Teacher2Teacher 
Q&A #561 
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From: Gail To: Teacher2Teacher Public Discussion Date: 2000052511:08:12 Subject: Re: Regrouping Here is a questions and reply from the past that might give you an idea: >Now I am looking for resources, websites, and any other helpful information on teaching the concept of subtraction with borrowing to a 6th grade child with severe learning challenges (she functions on a 2nd grade math level). My inquiry is twofold: 1) What is the basic knowledge that she needs in order to progress to the line of thinking required to regroup? Is place value enough? 2) Are there any techniques which may help to teach this concept to her? It has been very difficult so far. Thanks for your help, I appreciate the information! I am not sure what approach your text suggests, but you might try having this student return to using manipulatives, and modeling the problems, if you have moved on to pencil and paper work. It is likely that your student is having trouble thinking abstractly about the math you are doing. It seems so simple to us... but it really isn't. This was made very clear to me last summer when I took a Math  A Way of Thinking workshop. We did all the operations, but in base six. Suddenly something I had been doing all my life was a struggle (and I am good at arithmetic, so this was not something I was at ease with :) We were encouraged to use beans, cups and buckets to model the numbers (place value materials), and ever time I tried to abandon them, prior to the point where I had really internalized the number system, I fell on my face. The most important thing it taught me was that what I think about secondnature, my students DON'T think abut with facility at all... and no amount of pencil and paper helped me... it was working with those place value materials, regrouping to subtract, and when I added, that get me the frame of reference I needed. There are chip trading games out there, too, but I am not sure who sells them. You assign a value to each color, using the place value amounts (I would use a different base at first, just to make it quicker). So if you were using base 4, then yellow might be 1, blue might be worth one four, red worth four squared (16), and black worth 4 cubed (64) etc., just like our tens system goes. Then you roll a die, and take that many yellow chips. When you have enough, you trade for a blue. The first person to read the black chip wins. You can reverse it by starting with the black chip, and regrouping to subtract the amount you roll. Then you are racing back to 0. If you would like more specific instructions for this game, I would be happy to go into more detail. :)
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