 Mission: Critical  San Jose State University, California
A selfpaced interactive tutorial for critical thinking. Introduce your students to the basic concepts of logic. Immediate reinforcement to a series of increasingly complex exercises is provided after each right or wrong answer.
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 Moment of Truth  Keith Devlin (Devlin's Angle)
"Just what do we mean by a 'proof'? It seems that mathematicians  and to avoid generating too many letters of complaint, let me hasten to rephrase that as 'we mathematicians'  are somewhat schizophrenic when it comes to answering this question. When
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 Monocosm: Introduction to Linear Xenology  Vladimir Trifonov; American Mathematical Society (AMS)
A ToposTheoretic Approach to the Foundations of Physics. The FourDimensionality Problem: Why does observable spacetime look fourdimensional? is related to the Compactification Problem. The Effective Metric Signature Problems: Why is the metric of signature
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 Monty Hall Dilemma  Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny
A full discussion (including simulation) of the famous "three doors" problem, also known as the Game Show problem.
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 The Most Common Errors in Undergraduate Mathematics  Eric Schechter
Errors in communication: teacher hostility, student shyness, bad handwriting, not reading directions, loss of invisible parentheses, terms lost inside an ellipsis; Algebra errors: sign errors, everything is additive, everything is commutative, undistributed
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 Mr. Myers' Classroom  Nathan Myers
Read the puzzle of the week and then submit your answers online. Other "brain busters" include matrix logic puzzles, featuring readymade charts. Explore and identify fraction bars with JavaScript, or geometry with Java applets. Also, fact sheets and
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 MSMS World of Logic  Claudia Carter; Mississippi School for Mathematics and Science (MSMS)
MSMS Logic and Game Theory is a study of logic, symbolic notation, truth tables, simple game theory, and problemsolving strategies. Links to significant figures in the world of logic: Lewis Carroll, George Boole, Giuseppe Peano, Von Neuman, Willard Van
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 m@th IT
A "platform to promote, propagate, and mediate applied mathematics and computer sciences," with emphasis on cryptography, number theory, financial mathematics, logic and knowledge representation, and quantum computation. In particular, m@th IT offers
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 MUltlog  Gernot Salzer et al.
MUltlog is a system that takes as input the specification of a finitelyvalued firstorder logic and produces a sequent calculus, a natural deduction system, and clause formation rules for this logic. All generated rules are optimized regarding their
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 MUltseq  Gil, Salzer
MUltseq is a generic sequent prover for propositional finitelyvalued logics. It is intended as companion for MUltlog, which computes optimized sequent rules from the truth tables of a finitely valued logic. MUltseq uses these rules to construct derivations
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 ncase  Nicky Case
Interactive projects that illuminate principles of game theory, logic, and other topics, such as the parable of the paragons (with Vi Hart), coming out simulator (a halftrue game about halftruths), and sight & light (how to create 2D visibility/shadows
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 The nCategory Café  John Baez, David Corfield, and Urs Schreiber
A blog devoted to "that heady interface between physics, mathematics and philosophy." Read posts, many with MathML, that date back to August, 2006.
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 Neutral and NonEuclidean Geometries  David C. Royster; University of North Carolina at Charlotte
Course notes that include: Origins of geometry; spherical geometry; logic and the axiomatic method; proof; Euclid's mathematical system; incidence geometry; betweenness axioms; congruence theorems; axioms of continuity; neutral geometry; theorems of continuity;
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 New Foundations  Randall Holmes
Developing site for the set theory "New Foundations," first introduced by W.V.O. Quine in 1937. A refinement of Russell's theory of types based on the observation that the types in Russell's theory look the same, as far as one can apparently prove. Site
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 New York Regents Exam Prep Center  Oswego City School District
A site dedicated to assisting high school students in preparing for the "new" New York State Math A Regents Examination. Covers Algebra, Geometry, and Algebra II/Trig. The materials featured for each topic include: general review/formula sheet, Regents
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 Nils Ahbel  Deerfield Academy, Deerfield, MA
Access Ahbel's Blackboard courses as a guest to preview his teaching resources and download Excel files in algebra, functions, statistics, and trigonometry.
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 Nonstandard Analysis and the Hyperreals  Jordi Gutierrez Hermoso; Math Forum, Ask Dr. Math FAQ
An essay introducing the most basic ideas of nonstandard analysis and the hyperreal number system. Contents: A Very Brief History of AlmostNothing and MorethanEverything; The Hyperreal WishList; Construction of the hyperreal numbers; Hyperreal arithmetic;
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 NSDL Middle School Portal: Math Pathway  NSDL; the Ohio State University
A middle school portal into NSDL's math resources, browsable by topic, or choose a preselected set of resources on given subjects.
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 Numb3rs Math Activities  Cornell Department of Mathematics
Notes and activities on the mathematics behind each CBS television broadcast of the FBI crime series NUMB3RS, from the pilot episode through season five: Uncertainty Principle, Sniper Zero, Dirty Bomb, Assassin, Toxin, Backscatter, Two Daughters, Burn
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 Numberplay  The New York Times
Mathematical, logical and scientific puzzles, with solution "recaps." The posts, by Gary Antonick and Pradeep Mutalik, have included "Surreal Hat Tricks," "The Puzzles of Pickover," "Prime Rib at Hogwarts," "Nim for (a) Change," "Phi  The Magic and the
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 Numericana.com  Gérard P. Michon
The online companion of Numericana, this site contains excerpts from Michon's book, including the entire glossary of scientific terms. Browse an index with pithy summaries, browse by popularity, or search nearly two hundred of his "final answers" of readers'
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 Nummňlt  Maurici Carbó Jordi
Java applets: an area "workshop," which explains area and division by converting numbers in area units; an architect's toy blocks, with gravity; connecting and programming elementary logic (in the form of pipes with light bulbs signifying true sentences);
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 Nummòlt  Maurici Carbó Jordi
Math teaching resources built by architects include base 10 block manipulatives; a block construction toybox; a logic construction toybox; an area workshop; and MathCats balance. See, in particular, Nummòlt's openended obbl & math toys: adding
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 NuPrl Proof Development System  Cornell University, Ithaca, NY
A tacticbased proof assistant developed over the last 15 years at Cornell University. Its features include: very expressive logical language based on MartinLof type theory, extensive library of formal mathematics and automata theory, possibility of
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 One Trip to the Attic? (Math Chat)  Frank Morgan, MAA Online
In the lobby of a hotel there are three on/off switches. One is attached to a light bulb on the third floor; the other two are attached to nothing at all. You may work the three switches as often as you please. How many times do you need to visit the
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 Onlineindiaeducation  Atul Mittal
Page after page of questions with links to view answers and explanations: aptitude (area, series, "problems on trains," boats and streams, odd man out, and more), puzzles (sudoku, number, logical, clock, etc.), and reasoning (cause and effect, arithmetic,
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 OnLine Logic Book  Johan Mårtensson
An introductory text, with accompanying Java teaching tools for specific topics. Includes an introduction to logic itself and chapters on ontology and semantics.
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 Onlineunitconversion.com
Oover 225,000 conversions, togethr with explanations of their history and use.
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 Open Logic Project
An opensource, collaborative textbook of logic and formal methods, starting at an intermediate level, aimed at a nonmathematical audience. Completely rigorous, the Open Logic Text text strives for modularity, configurability, adaptability, and integration
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 An Outline of the Proof of Gödel's Incompleteness Theorem  Michal Wojcik
On this page we give an outline of the proof of Goedel's Incompleteness Theorem. We construct a statement in set theory such that it is not a theorem and its negation is not a theorem. What we show on this page is not a presentation of the proof that
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 P2S Games  P2S Information Systems Pvt. Ltd
Online games that challenge you to click your way to filling containers of liquids (Fill It Up), completing equations with operations (Equation), adding adjacent tiles to maximize their overall sum (Maximize), selecting operations between the 4s to make
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 Panthera's Puzzle Contest  Dr. Amy Galitzer; Puzzle University
A weekly contest of math, logic, and word puzzles sponsored by the American Mathematical Society and the University of Maryland Mathematics Department. You can submit your own puzzle for the next contest by signing up to participate, or simply read the
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 Pass Calculus  Le Site PassCalculus.com
Calculus question solution service. Solutions offered via email, phone, or fax; quotes are free; payment by credit card. Sample solutions and FAQ online.
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 Pattern Based Reason  Alan Selby
This book surveys rule and pattern based thought in daily life, society, science and technology. The first chapters show how reliable implication rules can be employed one at a time or one after another to arrive at conclusions. The middle chapters describe
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 Penn State University Mathematics Department
Course home pages and instructional material; seminars, colloquia, and conferences; and subject area pages for Penn State research centers, with preprints and links to other resources on the Web: Algebra and Number Theory; Dynamical Systems; Mathematical
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 Perfect Symmetry Number Theory  Derek Nalls
A fundamental, educational exposition of a nonstandard number theory based upon perfect symmetry (in contrast to broken symmetry) modelled throughout arithmetic, algebra, analytic geometry, analytic trigonometry and calculus.
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 Permadi.com  F. Permadi
Java and Flash applets: logic games, drawing and patternmaking programs, Conway's Life, and more arcadestyle offerings. Also includes tutorials in using Flash and a graphics gallery.
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 Perplexus  flooble
A large archive of mathematically inclined puzzles and problems displayed by category. Includes logic, number theory, geometry, probability and other problems. All are rated by difficulty and quality and discussed in depth by visitors. Most with solutions.
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 Personalized Programming Service Inc.
Educational software for teachers and students. Topical software in Math, English, Social Studies, and Science, as well as Quizmaker and Testmaker programs. Download demos and upgrades, browse the products, or order on site.
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 Physics Forums
Discussions emphasize physics, but "PF" also includes an entire directory on mathematics: General Math; Calculus & Analysis; Differential Equations; Linear & Abstract Algebra; Topology & Geometry; Set Theory, Logic, Probability, and Statistics;
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 Pico Firme Bago  Evan M. Fuchs
A Flashbased logic/deduction game, similar to Mastermind. Originally created as an online version of a game used in the author's 5th grade class.
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 Plastelina Logic Games  Plastelina
Free Flash games include classic constrained "crossing" problems, such as the puzzle of ferrying a wolf, a sheep, and a head of cabbage across a river in a boat that only holds any two of them at once, without leaving the wolf and sheep alone in each
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 Postulates and Theorems of Boolean Algebra  Julie Kenrow; Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, CA
Five postulates (identity, complement, commutative law, associative law, distributive law); and six theorems. Supplementary material for a course in electrical engineering (Logic Design).
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 Powell's Books
Located in Portland, Oregon, USA; the largest independent bookseller in the United States, specializing in technical books and new, used, hardtofind, and antiquarian titles. An extensive subject and keyword list is available  search database of titles,
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 Powersums, Fermat, Waring; Quotes, History...  Nico F. Benschop
Links to papers on the ideas of Fermat, Waring, Goldbach, Cantor, Hensel, HasseMinkowski, and Selmer, and the following mathematical concepts: semigroups, sequential logic synthesis, cubic roots, and state machines and their sequential closure. With
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 The Practice of Logical Frameworks (1996)  Frank Pfenning
A survey article discussing the history of work on logical frameworks and their current open problems. Deductive systems, given via axioms and rules of inference, are a common conceptual tool in mathematical logic and computer science. They are used to
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 Preuve Proof Prueba
A newsletter in French, Spanish, and English, the theme of which is teaching and learning mathematical proofs. Includes an extensive bibliography consisting of books, chapters in books, journal articles, and theses.
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 Principia Cybernetica Web  Turchin, Joslyn, Heylighen, Bollen, eds.
Principia Cybernetica Project (PCP) is an international organization that tries to tackle ageold philosophical questions with the help of the most recent cybernetic theories and technologies. The Project's aim is the computersupported collaborative
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 Principia Mathematica  A.D.Irvine; Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
The philosophy encyclopedia's entry on Principia Mathematica, the landmark work on mathematical logic and the foundations of mathematics written by Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell. Next to Aristotle's Organon, it is the most influential book
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 Principia Mathematica II  Michael Meyling
An open source project attempting to present mathematical knowledge in a formal, correct form. It includes a proof verifier which checks a mathematical proof written in a certain formal language and an HTML converter for making mathematical HTML pages.
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