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  1. Continued Fractions: an Introduction - Adam Van Tuyl
    A brief introduction to the field of continued fractions, including some basic theory about the subject; the history of continued fractions, tracing some of the major developments in the field in the past 2500 years; some interactive applications that demonstrate the uses of continued fractions and let you calculate them; and the resources used in creating this site, including a bibliography and links to other sites on the Web. more>>

  2. Fermat's Last Theorem - MacTutor Math History Archives
    Essay describing Fermat's theorem with links to mathematicians such as Sophie Germain, Legendre, Dirichlet, Shimura and Taniyama, etc., from its inception through Andrew Wiles' proof, with another web site and 17 references (books/articles). more>>

  3. Number Theory - Dave Rusin; The Mathematical Atlas
    A historical introduction to number theory; applications and related fields and subfields; textbooks, reference works, and tutorials; software and tables; other web sites with this focus; and selected topics. more>>

  4. Number Theory (Mathematics Archives) - University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)
    An extensive list of links to sites with information about number theory, classified by level and type of resource. more>>

  5. Number Theory (MathPages) - Kevin Brown
    More than 100 "informal notes" by Kevin Brown on number theory: linear recurring sequences, Zeisel numbers, Wilsonian primes, arithmetic progression, sublime numbers, square triangular numbers, and many more. more>>

  All Sites - 479 items found, showing 1 to 50

  1. 0 to 0 power - Math Forum, Ask Dr. Math FAQ
    In calculus, 0^0 is an "indeterminate form"; in some cases we think about it as having one value, and in other cases as having another... ...more>>

  2. 1991 Mathematics Subject Classification (MSC) - Chris Eilbeck; Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh
    A hypertext version of the 1991 MSC. The main purpose of the classification is to help readers to find the items of present or potential interest to them as readily as possible - in MR, in Zbl, or anywhere else where this classification system is used. ...more>>

  3. 3.1415926... - TWO-N, INC.
    This visualization of the first four million decimal digits of π shows each of the digits 0-9 as a different colored pixel. Slide the navigator down to see the numeric "snow" representing the digits 500,001 through 4,000,000; search for any number ...more>>

  4. 3Blue1Brown - Grant Sanderson
    Video explanations that elucidate with computer animations, changes in perspective, humor, and — occasionally — rhyming voice-over: Euler's formula, circle division (disjoint regions obtained by joining n points around a circle), and complex ...more>>

  5. The 3n +1 Problem - Darrell Cox
    A probabilistic approach to the Collatz conjecture. With references to continued-fraction convergence of log(3)/log(2), m-cycles, and other classical approaches to the 3n + 1 problem, as well as the MSVC++ C code that confirmed many of Cox's propositions. ...more>>

  6. The 3x+1 problem and its generalizations (Organic Mathematics Proceedings) - Jeff Lagarias
    The 3x+1 problem, also known as the Collatz problem, the Syracuse problem, Kakutani's problem, Hasse's algorithm, and Ulam's problem, concerns the behavior of the iterates of the function which takes odd integers n to 3n+1 and even integers n to n/2. ...more>>

  7. 5 Numbers - Simon Singh and Marcus du Sautoy, BBC Radio 4
    Web pages and Real Audio Music downloads of fifteen minute-long radio broadcasts that take a "quirky look" at zero, pi, the golden ratio, i, and infinity. "Hear about the stark reality behind the imaginary number, try a slice of pi, find out about the ...more>>

  8. Abak-Bot
    Online calculators for determining an arbitrary number of the Fibonacci sequence; solving Diophantine equations; calculating the roots of a cubic complex equation; finding the area of intersection of the circles on the plane; calculating the shortest ...more>>

  9. The ABC Conjecture Home Page - Abderrahmane Nitaj
    A statement of the abc conjecture, first formulated by Joseph Oesterlé and David Masser in 1985, with generalizations, consequences, tables, and a bibliography. Also abc theses, and relevant links. ...more>>

  10. Active Elementary Number Theory: n2 + 1 and coprime increasing pairs of different parity - H. B. Meyer
    An interactive study of coprime increasing number-pairs of different parity and their relations to divisors of n2 + 1. Requires JavaScript. ...more>>

  11. Addition and Multiplication Tables in Various Bases - Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny
    An applet that combines addition and multiplication tables for bases from 2 through 36. In every base N, there are N digits. In the decimal system, for example, we have 10 of them: 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9. In base 7, there are seven digits: 0,1,2,3,4,5,6. ...more>>

  12. Advanced Topics in Mathematics - Anthony Beckwith
    Page for a high school course exploring fractals, the Global Positioning System, number theory, topology, chaos theory, and the history of mathematics. Syllabus and brief description of each topic. ...more>>

  13. aeyoung.mathematician - Andrew E. Young
    Papers from a Mathematics graduate from The University Of Sussex at Brighton: Number Theory: GCD and Prime Factorisation; Molien's Theorem, Invariant Theory and Gregor Kemper; A History of Equality. ...more>>

  14. Algebraic Number Theory and Elliptic Curves - Ghitza, Osserman; Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    A semester-long seminar giving a rapid introduction to algebraic number theory and elliptic curves. Topics: Dedekind domains, rings of integers, scheme-theoretic curves, finite morphisms thereof, splitting and ramification, the Tchebotarov density theorem ...more>>

  15. Algebra (MathPages) - Kevin Brown
    More than 50 "informal notes" by Kevin Brown on algebra. Kummer's Objection; irreducibility criteria, multiple linear regression, string algebra, characteristic polynomial of a matrix, iterated means, sums of powers, polynomials from Pascal's Triangle, ...more>>

  16. alt.math.undergrad - Math Forum
    An unmoderated discussion forum for issues and problems pertaining to college undergraduate mathematics. Read and search archived messages; and register to post to the discussions. ...more>>

  17. Al Zimmermann's Programming Contests - Al Zimmermann
    An "arena where demented computer programmers compete for glory and for some cool prizes." Computationally intensive problems, often involving heuristics, have included "Point Packing," "Retaining Water" (based on magic squares), "Son of Darts," "Topswops" ...more>>

  18. The Amazing ABC Conjecture - Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
    In number theory, straightforward, reasonable questions are remarkably easy to ask, yet many of these questions are surprisingly difficult or even impossible to answer. Fermat's last theorem, for instance, involves an equation of the form x^n + y^n = ...more>>

  19. The American Mathematical Monthly (MAA Online) - Roger A. Horn, Ed., Mathematical Association of America (MAA)
    The Monthly publishes articles, notes, and other features about mathematics and the profession. Its readers include professional mathematicians as well as students of mathematics at all collegiate levels. Authors are invited to submit articles and notes ...more>>

  20. Andrew Odlyzko
    Home page of the Head of the Mathematics and Cryptography Research Department at AT&T Labs. The site contains a comprehensive list of his papers, most of which may be downloaded in LaTex, PDF, or PostScript form if they are not available as plain ...more>>

  21. Archives of NMBRTHRY@LISTSERV.NODAK.EDU (Number Theory List) - North Dakota Higher Education Computer Network (NODAK)
    Searchable archives of postings, September 1987 - present. ...more>>

  22. Arithmetic Properties of Binomial Coefficients (Organic Mathematics Proceedings) - Andrew Granville
    Many great mathematicians of the nineteenth century considered problems involving binomial coefficients modulo a prime power (for instance Babbage, Cauchy, Cayley, Gauss, Hensel, Hermite, Kummer, Legendre, Lucas and Stickelberger). They discovered a variety ...more>>

  23. Articles on Mathematics - Subramaniyan Neelagandan
    Articles in four formats: DVI, PDF, PS, and TEX Code. The Distribution of Prime Numbers & Integer Factorization; The Simplification of Fermat's Last Theorem; Exploration of Collatz's Conjecture. ...more>>

  24. arXiv.org e-Print archive - Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)
    A major site for mathematics preprints that has incorporated many formerly independent specialist archives including alg-geom, funct-an, dg-ga, q-alg, auto-fms, cd-hg, MAGNUS, Several Complex Variables, Logic E-prints, Commutative Algebra, Dynamical Systems, ...more>>

  25. The Askey-scheme of hypergeometric orthogonal polynomials and its q-analogue - Koekoek, Swarttouw; Delft University of Technology
    A 1998 report: definition, orthogonality relation, three-term recurrence relation, second order differential or difference equation, forward and backward shift operator, Rodrigues-type formula and generating functions of all classes of orthogonal polynomials; ...more>>

  26. AwesomeTutors.com
    Las Vegas-based one-on-one tutoring service, with email, webcam and phone tutoring available for most tutoring subjects. Prepayment required. ...more>>

  27. Base 10, Base 2, and Base 16 - Walter Davis
    Examples of different bases. There are several ways to represent a value using symbols. Roman numerals are an example. Position valued representation (PVR) is another example, the one with which we are the most familiar. With PVR, a limited number of ...more>>

  28. Base Considerations - Keith Devlin (Devlin's Angle)
    A discussion of base systems, including negative bases, used in computers. "We are so used to computers nowadays that it seems obvious that computer arithmetic should be performed in a binary fashion. After all, this is the most natural form for a computer, ...more>>

  29. Base Conversion Routine - David Cronin
    This is a Javascript base conversion program for bases 2 through 36. The author writes: "Feel free to make use of it. It's limited only by the precision of enviroment runtime." ...more>>

  30. Base Converter - Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny
    A fairly high-level introduction to binary and other base systems, with a Java converter and links to related pages including: arithmetic operations in various bases, algorithmic conversion procedure, linguistic fun with base 36, Napier bones, abacus, ...more>>

  31. Basic Mathematics - Jetser Carasco
    Short, instructive articles that explain fractions, ratio and proportion, number theory, basic geometry, graphs, decimals, percents, and some algebra. This site, created by a math major who has taught high school math since 2008, also offers free math ...more>>

  32. Basics of Computational Number Theory - Robert Campbell
    An introduction to computational number theory, beginning with a quick overview of arithmetic in the modular integers. Throughout, the paper emphasizes computation and practical results rather than delving into the why. Simple programs, generally in JavaScript, ...more>>

  33. The Beal Conjecture
    About Beal's conjecture and the prize offered for the proof or disproof of this important number theory relation. ...more>>

  34. The Beal Conjecture and Prize - R. Daniel Mauldin; Department of Mathematics, University of North Texas
    An announcement of a prize for the solution to a problem pertaining to the Diophantine equation of the form A^x + B^y = C^z where A, B, C, x, y and z are positive integers and x, y and z are all greater than 2, then A, B and C must have a common factor. ...more>>

  35. Between Arithmetic and Algebra - Cut the Knot!, Alexander Bogomolny
    What is the difference between the arithmetic 3+5 = 5+3 and the algebraic a+b = b+c? One is a specific fact, another is a pattern valid in a multitude of situations. While arithmetic may hint at some regularities, algebra, as a language, gives expression ...more>>

  36. Between Arithmetic and Algebra - Cut the Knot!, Alexander Bogomolny
    What is the difference between the arithmetic 3 + 5 = 5 + 3 and the algebraic a + b = b + c? One is a specific fact, another is a pattern valid in a multitude of situations. While arithmetic may hint at some regularities, algebra, as a language, gives ...more>>

  37. A Bibliography of Bernoulli Numbers - Karl Dilcher
    A bibliography of Bernoulli numbers by Karl Dilcher and Ilja Sh. Slavutskii. The Bernoulli numbers are among the most interesting and important number sequences in mathematics. They are particularly important in number theory, especially in connection ...more>>

  38. Bibliography on Hilbert's Tenth Problem - Alf-Christian Achilles; Computer Science Bibliography Collection
    Browse or search almost 400 references in this bibliography by Maxim Vsemirnov and Yuri Matiyasevich. Its ultimate goal is to contain references to all publications connected with the undecidability of Hilbert's Tenth Problem. ...more>>

  39. The Binary System - Norfleet, Singleton; Wayne State University, Detroit MI
    A short history of the binary system; binary to decimal and decimal to binary conversion; binary addition and multiplication; logic gates, and a glossary. ...more>>

  40. BinaryTranslator.com
    Translate text to binary and vice versa, and similarly convert between binary and decimal. ...more>>

  41. Binomial Coefficients - Bill Hammel
    A collection of identities and formulas involving binomial coefficients: defined by factorials, appearing in Pascal's Triangle, derived with choose notation and summation formulas, approximated by Stirling's Formula, and more. ...more>>

  42. Blog on the history of Fermat's Last Theorem and Wiles' Proof - Larry Freeman
    The purpose of this blog is survey the developments of number theory in relation to Fermat's Last Theorem. I try to focus on the people, ideas, and mathematical details. It is meant to be interesting, accessible, and accurate in its mathematical details. ...more>>

  43. Books: Professional & Technical: Professional Science: Mathematics - Amazon.com
    Browse bestselling math books from the Professional and Technical Bookstore at Amazon.com, in such categories as Applied; Chaos & Systems; Geometry & Topology; Mathematical Analysis; Mathematical Physics; Number Systems; Pure Mathematics; Transformations; ...more>>

  44. Bridge to Higher Mathematics - Sam Vandervelde
    Textbook for use with the proofs course taught at St. Lawrence University by Vandervelde, an Associate Professor of Mathematics who writes questions for the USA Math Olympiad. Bridge to Higher Mathematics incorporates "concept checks" and "mathematical ...more>>

  45. Brief Course Materials for Various Courses - E. Lee Lady; University of Hawaii
    A collection of short handouts: files are in PDF and DVI formats. Contents include: The Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, the division algorithm, solutions of linear congruences, solving the Chinese Remainder problem, an example of a continued fraction, ...more>>

  46. A Brief History of Mechanical Calculators - James Redin
    An essay on the historical evolution of calculating machines, from the abacus to Babbage's differential machine to today's computers. Contents include: the abacus; the Antikythera calculator; Napier's Bones; Leonardo da Vinci's design; Schickardís machine; ...more>>

  47. Calculation and the Chess Master - Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
    In 1912, J. B. Shaw wrote in the Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society: "The game of chess has always fascinated mathematicians, and there is reason to suppose that the possession of great powers of playing that game is in many features very much ...more>>

  48. A Calculator
    JavaScript calculators: the four basic operations, average, arithmetic congruence, greatest common divisor (GCD), least common multiple (LCM), radical simplifier, word converter that writes out numerals, and more. ...more>>

  49. Calculators On-Line Center: Part II - Mathematics - Martindale's Reference Desk
    Over 7,420 calculators for: Unit Conversion (Time, Distance, Length, Speed, Weight, etc.); Abacus; Basic Math; Complex Mathematics; Complex Math Education; Complex Math Calculators by Specialty: Algebra and Linear Algebra; Algorithms; Calculus; Central ...more>>

  50. Carousel Numbers. A Lead-in to Number Theory - Gary Klatt; Univ. of Wisconsin - Whitewater; The Math Forum
    A connected series of four problems in elementary number theory that are ideal for discovery learning at several levels. Each problem generates interesting questions and conjectures, and their surprising connections add interest and allow each to shed ...more>>

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