International Panel: Bridging Policy and Practice
A Focus on Teacher Preparation

Appendix C: Teacher Education Reform in Sweden

The school system in Sweden

Pre-school, up to 5 years of age
Pre-school class, age 6
Compulsory school, school year 1-9, age 7-15
Upper Secondary School, school year 10-12 age 16-19

Teacher education before 1988

Teacher school year 1-3
2.5 years (5 semesters)
Requirement 2 years of upper secondary school
all theoretical subjects

Teacher school year 4-6
3 years (6 semesters)
Requirement 2 years of upper secondary school
all theoretical subjects

Teacher school year 7-9
University degree in 2 or 3 subjects, 3 study years
Minimum one study year in at least one subject
Institute/department of education one year (40 credits), out of which 20 is practice in school

Teacher, upper secondary school
University degree in 2 or 3 subjects, 3 study years
Minimum1.5 study years in at least one subject
Institute/department of education one year (40 credits), out of which 20 is practice in school

Teacher education, 1988-2001

Teacher for School year 1-7
Two programs: Mathematics/Natural Science or Swedish/Social Science
3.5 years, 140 credits
Requirement for the Math/Science program is Science program from upper secondary school

Ma/Science-program, school year 1-7
1988 - 2001 program
Mathematics 15 credits (0.75 semesters) plus minimum level of science
Institute/department of education delivers 40 credits (one year), out of which 20 credits is practice in school
Subject area, education and practice are integrated
A degree paper (10 credits)

Teacher for school year 4-9
1988-2001 program
Two programs: Mathematics/Science or Swedish/Social Science
4.5 years, 180 credits
Requirement for the Math/Science program is Science program from upper secondary school

Ma/Science-program, school year 4-9
1988 - 2001 program
Mathematics 30 credits (1.5 semesters) plus minimum level of science subjects
Institute/department of education delivers 40 credits (one year), out of which 20 are practice in school
Subject area, education and practice are integrated
A degree paper (10 credits)

Teacher for upper secondary school,
1988-2001 education
2 or 3 subjects
4.5 years, 180 credits
Minimum 80 credits (2 study years) in at least one subject
Institute/department of education delivers one year (40 credits), out of which 20 are practice in school
Subject area, education and practice are integrated
A degree paper (10 credits)

Mathematics courses for teachers for lower and upper secondary level

1988 - 2001 Education
Example from Stockholm University

Basic course I Basic course II Additional course Deepening course
1 semester, 20 credits 1 semester, 20 credits 1 semester, 20 credits 1 semester, 20 credits
Introduction course (5) Algebra & combinatorics (5) History of Math (10) 4 courses (5 each)
or 2 courses (5 each)
Linear algebra (5) Calculus 3 (5) Choice of 2 courses (5 each) among 12 optional courses a degree paper (10)
Calculus 1 (5) Statistics (5)    
Calculus 2 (5) Numerical Methods (5)    

Teacher Education starting in 2001-2002

ONE integrated program for all teachers, from preschool to upper secondary level
Different options within the program
Great flexibility, student can make successive choices
Each university designs the program within the common frame - big differences between universities

Three main parts

(Teacher education starting in 2001)
One common course for all students, 1.5 study years, 60 credits
One or two orientations (the profile of teacher), each orientation is minimum 1 study year, 40 credits
One or more specializations giving depth or breadth , each specialization is 20 credits

Part 1
Common course for all teacher students, general teacher studies
(Teacher education starting in 2001)
1.5 study years, 60 credits
General education, psychology etc
School practice, 10 credits
Interdisciplinary subject studies
(Degree project, 10 credits, may also be contained in one of the specializations, part 3)
The course may be split up into parts and interwoven into the rest of the education

Part 2
Orientation towards a subject or a field of subjects or competencies
(Teacher education starting in 2001)
Minumum one year, 40 credits including 10 credits of school practice
Examples of orientations including mathematics
(Luleå University of Technology):
Mathematics for younger children (year 1 - 5), 40 credits
Mathematics for older children (year 6 - 9), 40 credits
Mathematics for upper secondary school, 60 credits
Mathematics and computer science, 80 credits
Mathematics and physics or math and chemistry 100/120 credits

Part 3
Specializations
(Teacher education starting in 2001)
A specialization is one semester, 20 credits
It may either deepen one of the orientations (most often one subject area) or it could be a new subject area or some competency (like mathematics for children with special needs)
There may or may not be a didactical perspective integrated into the specialization

Stockholm University, structure of mathematics teacher education
(Starting 2001)
Pre-school, compulsory school (primary, school year 1-6):
Common course for all, 60 credits
Orientation, may be mathematics, 40 credits
Two specializations, one may be math, 2*20 credits
Total 140 credits (3.5 year)

Stockholm University, structure of mathematics teacher education
(Starting 2001)
Lower secondary level, year 7 - 9
Common course for all, 60 credits
Two orientations, one is mathematics, 2*40 credits
Two specializations of which one is a deepening of one of the orientations, 2*20 credits
Total 180 credits (4.5 year)

Stockholm University, structure of mathematics teacher education
(Starting 2001)
Upper secondary school
Common course for all, 60 credits
Two orientations, one is mathematics, 2*40 credits
At least two specializations to deepen the directions, 2*20 credits
180 credits (4.5 year)

Stockholm University Orientation
"Mathematics for lower and upper secondary level"
(Starting 2001)

One study year, 40 credits
Mathematics with didactics I (20 credits)
Contents:
Arithmetic, algebra and geometry, 5 credits
Didactics of mathematics 5 credits
Vectors and calculus 5 credits
History of Mathematics 5 credits

Mathematics with didactics II (20 credits)
Contents:
Problem solving with algebra, geometry and combinatorics 5 credits
Didactics of mathematics 5 credits
Calculus 5 credits
Probability and Statistics 5 credits

Comparison of "old" and new education
Mathematics teacher for lower (year 7-9)
and upper secondary level
Example Stockholm University

1988-2001
Semester 1 and 2, studies in mathematics (40 credits)
Semester 3 general education and practice
Semester 4-8, studies in mathematics and other subject areas
Semester 9, general education and practice

A degree paper

2001- (years 2-9 planned)
Sem 1, general education with 10 weeks practice, no teaching (teacher student)
Sem 2 and 3, mathematics with didactics, common for lower and upper secondary school
Sem 4-8, courses from the three parts
Sem 9, school practice and a degree paper

Examination process
The student must pass all courses
The school practice as teacher during the education is evaluated and the student must satisfactory pass
The degree paper is examined and must be accepted

There is no formal certification process

Beginning teaching
Every new teacher has a mentor among the colleagues
Teaching is about 500 hours/year (1 hour = 60 minutes), same as for other teachers
A teacher acts as mentor for a group of students, and gives information about results of studies, has contact with parents and so on
A teacher has the right and obligation to fulfil in-service training

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