Disorder in the Deck
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|Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)|
|About 30 years ago, tournament bridge players started using computer-shuffled rather than hand-shuffled decks. Almost immediately, there was an outcry protesting the apparently wild fluctuations in the distribution of cards of different suits in computer-dealt hands. However, the problem lay not in the computer but with human expectations... How many times must a deck of 52 cards be shuffled before the cards are randomly distributed? It turns out that trying to answer this question raises a number of subtle issues concerning both card shuffling and various measures of randomness.|
|Levels:||High School (9-12), College|
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