 0 to 0 power  Math Forum, Ask Dr. Math FAQ
According to some Calculus textbooks, 0^0 is an "indeterminate form"; in some cases we think about it as having one value, and in other cases as having another...
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 1991 Mathematics Subject Classification (MSC)  Chris Eilbeck; HeriotWatt University, Edinburgh
A hypertext version of the 1991 MSC. The main purpose of the classification is to help readers to find the items of present or potential interest to them as readily as possible  in MR, in Zbl, or anywhere else where this classification system is used.
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 3.1415926...  TWON, INC.
This visualization of the first four million decimal digits of π shows each of the digits 09 as a different colored pixel. Slide the navigator down to see the numeric "snow" representing the digits 500,001 through 4,000,000; search for any number
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 The 3n +1 Problem  Darrell Cox
A probabilistic approach to the Collatz conjecture. With references to continuedfraction convergence of log(3)/log(2), mcycles, and other classical approaches to the 3n+1 problem, as well as the MSVC++ C code that confirmed many of Cox's propositions.
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 The 3x+1 problem and its generalizations (Organic Mathematics Proceedings)  Jeff Lagarias
The 3x+1 problem, also known as the Collatz problem, the Syracuse problem, Kakutani's problem, Hasse's algorithm, and Ulam's problem, concerns the behavior of the iterates of the function which takes odd integers n to 3n+1 and even integers n to n/2.
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 5 Numbers  Simon Singh and Marcus du Sautoy, BBC Radio 4
Web pages and Real Audio Music downloads of fifteen minutelong radio broadcasts that take a "quirky look" at zero, pi, the golden ratio, i, and infinity. "Hear about the stark reality behind the imaginary number, try a slice of pi, find out about the
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 The ABC Conjecture Home Page  Abderrahmane Nitaj
A statement of the abc conjecture, first formulated by Joseph Oesterlé and David Masser in 1985, with generalizations, consequences, tables, and a bibliography. Also abc theses, and relevant links.
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 Active Elementary Number Theory: n^{2} + 1 and coprime increasing pairs of different parity  H. B. Meyer
An interactive study of coprime increasing numberpairs of different parity and their relations to divisors of n2 + 1. Requires JavaScript.
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 Addition and Multiplication Tables in Various Bases  Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny
An applet that combines addition and multiplication tables for bases from 2 through 36. In every base N, there are N digits. In the decimal system, for example, we have 10 of them: 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9. In base 7, there are seven digits: 0,1,2,3,4,5,6.
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 Advanced Topics in Mathematics  Anthony Beckwith
Page for a high school course exploring fractals, the Global Positioning System, number theory, topology, chaos theory, and the history of mathematics. Syllabus and brief description of each topic.
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 aeyoung.mathematician  Andrew E. Young
Papers from a Mathematics graduate from The University Of Sussex at Brighton: Number Theory: GCD and Prime Factorisation; Molien's Theorem, Invariant Theory and Gregor Kemper; A History of Equality.
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 Algebraic Number Theory and Elliptic Curves  Ghitza, Osserman; Massachusetts Institute of Technology
A semesterlong seminar giving a rapid introduction to algebraic number theory and elliptic curves. Topics: Dedekind domains, rings of integers, schemetheoretic curves, finite morphisms thereof, splitting and ramification, the Tchebotarov density theorem
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 Algebra (MathPages)  Kevin Brown
More than 50 "informal notes" by Kevin Brown on algebra. Kummer's Objection; irreducibility criteria, multiple linear regression, string algebra, characteristic polynomial of a matrix, iterated means, sums of powers, polynomials from Pascal's Triangle,
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 alt.math.undergrad  Math Forum
An unmoderated discussion forum for issues and problems pertaining to college undergraduate mathematics. Read and search archived messages; and register to post to the discussions.
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 The Amazing ABC Conjecture  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
In number theory, straightforward, reasonable questions are remarkably easy to ask, yet many of these questions are surprisingly difficult or even impossible to answer. Fermat's last theorem, for instance, involves an equation of the form x^n + y^n =
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 The American Mathematical Monthly (MAA Online)  Roger A. Horn, Ed., Mathematical Association of America (MAA)
The Monthly publishes articles, notes, and other features about mathematics and the profession. Its readers include professional mathematicians as well as students of mathematics at all collegiate levels. Authors are invited to submit articles and notes
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 Andrew Odlyzko
Home page of the Head of the Mathematics and Cryptography Research Department at AT&T Labs. The site contains a comprehensive list of his papers, most of which may be downloaded in LaTex, PDF, or PostScript form if they are not available as plain
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 Archives of NMBRTHRY@LISTSERV.NODAK.EDU (Number Theory List)  North Dakota Higher Education Computer Network (NODAK)
Searchable archives of postings, September 1987  present.
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 Arithmetic Properties of Binomial Coefficients (Organic Mathematics Proceedings)  Andrew Granville
Many great mathematicians of the nineteenth century considered problems involving binomial coefficients modulo a prime power (for instance Babbage, Cauchy, Cayley, Gauss, Hensel, Hermite, Kummer, Legendre, Lucas and Stickelberger). They discovered a variety
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 Articles on Mathematics  Subramaniyan Neelagandan
Articles in four formats: DVI, PDF, PS, and TEX Code. The Distribution of Prime Numbers & Integer Factorization; The Simplification of Fermat's Last Theorem; Exploration of Collatz's Conjecture.
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 arXiv.org ePrint archive  Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)
A major site for mathematics preprints that has incorporated many formerly independent specialist archives including alggeom, functan, dgga, qalg, autofms, cdhg, MAGNUS, Several Complex Variables, Logic Eprints, Commutative Algebra, Dynamical Systems,
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 The Askeyscheme of hypergeometric orthogonal polynomials and its qanalogue  Koekoek, Swarttouw; Delft University of Technology
A 1998 report: definition, orthogonality relation, threeterm recurrence relation, second order differential or difference equation, forward and backward shift operator, Rodriguestype formula and generating functions of all classes of orthogonal polynomials;
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 AwesomeTutors.com
Las Vegasbased oneonone tutoring service, with email, webcam and phone tutoring available for most tutoring subjects. Prepayment required.
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 Base 10, Base 2, and Base 16  Walter Davis
Examples of different bases. There are several ways to represent a value using symbols. Roman numerals are an example. Position valued representation (PVR) is another example, the one with which we are the most familiar. With PVR, a limited number of
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 Base Considerations  Keith Devlin (Devlin's Angle)
A discussion of base systems, including negative bases, used in computers. "We are so used to computers nowadays that it seems obvious that computer arithmetic should be performed in a binary fashion. After all, this is the most natural form for a computer,
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 Base Conversion Routine  David Cronin
This is a Javascript base conversion program for bases 2 through 36. The author writes: "Feel free to make use of it. It's limited only by the precision of enviroment runtime."
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 Base Converter  Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny
A fairly highlevel introduction to binary and other base systems, with a Java converter and links to related pages including: arithmetic operations in various bases, algorithmic conversion procedure, linguistic fun with base 36, Napier bones, abacus,
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 Basic Mathematics  Jetser Carasco
Short, instructive articles that explain fractions, ratio and proportion, number theory, basic geometry, graphs, decimals, percents, and some algebra. This site, created by a math major who has taught high school math since 2008, also offers free math
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 Basics of Computational Number Theory  Robert Campbell
An introduction to computational number theory, beginning with a quick overview of arithmetic in the modular integers. Throughout, the paper emphasizes computation and practical results rather than delving into the why. Simple programs, generally in JavaScript,
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 The Beal Conjecture
About Beal's conjecture and the prize offered for the proof or disproof of this important number theory relation.
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 The Beal Conjecture and Prize  R. Daniel Mauldin; Department of Mathematics, University of North Texas
An announcement of a prize for the solution to a problem pertaining to the Diophantine equation of the form A^x + B^y = C^z where A, B, C, x, y and z are positive integers and x, y and z are all greater than 2, then A, B and C must have a common factor.
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 Between Arithmetic and Algebra  Cut the Knot!, Alexander Bogomolny
What is the difference between the arithmetic 3+5 = 5+3 and the algebraic a+b = b+c? One is a specific fact, another is a pattern valid in a multitude of situations. While arithmetic may hint at some regularities, algebra, as a language, gives expression
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 Between Arithmetic and Algebra  Cut the Knot!, Alexander Bogomolny
What is the difference between the arithmetic 3 + 5 = 5 + 3 and the algebraic a + b = b + c? One is a specific fact, another is a pattern valid in a multitude of situations. While arithmetic may hint at some regularities, algebra, as a language, gives
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 A Bibliography of Bernoulli Numbers  Karl Dilcher
A bibliography of Bernoulli numbers by Karl Dilcher and Ilja Sh. Slavutskii. The Bernoulli numbers are among the most interesting and important number sequences in mathematics. They are particularly important in number theory, especially in
connection
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 Bibliography on Hilbert's Tenth Problem  AlfChristian Achilles; Computer Science Bibliography Collection
Browse or search almost 400 references in this bibliography by Maxim Vsemirnov and Yuri Matiyasevich. Its ultimate goal is to contain references to all publications connected with the undecidability of Hilbert's Tenth Problem.
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 The Binary System  Norfleet, Singleton; Wayne State University, Detroit MI
A short history of the binary system; binary to decimal and decimal to binary conversion; binary addition and multiplication; logic gates, and a glossary.
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 BinaryTranslator.com
Translate text to binary and vice versa, and similarly convert between binary and decimal.
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 Binomial Coefficients  Bill Hammel
A collection of identities and formulas involving binomial coefficients: defined by factorials, appearing in Pascal's Triangle, derived with choose notation and summation formulas, approximated by Stirling's Formula, and more.
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 Blog on the history of Fermat's Last Theorem and Wiles' Proof  Larry Freeman
The purpose of this blog is survey the developments of number theory in relation to Fermat's Last Theorem. I try to focus on the people, ideas, and mathematical details. It is meant to be interesting, accessible, and accurate in its mathematical details.
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 Books: Professional & Technical: Professional Science: Mathematics  Amazon.com
Browse bestselling math books from the Professional and Technical Bookstore at Amazon.com, in such categories as Applied; Chaos & Systems; Geometry & Topology; Mathematical Analysis; Mathematical Physics; Number Systems; Pure Mathematics; Transformations;
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 Bridge to Higher Mathematics  Sam Vandervelde
Textbook for use with the proofs course taught at St. Lawrence University by Vandervelde, an Associate Professor of Mathematics who writes questions for the USA Math Olympiad. Bridge to Higher Mathematics incorporates "concept checks" and "mathematical
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 Brief Course Materials for Various Courses  E. Lee Lady; University of Hawaii
A collection of short handouts: files are in PDF and DVI formats. Contents include: The Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, the division algorithm, solutions of linear congruences, solving the Chinese Remainder problem, an example of a continued fraction,
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 A Brief History of Mechanical Calculators  James Redin
An essay on the historical evolution of calculating machines, from the abacus to Babbage's differential machine to today's computers. Contents include: the abacus; the Antikythera calculator; Napier's Bones; Leonardo da Vinci's design; Schickard’s machine;
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 Calculation and the Chess Master  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
In 1912, J. B. Shaw wrote in the Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society: "The game of chess has always fascinated mathematicians, and there is reason to suppose that the possession of great powers of playing that game is in many features very much
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 A Calculator
JavaScript calculators: the four basic operations, average, arithmetic congruence, greatest common divisor (GCD), least common multiple (LCM), radical simplifier, word converter that writes out numerals, and more.
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 Calculators OnLine Center: Part II  Mathematics  Martindale's Reference Desk
Over 7,420 calculators for: Unit Conversion (Time, Distance, Length, Speed, Weight, etc.); Abacus; Basic Math; Complex Mathematics; Complex Math Education; Complex Math Calculators by Specialty: Algebra and Linear Algebra; Algorithms; Calculus; Central
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 Carousel Numbers. A Leadin to Number Theory  Gary Klatt; Univ. of Wisconsin  Whitewater; The Math Forum
A connected series of four problems in elementary number theory that are ideal for discovery learning at several levels. Each problem generates interesting questions and conjectures, and their surprising connections add interest and allow each to shed
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 A Catalog of Random Bits  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
Researchers use random numbers for tackling a wide range of problems, from modeling molecular behavior and sampling opinion to solving certain equations and testing the efficiency of algorithms. Such numbers also play crucial roles in a wide variety of
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 Chinese Remainder Theorem  Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny
An explanation and proof, using modular arithmetic, of the Chinese Remainder Theorem, which concerns problems of the following type: There are certain things whose number is unknown. Repeatedly divided by 3, the remainder is 2; by 5 the remainder is 3;
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 Classifying Numbers  Math Forum, Ask Dr. Math Common Question
A selection of answers to questions about classifying numbers, such as "How are the different types of numbers related?" and "What is a real number?"
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