 3.1415926...  TWON, INC.
This visualization of the first four million decimal digits of π shows each of the digits 09 as a different colored pixel. Slide the navigator down to see the numeric "snow" representing the digits 500,001 through 4,000,000; search for any number
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 42eXplore  Annette Lamb and Larry Johnson
Web projects that offer definitions, activities, four good starting points, and many more links and resources for thematic topics such as charts and graphs; codes, ciphers and secret messages; fractals, tessellations, geometric shapes, and figures; number
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 5 Numbers  Simon Singh and Marcus du Sautoy, BBC Radio 4
Web pages and Real Audio Music downloads of fifteen minutelong radio broadcasts that take a "quirky look" at zero, pi, the golden ratio, i, and infinity. "Hear about the stark reality behind the imaginary number, try a slice of pi, find out about the
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 Activities & Information Supporting Pi Day Celebration  Carolyn M. Morehouse
Lesson plan, songs, trivia quiz, and refreshments signup sheet for a Pi Day celebration. Hosted by the Math Forum's Teacher Exchange.
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 Advanced Topics in Mathematics  Anthony Beckwith
Page for a high school course exploring fractals, the Global Positioning System, number theory, topology, chaos theory, and the history of mathematics. Syllabus and brief description of each topic.
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 Algebra (MathPages)  Kevin Brown
More than 50 "informal notes" by Kevin Brown on algebra. Kummer's Objection; irreducibility criteria, multiple linear regression, string algebra, characteristic polynomial of a matrix, iterated means, sums of powers, polynomials from Pascal's Triangle,
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 America's Favorite Number (Math Chat)  Frank Morgan, MAA Online
Math Chat invited each reader to send in a number. The most commonly submitted number, with the best explanation of why, wins. Answer: In a tight race between 7 and pi, pi wins by a single vote...
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 Annual Pi Day  The Exploratorium, San Francisco, CA
"Founded by the the Exploratorium's own Prince of Pi, physicist Larry Shaw, Pi Day has become an international holiday, celebrated live and online all around the world." Read a brief history of pi; find activities for cutting π and wearing π; and
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 Arctangent Formulas for Pi  Roy Williams
What is a reasonable way to compute Pi? Methods that have been chosen for many of the groundbreaking digitstorms in the past have been based on arctangent formulae.
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 The Area of a Circle (SMILE)  Edwina R. Justice, Gunsaulus Academy
A grade 8 lesson designed to teach the relation between circumference and diameter and how that relation, called pi, is used in the formula for the area of a circle. From the Geometry and Measurement section of a collection of almost 200 single concept
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 Basic Ideas in Greek Mathematics  Michael Fowler; University of Virginia
Lecture notes from a course entitled "Galileo and Einstein." Nailing down the square root of 2. Zeno's paradoxes: Achilles and the tortoise. Proving an arrow can never move  analyzing motion, the beginning of calculus. How Archimedes calculated Pi to
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 Bonsonhos HomePage  David Salvado
See and learn about trigonometry with the freeware program Círculo Trigonométrico 2.0. Also a way of calculating Pi. Veja e aprenda o que é a trigonometria com o programa freeware Círculo Trigonométrico 2.0. Aprenda
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 Buffon's Needle  Michael J. Hurben
A Java applet that simulates a Monte Carlo method for the estimation of the value of pi, 3.14159265... The user controls the speed of simulating the dropping of up to 100,000 needles or pins on equally spaced parallel lines, while a bar graph displays
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 Buffon's Needle (MSTE)  George Reese; University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign (UIUC)
Buffon's Needle, first stated in 1777, is one of the oldest problems in the field of geometrical probability. It involves dropping a needle on a lined sheet of paper and determining the probability of the needle crossing one of the lines on the page.
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 Calculus graphics  Douglas N. Arnold; Institute for Mathematics and its Applications
Excerpts from a collection of graphical demonstrations developed for a class in first year calculus in the McAllister Technology Classroom. Derivatives and differentials; Computing the volume of water in a tipped glass; Archimedes' calculation of pi;
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 A chronology of pi  MacTutor Math History Archives
Precomputer calculations of pi, from the Rhind papyrus through Ferguson (1946); computer calculations from Ferguson (1947) through Kanada, Takahashi (Sept 1999). With references and other related web sites.
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 Circles  Diameter, Circumference, Radius and the Discovery of Pi (SMILE)  Kathleen Ryan, Randolph Magnet School
A 7th grade lesson designed to help students identify and measure the diameter, circumference, and radius of a circle. The students discover the approximate value of pi through the relation between the diameter and circumference. From the Geometry and
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 A Common Book of Pi  Neal Carothers
A brief history of extended precision approximations of pi, including Archimedes' method for estimating pi, a proof that pi is irrational, a page full of formulas used to estimate pi over the centuries, and a brief look at a modern algorithm used to compute
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 Connect with Music  Finn, Rudolph, O'Malley, Frankel, Ordway, and Langol
Thirty free interdisciplinary lesson plans that use multimedia, music, and technology to aid in the instruction of Language Arts, Mathematics, and Science at the middle school level. Lesson plans include comprehensive scoring rubrics, links to standards
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 Des Trucs et des Maths  Philippe Picart
Sur le nombre pi; le nombre d'or; le Rubik's cube; des ressources à télécharger; et "des trucs de maths divers," comme un JavaScript qui répond à la question "Quel jour de la semaine estu né?" Avec un coins des
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 The Digit Connection  Lizzie
A tribute to the number pi through music, poetry, and fiction. (Meet Sailor Pi!) Also includes a brief history of pi with some ways to calculate it, a quote collection, and ways to celebrate the number  even if it's not Pi Day.
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 Educational Interests  Keith Lynn
See, in particular, Lynn's Math Modeling Project, which features Java applets to produce quadratic and sine examples; and Dynamics Project, on the Julia and Mandelbrot sets.
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 Encarta Online  Microsoft Corporation
Browse or search for math lessons and activities for K12 students and teachers, from problem solving to probability and more.
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 Eskimo Pi  Keith Devlin (Devlin's Angle)
"As everyone knows, in the last century, the State of Indiana passed a law legislating the value of pi to be 3. Well, perhaps it's a bit of an exaggeration to say that everyone knows it, but most people do. But that alone is very odd, since it is not
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 Euclid's Algorithm, Heron's Algorithm, Calculation of Pi (MSTE)  Kyte, Moore, Finch; University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign (UIUC)
Problem (by HansGeorg Weigand): Euclid's Algorithm gives you the greatest common divisor of two natural numbers; explain the algorithm. Given two numbers (e.g. 121 and 33), calculate the gcd(121,33) (in EXCEL you need the "ifcommand"). Heron's Algorithm
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 Fun With Mathematics!  Harry J. Smith
Mathematical recreations, curiosities, and software, from computing pi, tesseracts, and data encryption to golygons and quaternions  and much more.
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 General Mathematics, NZ (Funk & Wagnalls Multimedia Encyclopedia)  Lycos Zone: Mathematics
Short articles on basic mathematics, including biographical information about mathematicians, from John Napier to Zeno of Elea.
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 Graphics for the Calculus Classroom (Java version)  Douglas N. Arnold; Institute for Mathematics and its Applications
Excerpts with Java animations from a collection of graphical demonstrations developed for first year calculus. Includes: Differentials and differences, computing the volume of water in a tipped glass, Archimedes' calculation of pi, how the ball bounces,
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 HAKMEM  Beeler, Gosper, Schroeppel; Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, MIT
A list of math and computerrelated problems, unsolved in 1972 when the list originated, compiled "with the hope that a record of the random things people do around here can save some duplication of effort  except for fun." Topics include: Geometry,
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 High School Notebooks  George Beck; MathSource
High school Mathematica notebooks in two different styles, for teachers to use either directly or as examples of what they might want to imitate or avoid. One style has little explanation and is meant to encourage the student to experiment with the functions
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 HoweTwo Software  Leslie Howe
Over 70 interactive Windows programs that target specific concepts in secondary mathematics, written by a classroom teacher/programmer. Many free sample downloads are available. The programs are written in Microsoft Visual Basic. Site includes HTML generators,
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 How to Compute One Billion Digits of Pi (Organic Mathematics Proceedings)  D. H. Bailey, J. M. Borwein, P. B. Borwein
Ramanujan, Modular Equations, and Approximations to Pi  Bailey, Borwein and Borwein. Abstract: This article follows up one small thread of Ramanujan's work which has found a modern computational context, namely, one of his approaches to approximating
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 Icon Odds and Ends  Dept. of Computer Science, Univ. of Arizona
Icon is a highlevel, generalpurpose programming language with a large repertoire of features for processing data structures and character strings; an imperative, procedural language with a syntax reminiscent of C and Pascal, but with semantics at a
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 The Incredible Pi Code  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Researchers have expended a great deal of effort computing as many of the digits of pi as computer technology and mathematical methods allow. Last year, Yasumasa Kanada of the University of Tokyo calculated pi to 206,158,430,000 decimal digits. A high
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 Internet Math Challenge  Dept. of Mathematics, University of Idaho
A weekly K12 math challenge from the math department at the University of Idaho, discontinued in 2004. Past puzzles and solutions are available.
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 An Introduction to Pi and the Area of a Circle (SMILE)  Edwina R. Justice, Gunsaulus Scholastic Academy
A lesson for grades 57 that uses a phenomenological approach to observe and discuss the relation between circumference and diameter and how that relation, called pi, is used in the formula for the area of a circle. From the Geometry and Measurement section
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 John Moyer's home page  John Moyer
Print all of the primes less than 2000000000 within a range of integers; obtain source code for a sieve program; download a Windows NT commmand line program or a Linux binary program to print the prime factors of an integer; use an online sieve to find
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 The Joy of Pi  David Blatner
No number has captured attention and imagination throughout the ages as much as the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter  pi. With historical insight and a sense of humor, The Joy of Pi offers the story of pi and humankind's fascination
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 Math 5337: Technology in the Geometry Classroom 
Sullivan, Burgiel, Osinga; The Geometry Center, Univ. of Minnesota
From the University of Minnesota's course in Computational Methods in Elementary Geometry, materials developed at the Geometry Center for teaching pre and
inservice teachers of highschool geometry interested in using technology in their classrooms.
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 Math Becomes Way Cool  Keith Devlin (Devlin's Angle)
Over the past two or three years, books about mathematics and mathematicians have made their ways onto the bestseller lists, television series about mathematics have been aired, radio programs have carried stories about mathematics, and newspapers and
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 Mathematical constants and computation  Xavier Gourdon and Pascal Sebah
How famous mathematical constants were computed in the past, and current ways of obtaining them: pi, e, the logarithmic constant, square root of 2, Euler's constant, and Apery's constant. Also algorithms (arbitrary precision computation; FFT based multiplication
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 Mathematical Entertainment  Eric Hiob, British Columbia Institute of Technology
Instructions for building a pinball table that demonstrates Pascal's Triangle. Also, notes on the Travelling Salesman Problem; Finding Areas Using the Monte Carlo Method; Important Numbers (pi and e); the Inside or Outside Problem; and the Roller Coaster
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 The Mathematical Explorer  Stan Wagon and Wolfram Research, Inc.
Based on Mathematica technology, The Mathematical Explorer mixes text, graphics, and formulas in an easytouse notebook interface, offering a set of explorations for investigating some of the most fascinating topics in mathematics, from Escher patterns
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 Mathematical Tables and Formulas (S.O.S. Mathematics)  Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, Univ. of Texas at El Paso
A place for students and educators to access mathematical formulas. The tables are organized by topics: The First 1000 Prime Numbers; The Prime Factorization of the First 1000 Integers; Math for the Toolbox  SAE to Metric Conversion; Some Important Constants;
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 Mathematics  John Savard
A collection of essays and illustrations: pentagonal tilings, infinity (Cantor's theory of transfinite numbers), rotations of the dodecahedron, Archimedean solids, the fourth dimension (regular polytopes), Gödel's proof and the halting problem, and
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 Mathematiksoftware S I und SII (vorwiegend Shareware)  Monika Schwarze
Eine Zusammenstellung nützlicher Mathematikprogramme aus dem SharewareMarkt zur Aufarbeitung von Lernrückständen, Wiederholung und Stärkung der Sicherheit mathematischer Rechenroutinen. Vor allen die Programme für die SII dienen der Überprüfung gemachter
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 Math Exercises
Interactive exercises, lessons, and worksheets to practice knowledge of whole numbers, integers, divisibility, fractions, exponents and powers, percentages, proportional reasoning, linear equations, quadratic equations, monomials, polynomials, special
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 Math in Daily Life  Annenberg Media
Students often question how they will use basic mathematical concepts, algebra, and geometry throughout their lives  but the average person uses math at least three times a day. Read how math affects daily decisionmaking in this series of short articles
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 Math Novelty TShirts  The SCIENCE TeeCHER
Purchase a selection of math tshirts, ties, and scarves.
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 Math Quilts  Rebecca Chaky
A showcase for quilters inspired by mathematical themes: geometry, perspective, topology, irrational numbers, feathered star, fractals, and tessellations and tiling, including Escher. Also a link to the Math Quilts Online Bookstore, a Reference Department,
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