numbers  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay describing the work on perfect numbers from Pythagoras through Euclid, Nicomachus, the Arabs, Cataldi, Descartes, Mersenne, Fermat, Euler, Barlow, Catalan, Cole, and others; with other web sites and 20 references (books/articles).
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 Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics
An independent, nonprofit, scientific research organization working to advance our understanding of physical laws and develop new ideas about the essence of space, time, matter, and information. Located in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, Perimeter also provides
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 Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet  Australian Mathematics Trust
A biography of the mathematician that discusses his theorem, introduction of the function notation y = f(x), boundary problems, minimization principle, and the Pigeonhole Principle.
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 Peter J. Lu  Department of Physics, Harvard University
Lu's mathematical and historical research has revealed new insights in medieval Islamic quasicrystalline tilings and the earliest machines, such as the one he suggests precisely interconverted the linear and rotational motion responsible for the distinctive
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 peterlu.org  Peter Lu
Publications and research into medieval Islamic geometry (e.g., decagonal and quasicrystalline tilings in its architecture), softmatter and colloid physics, highperformance imaging, ancient Chinese technology (e.g., first use of diamond, early precision
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 Página Web de Fibonacci, Humor, Matemáticas  José Mari López Goitia
Página personal, con secciones para humor y matemática, información sobre HTML, manual de C, buscadores de todo el mundo, y más.
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 Photos by Paul Halmos  Mathematical Association of America (MAA)
Snapshots taken by Paul R. Halmos of notable contemporaries, academics, and other intellectuals of the 20th century. Search or browse the tagged collection of pictures, each of which includes a brief note about the subjects photographed in Halmos' own
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 Physics 109N: Galileo and Einstein  Michael Fowler; Dept. of Physics, University of Virginia
A course that explores two revolutions in our perception of the universe. The first, in which Galileo played the leading role, was the realization that what we see in the heavens  the moon, the planets, the sun and stars  are physical objects. The second
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 Pi = 3.14159...  Math Forum, Ask Dr. Math FAQ
What is Pi? Who first used Pi? How do you find it? How many digits is it?
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 Pi: A Source Book  J. Borwein, SpringerVerlag
A complete history of pi, with resources for teachers for anything from special topic courses to individual talks and special student projects. The literature on pi included in this source book falls into three classes: a selection of the mathematical
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 The PiFactory  David Whitfield
Revision notes, boardshots, and Excel worksheets to download, from when the author used to teach in North London. The PiFactory includes an opensource assessment suite, classroom resources, and concept maps. The PiFactory conveniently pulls together
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 Pi Through the Ages  MacTutor Math History Archives
A history of pi: the Rhind papyrus (Egypt), Ptolemy, Tsu Ch'ung Chi, al'Khwarizmi, Al'Kashi, Viet, Romanus, Van Ceulen, Gregory, Shanks, Lambert, Euler, Buffon, and many more, with other Web sites and 30 references (books/articles).
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 Planes of Budapest  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Nearly every Sunday during the winter of 1933 in Budapest, a small group of students would meet somewhere in the city at a park or cafe to discuss mathematics. The gathering typically included Paul Erdös (19131996), György (George) Szekeres,
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 Plato: Acceptance of Astronomy as a Science  Michael Tirabassi
Translations from Plato's Dialogues (Loeb edition): The Myth of Er (a multihemispere model of the sky  Republic, X, 616B617). The True Astronomer Must be the Wisest of Men (Epinomis 990a); Pursue Astronomy as you Would Geometry (Republic 530b); Realise
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 Plato's Molecule  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
In his dialogue Timaeus, the Greek philosopher Plato (427347 B.C.) carefully laid out his reasoning for ascribing certain geometric shapes to the minuscule particles that constituted the four elements of matter. In his view, these elements  fire, air,
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 Plimpton 322: The Ancient Roots of Modern Mathematics  Laurence Kirby
A video documentary of our mathematical ideas from ancient cultures in the Middle East, Asia and Africa, and how they remain relevant in modern society and technology. The 33minute film includes footage of a 4,000yearold cuneiform tablet known as Plimpton
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 Plus Magazine  Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge
Plus (formerly PASSMaths) is a triannual online magazine for older pupils and the general public. It publishes articles explaining the diverse applications of mathematics used in solving problems in physics, chemistry, biology, engineering, and economics.
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 Poe's Secret  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Writer Edgar Allan Poe (18091849) is famous for his short stories of the mysterious and the macabre. His popular tale "The GoldBug," published in 1843, is often cited as one of the best works of fiction that turn upon a secret message. Poe had a longstanding
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 Polyhedra  Peter Cromwell
Ancient manuscripts from Egypt and China relate ideas concerning the calculation of the volumes of polyhedra, while the Greek tradition of geometry gave us the construction of the regular polyhedra or Platonic solids. In modern times, polyhedra and their
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 Portraits of Albert Einstein  Robert Bruen
Numerous blackandwhite photographs of Einstein, provided by Robert Bruen.
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 Powell's Books
Located in Portland, Oregon, USA; the largest independent bookseller in the United States, specializing in technical books and new, used, hardtofind, and antiquarian titles. An extensive subject and keyword list is available  search database of titles,
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 Powersums, Fermat, Waring; Quotes, History...  Nico F. Benschop
Links to papers on the ideas of Fermat, Waring, Goldbach, Cantor, Hensel, HasseMinkowski, and Selmer, and the following mathematical concepts: semigroups, sequential logic synthesis, cubic roots, and state machines and their sequential closure. With
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 Prime Numbers  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay describing the work on primes from Pythagoras through Gauss, Legendre, Riemann, and Valee Poussin, with additional sections on still unsolved problems, the latest prime records, and other web sites, as well as 21 references (books/articles).
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 The Prime Pages  Chris Caldwell; Dept. of Mathematics & Computer Science, Univ. of Tennessee at Martin
An index of information on prime numbers. Definition; Articles and information on primes, including how to find and prove primality, and a wealth of historical information. Lists of primes and prime factorizations, including the first x primes and the
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 Prime Theorem of the Century  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
"Prime numbers have always fascinated mathematicians," Underwood Dudley of DePauw University in Indiana wrote in a 1978 textbook. "They appear among the integers seemingly at random, and yet not quite: There seems to be some order or pattern, just a little
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 Principia Mathematica  A.D.Irvine; Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
The philosophy encyclopedia's entry on Principia Mathematica, the landmark work on mathematical logic and the foundations of mathematics written by Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell. Next to Aristotle's Organon, it is the most influential book
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 Profile (John H. Conway): Not Just Fun and Games  Mark Alpert, Scientific American
A short biography of the Englishborn Princeton University mathematician and a discussion of some of his major mathematical contributions. ...over the past three decades Conway has made some of his greatest contributions to mathematical theory by analyzing
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 A Progression of Primes  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Searches for patterns among prime numbers  whole numbers exactly divisible only by themselves and one  have long served as stiff tests of the ingenuity and perseverance of mathematicians. In recent years, the use of computers has brought a steady stream
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 Projet Folium
Folium est un ensemble organisé d'articles sur les mathématiques, du cours aux biographies de mathématiciens célèbres, en passant par les exos les plus classiques et les théorèmes les plus puissants. Articles
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 Pronunciation Guide to Mathematicians  Gary S. Stoudt, Mathematics Dept., Indiana Univ. of Pennsylvania
Pronunciations of the names of mathematicians frequently encountered by undergraduate students, with links to information about them in the MacTutor History of Mathematics archives. Note on Pronunciation: Not all of the phonetic pronunciation symbols
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 Prophet of Chaos  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
"'...it may happen that small differences in the initial conditions produce very great ones in the final phenomena. A small error in the former will produce an enormous error in the latter. Prediction becomes impossible, and we have the fortuitous phenomenon.'
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 Ptolemy's Ptools  ThinkQuest 1998
Easytounderstand math projects for students to do by themselves or with adult direction. Triangle investigations of the perspectives of the 3D video games Star Fleet Academy, Quake II, and Sub Culture Submarine Adventure. "Quadrant projects" involve
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 Pythagoras: Music and Space  J. BoydBrent
A brief introduction to Pythagoras' observations on the relation between music and number. Graphics show music intervals expressed as mathematical ratios. Pythagoras observed that when the blacksmith struck his anvil, different notes were produced according
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 Pythagoras Plays Ball  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
Spring, baseball, statistics, math. In many ways, baseball is a numbers game: Strikeouts, home runs, batting averages, innings pitched, complete games, earned run averages, number of players left on base in scoring position in the bottom of the ninth
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