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  1. Perfect Numbers - Math Forum, Ask Dr. Math FAQ
    What is a perfect number? How many are there? How can you calculate a perfect number from a Mersenne prime? ...more>>

  2. Perplexus - flooble
    A large archive of mathematically inclined puzzles and problems displayed by category. Includes logic, number theory, geometry, probability and other problems. All are rated by difficulty and quality and discussed in depth by visitors. Most with solutions. ...more>>

  3. Peter Ash's Thoughts on Math and Education - Peter Ash
    Musings on doing and teaching mathematics, book reviews, and math problems both elementary and advanced from the creator of Cambridge Math Learning. Blog posts, which date back to August of 2007, include "Very Proper Fractions"; "Physical Models for Non-Euclidean ...more>>

  4. Phi's Fascinating Figures - Ron Knott
    More properties of the number Phi, its multiples and powers, continued fractions, formulae, and numerical relations between Phi and its powers. ...more>>

  5. Physics Forums
    Discussions emphasize physics, but "PF" also includes an entire directory on mathematics: General Math; Calculus & Analysis; Differential Equations; Linear & Abstract Algebra; Topology & Geometry; Set Theory, Logic, Probability, and Statistics; ...more>>

  6. Pi: A Source Book - J. Borwein, Springer-Verlag
    A complete history of pi, with resources for teachers for anything from special topic courses to individual talks and special student projects. The literature on pi included in this source book falls into three classes: a selection of the mathematical ...more>>

  7. Pick's Theorem - Cut the Knot!, Alexander Bogomolny
    A description with proof of Pick's theorem, including links to further pages including exercises with an applet for the geoboard, Farey Series, and Stern-Brocot Tree. An interactive column for MAA Online that uses a Java applet to simulate a puzzle or ...more>>

  8. Place Value - Cut the Knot!, Alexander Bogomolny
    Dictionary definitions of place value and what they lack; the emphasis on place value in the NCTM Standards; its importance in understanding our numeration system; how it arises from one of several possible representations of grouping in the counting ...more>>

  9. Planetcalc - Anton Egoshin
    More than a hundred free calculators on math topics ranging from area of a triangle by its coordinates to total squares (the number of squares in given rectangles). Categories of others include date and time, health, computers, engineering, finance, navigation, ...more>>

  10. Plouffe's Inverter - Simon Plouffe
    A database of more than 84,800,000 mathematical constants like Pi, Sqrt(2), Catalan and Euler's gamma. Enter a number, search or browse, and the programs will find what the number is made of. From the author of the Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences (with ...more>>

  11. The post-IMO97 web page - Olimpíada Matemática Argentina
    Problems and results from the math olympics held in Argentina in July, 1997. Available in English and Spanish, with problems also in French, Russian, German, and a host of other languages. ...more>>

  12. Powell's Books
    Located in Portland, Oregon, USA; the largest independent bookseller in the United States, specializing in technical books and new, used, hard-to-find, and antiquarian titles. An extensive subject and keyword list is available - search database of titles, ...more>>

  13. The Power of One - Robert Matthews, The New Scientist
    Benford's law demands that around 30 per cent of the numbers in a given data set will start with a 1, 18 per cent with a 2, right down to just 4.6 per cent starting with a 9. This essay provides a mathematical history behind the counterintuitive law, ...more>>

  14. The Power of Partitions - Ivars Peterson - Science News Online
    A year before his death in 1920 at the age of 32, mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan came upon a remarkable pattern in a special list of whole numbers that gave, for each of the first 200 integers, the number of their partitions, which range from 1 to ...more>>

  15. Powersums, Fermat, Waring; Quotes, History... - Nico F. Benschop
    Links to papers on the ideas of Fermat, Waring, Goldbach, Cantor, Hensel, Hasse-Minkowski, and Selmer, and the following mathematical concepts: semigroups, sequential logic synthesis, cubic roots, and state machines and their sequential closure. With ...more>>

  16. Primality Testing - Math Forum, Ask Dr. Math Common Question
    A selection of answers to questions about primality testing, from "How does the Sieve of Eratosthenes work?" to "Is there an algorithm to determine whether a very large number is prime?" ...more>>

  17. primegen - D. J. Bernstein
    Download primegen, a small, fast library to generate prime numbers in order. Using the Sieve of Atkin instead of the traditional Sieve of Eratosthenes, it generates the 50847534 primes up to 1000000000 in just 8 seconds on a Pentium II-350; it prints ...more>>

  18. The Prime Number Maze - William Paulsen; Arkansas State University, Jonesboro, AK
    Navigate mazes of binary numbers determined by the distribution of the prime numbers. Try mazes at Beginner (binary notations and prime numbers), Intermediate (500 rooms), Advanced (5000 rooms), Super Advanced (6 times larger than the advanced), or Ultimate ...more>>

  19. Prime Talent - Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
    Whole numbers have all sorts of curious properties. Consider, for example, the integer 1998. It turns out that 1998 is equal to the sum of its digits plus the cubes of those digits (1 + 9 + 9 + 8 + 13 + 93 + 93 + 83). What's the largest number for which ...more>>

  20. Prize offered for solving number conundrum - Ivars Peterson - Science News Online
    A proof of a conjecture related to Fermat's last theorem would earn $50,000. ...more>>

  21. Problem-of-the-Week - David Poole; Department of Mathematics, Trent University, Canada
    Most of these problems can be done using only high school mathematics and logical reasoning. Eight problems with solutions and one without, from the fall of 1997, at Trent University, Canada. An email contact is listed, for those outside the university ...more>>

  22. Problem of the Week - Dr. Annalisa Crannell; Franklin & Marshall College
    Puzzles to solve in number theory, geometry, probability, cryptography, and the like. See problems from 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, and 1997. ...more>>

  23. Problem of the Week - Elgin Johnston, Department of Mathematics, Iowa State University of Science and Technology
    Download PDFs of challenging problems in number theory, abstract algebra, graph theory, and other topics every Monday. Intended for undergraduate students enrolled at Iowa State University: "Solvers of each week's problem will be listed on the Problem ...more>>

  24. Problem of the Week - Pavel Belik, Augsburg College
    Weekly challenges, posted for undergraduates at Augsburg College, that run the gamut from number theory to geometry and beyond. ...more>>

  25. Problem Solving in Mathematics - Jim Wilson; Univ. of Georgia
    Problems in algebra, geometry, conversion, cryptarithm, "mean," trigonometry, and a mixture of all, many with comments and solutions, from a course given in the Dept. of Mathematics Education at the University of Georgia. The site also provides links ...more>>

  26. Problem Solving Island - Samuel A. Rebelsky
    Challenging open-ended word problems on the topics of games, such as Blockade, Finger Multiplication, and The Word Pyramid; puzzles such as Error Correction, Error Detection, The Fake Coin, Friday the 13th, and Leap Birthdays; and problems based on figures, ...more>>

  27. Project Euler - Colin Hughes
    Browse hundreds of challenging problems that require mathematical insights as well as computer and programming skills to solve. Popular puzzles include "Add all the natural numbers below one thousand that are multiples of 3 or 5," "By considering the ...more>>

  28. Project Welcome (Web Educator's Library Collection of Mathematical Explorations) - MAA (Mathematical Association of America)
    Interactive mathematical programs in a newly developed, Java-based interface. Download online or offline versions of the player. Twenty lessons, with summaries, include "Best Linear Fit," "Limits of Functions," "Piecewise Functions," "Nonlinear Equations," ...more>>

  29. PROMYS: The Program in Mathematics for Young Scientists - Boston University Department of Mathematics and Statistics
    PROMYS encourages ambitious high school students to explore the creative world of mathematics. Each summer, approximately 60 high school students from around the country gather on the campus of Boston University for six weeks of rigorous mathematical ...more>>

  30. A Proof of the Full Shimura-Taniyama-Weil Conjecture - Henri Darmon
    Download an article in PDF-format on the completion of the proof by Wiles, Breuil, Conrad, Diamond and Taylor. ...more>>

  31. Proofs in Mathematics - Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny
    A discussion of the value of proofs in the classroom, followed by a collection of proofs classified as either simple or charming. Simple proofs: Number of vowels in a Lewis Carroll game; Pigeonhole Principle; Number of X's and O's; Coloring points in ...more>>

  32. Publications of François Morain
    Links to papers on elliptic curves: Primality proving; Complex multiplication; Pseudoprimes; Elliptic curves over finite fields; Discrete logarithm over algebraic curves; Character sums; Miscellaneous. Also in French. ...more>>

  33. Pure Maths, Impure Thoughts - David A. Santos, Community College of Philadelphia
    Includes lecture notes in elementary algebra, linear algebra, number theory, probability, a problem seminar, plus review material in precalculus and multivariable calculus. Selections available en castellano. ...more>>

  34. The Puzzle TOAD - Tom Bohman, Oleg Pikhurko, Alan Frieze, and Danny Sleator, School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University
    Send the authors your solutions to their challenging graph theory, number theory, geometry, discrete mathematics, logic, and other puzzles. Re-visit periodically to see the latest question, and download PDFs of solutions of past problems. ...more>>

  35. Pythagorean Triples - H.B. Meyer
    A Javascript calculator for pythagorean triples. In English and German. ...more>>

  36. Pythagorean Triples - Math Forum, Ask Dr. Math FAQ
    What is a Pythagorean triple? What do Pythagorean triples have to do with Fermat's Last Theorem? ...more>>

  37. Pythagoreisches Tripelprogramm - Heinz Becker
    A Java applet that reads a and gives integer solutions of a^2+b^2 = c^2. In German and English. ...more>>

  38. Pythagoräische Tripel (Pythagorean Triplets) - H. B. Meyer
    A calculator for Pythagorean triplets, making visible the one-to one correspondence between triplets and certain pairs of relatively prime numbers, and an interesting correspondence with certain sequences of letters A, B, or C. (Javascript is required.) ...more>>

  39. The Quadray Papers - Kirby Urner, 4D Solutions
    An Introduction to Quadrays. The game of quadrays starts with a regular tetrahedron and four rays pointing from its center to the four corners; these or any ray built from these rays are labelled 4-tuples - i.e. four numbers separated by commas and enclosed ...more>>

  40. Quandaries and Queries (Math Central) - Dept. of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada
    A math Question and Answer area for K-12 students and teachers, with searchable archives of past questions and answers. ...more>>

  41. Query Interface to the Contents of the Mathematics Archives - University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)
    Search software, abstracts and reviews; teaching materials, etc. by keyword. ...more>>

  42. Rama Math Help - Marty Schultz
    Pages to help people solve the alien number machines in the Sierra game Rama, with a lesson in base 8 and 16 (and 10) and base conversions, useful for others, too. Includes a review of base 10 and an overview of bases 8 and 16. There is also a link to ...more>>

  43. The Ramanujan Journal - Frank Garvan
    This journal publishes research articles in the areas of mathematics influenced by Srinivasa Ramanujan, specifically number theory. Potential topics include the circle method and asymptotic formulae, diophantine analysis including irrationality and transcendence, ...more>>

  44. The Rational Mean - Domingo Gomez Morin
    Blog by a Venezuelan engineer. See, in particular, Morin's arithmonic mean and other original methods for approximating the roots of algebraic equations. ...more>>

  45. The Real Y2K Problem (Math Chat) - Frank Morgan, MAA Online
    Solution to the challenge: Every year in the millennium from 2000 to 2999 can be represented as the sum of consecutive integers, except one year. Which year cannot be represented as the sum of consecutive integers? New challenge: Where do you think you ...more>>

  46. Reciprocity Laws - Franz Lemmermeyer
    Reciprocity Laws. From Euler to Eisenstein has just appeared in Springer-Verlag Heidelberg. It is an updated version of Chapters 1 - 11 as they used to be available at this site; the table of contents with ps and pdf files of Chapter 11 (corrected version) ...more>>

  47. Recommended Mathematics Literature - International Mathematics Olympiad (IMO)
    A page of readings recommended by the International Mathematics Olympiad in association with Amazon.com Books. Major sections include: Problem Solving; Collections of Mathematical (Competition) Problems; Anthologies and Surveys; Number Theory; Analysis; ...more>>

  48. Recreational Mathematics Topics - Steven Dutch; University of Wisconsin - Green Bay
    Contents: Symmetry, Crystals, Polyhedra and Tilings: an extensive, illustrated collection including reflectional and rotational symmetry; repeating patterns in two and three dimensions; building crystal forms with unit cells; regular, Archimedean, radial, ...more>>

  49. Resource Material - Spencer, Chan; Univ. of Toronto Mathematics Network
    A collection of resource material for use in classes or extracurricular activities in high schools: answers, explanations, and expositions of some common but deep math questions. In the process of answering three basic questions, this area delves into ...more>>

  50. The Return of Zeta - Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
    The Riemann hypothesis is widely considered the outstanding unsolved problem in mathematics. Generations of mathematicians have been lured into hunting for a proof of this celebrated conundrum. All have so far failed. Lately, however, a cautious optimism ...more>>

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