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The field of CSCL uses a large number of technical terms that are hard to translate into other languages. You may use this page to help define an international vocabulary to talk about CSCL topics.

A number of terms were translated in preparing versions of the chapter on CSCL: Stahl, G., Koschmann, T., & Suthers, D. (2006). Computer-supported collaborative learning: An historical perspective. In R. K. Sawyer (Ed.), Cambridge handbook of the learning sciences (pp. 409-426). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from http://www.cis.drexel.edu/faculty/gerry/cscl/CSCL_English.pdf in English, http://www.cis.drexel.edu/faculty/gerry/cscl/CSCL_Chinese_simplified.pdf in simplified Chinese, http://www.cis.drexel.edu/faculty/gerry/cscl/CSCL_Chinese_traditional.pdf in traditional Chinese, http://www.cis.drexel.edu/faculty/gerry/cscl/CSCL_Spanish.pdf in Spanish, http://www.cis.drexel.edu/faculty/gerry/cscl/CSCL_Portuguese.pdf in Portuguese, http://www.cis.drexel.edu/faculty/gerry/cscl/CSCL_German.pdf in German.

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Defining some technical terms in CSCL

(initial definition suggestions by Gerry Stahl)

Artifact -> (Spelled "artefact" in British English) Artificial; an object made by people; a designed object or an object with human meaning; in contrast to a natural object. Vygotsky included both symbolic objects like words and gestures as well as physical objects like hammers and houses. Vygotsky was interested in how artifacts mediated human cognition.
Cognition -> Thought -- from the Latin, "cogito", "I think". Cognition may include all mental processes, as in the interdisciplinary field of Cognitive Sciences, which includes neuro science of the brain, artificial intelligence of computer programs and human psychology. Cognition can be extended to include intelligent processes of problem-solving, etc. that are distributed across groups of people, their tools, external representations and physical environment (distributed cognition, situated cognition, group cognition).
Cognitive tool -> Artifacts can participate in human cognition. A physical artifact, like a string around ones finger, can serve as a reminder. The human mind can also be viewed as a set of "cognitive artifacts" -- abilities and processes that have been internalized (according to Vygotsky's theory) from external artifacts and inter-personal activities. Words, for instance, can be used in silent, internal thought after being learned as symbolic artifacts of communication between people.
Collaboration support -> Software for communication among group members can be designed with functionality that helps users to work together on tasks. Other forms of support for collaboration are also possible.
Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning -> This is the standard term for the field of CSCL. It is an interdisciplinary field concerned with how people can learn together and how this can be aided with the use of computers and networking.
Community -> In recent decades, learning has increasingly been seen as something that happens in communities: learning can be structured in "communities of learners" (Brown & Campione); knowledge can be built by "learning communities" (Bereiter & Scardamalia); learning can be essentially situated in "communities of practice (Lave & Wenger)
Computational media -> Software on networked computers can serve as communication media. These media can go beyond static paper-based media by providing support for searching, browsing, editing, annotating, personalizing, re-organizing, formatting, etc.
Constructivism -> The theory that knowledge is constructed by learners, not simply acquired. Piaget showed that children gradually develop the ability to construct knowledge in different ways at different developmental stages. This has implications for education. Rather than just presenting facts in text or lecture, teachers should help students to construct their understandings.
Conversation analysis -> a branch of sociology concerned with describing the shared sense-making procedures found in informal conversation or talk-in-interaction. Pioneering work of Sacks is based on principles of ethnomethodology by Garfinkel.
Cooperative Learning -> Studies of group learning in the 1970's (e.g., by Johnson & Johnson) stressed interdependence, where different students had different information or roles. Cooperation can be distinguished from collaboration in that students pool individual knowledge or efforts in collaborative learning, whereas they work together building shared knowledge in collaboration.
Dialogical theory -> Theoretical approach based on the interaction between people talking together, rather than on processes of individual minds.
Descriptive -> A methodology that does not impose coding categories or aim at statistical measures, but tries to describe what is happening in its own terms. Includes case studies and exploratory studies.
Empirical -> Literally means based on collection of data as opposed to theoretical speculation. Often used to denote studies that use an approach to experimental design and statistical analysis that has become standard in certain disciplines, such as cognitive psychology.
Ethnography -> A methodology for study of groups and cultures often used in anthropology. Consists of observation, note taking, interviews of local informants.
Experimental -> Literally means involving the manipulation of a situation to, for instance, control for certain variables or compare one case to a control case. Often used to denote studies that use an approach to experimental design and statistical analysis that has become standard in certain disciplines, such as cognitive psychology.
Grounded theory -> A methodology that derives its categories for analysis from the data itself, rather than imposing a set of categories from previous studies or theories.
Group -> Literally as set of people, generally larger than 2 (a dyad) and less than a community. A small group might be 3-7 people. A set of people may constitute themselves as a group by agreeing (perhaps implicitly through their interactions and behaviors) to engage in a group task or activity. The group behavior and the individual behaviors of the group members are intimately related. The group interaction within a set of people may become more or less intense over time.
Group cognition -> A term proposed in the book with that title by Stahl to denote instances in which a group is constituted and engages in cognitive processes like problem solving.
Group meaning -> According to the theory of group cognition, meaning is constructed intersubjectively. While individuals may have their own interpretations, meaning in collaborative settings is created by group interactions at the group unit of analysis.
Granularity -> One can look at phenomena at different scales. For instance, learning can be studied at the granularity of single interactions, over hour-long group sessions, across an academic term or life-long.
Inquiry learning -> Rather than being given knowledge by an authority (teacher or text), students can learn by conducting their own investigation or inquiry into a topic -- perhaps a topic they have proposed themselves, perhaps one that no one knows the answer to. Dewey and others have discussed the nature of such inquiry as fundamental to learning, particularly in groups.
Interaction -> When people communicate, they respond to each other and they make proposals to elicit further response. This can be as simple as giving a greeting and receiving a greeting in return. The development of such an interaction is not entirely controlled by any one person, but arises out of the interaction of the participants.
Interaction pattern -> Conversation analysis has discovered a number of consistent interaction patterns in informal social conversation in dyads and small groups, such as the patterns by which speakers take turns at talk or by which people repair mistakes that are made in talking. Similar interaction patterns could be determined for different forms of computer-mediated communication.
Intersubjectivity -> This is a philosophic term for meanings, etc. that are determined across people, such as shared knowledge, common ground, acknowledgment of intentions, social phenomena. Suthers prefers the term �intersubjective meaning making� for the key term in CSCL.
Iterative design -> Complex designs are rarely created in one draft. Software environments, for instance, are typically designed in cycles: a simple design is implemented and tried; based on the results, modifications are made to the design, implemented and tried; etc. for many iterative cycles. Design-based research is a research methodology that is popular in the learning sciences and takes advantage of iterative design to build understanding of learning in tandem with the iterative design of learning environments.
Intervention -> When researchers introduce a change into a classroom, such as having the students use a new version of a software environment, this is called an intervention in the learning taking place in the classroom. The researchers may then compare learning processes or outcomes before and after their intervention.
Knowledge building -> A community builds knowledge about a domain of interest to them. For instance, the physics community builds knowledge about natural forces by conducting experiments, publishing papers, critiquing theories, etc. Scardamalia & Bereiter proposed that classrooms of students (guided by their teachers) could build knowledge collaboratively by proposing questions, evidence and theories in a shared online environment.
Learning sciences -> This is an interdisciplinary field concerned with principles of learning.
Meaning making -> Most everything in the world is meaningful for people. These meanings are creations of people � in some cases by people who lived long ago and influenced our culture. Meanings are being produced and modified constantly by conversations, interactions and activities of people, groups and communities. One can analyze processes of meaning making in the verses of a poem, the evolution of a discourse community or the moment-to-moment interactions of a small group.
Moment-to-moment interaction -> The discourse of a small group typically consists of pairs of utterances and longer sequences of interaction. An utterance pair might consist of the posing of a question by one person and a response to it by another. This would be an example of a moment-to-moment interaction.
Multi-disciplinarity -> The hierarchy of academic and scientific disciplines established in past centuries is no longer appropriate for the current forefronts of learning. Simultaneously, the individual disciplines have become too complex for any individual to master more than a narrow specialty. This means that for studying something like CSCL one must collaborate with people from other disciplines and specialties.
Paradigm shift -> A paradigm is a view of the world, a way of organizing and conceptualizing a domain of interest. The paradigm of physics shifted from Newton to Einstein (Kuhn). Koschmann argued that CSCL is a paradigm shift from previous ways of conceptualizing learning with computers. The focus on meaning making differentiates the fundamental theoretical approach of CSCL from other forms of e-learning, distance learning, group learning, tutoring systems, etc.
Prescriptive -> A prescriptive statement recommends or prescribes a change that should take place � in contrast to a descriptive statement that says how something currently is.
Situated learning -> Lave & Wenger�s book prescribed a paradigm shift in the multidisciplinary view of learning. They viewed learning as a social learning process by which people change their participation in communities of practice.
Social learning -> Learning is not the accumulation of facts in the head of an individual, but a complex process that is socially mediated in many ways.
Social interaction -> Individuals interact with other individuals, with small groups and with larger communities in many ways.
Social practice theory -> Lave�s theory of situated learning is grounded in social practice theory, the paradigm in which human activity is a matter of social practices such as verbal interaction, participation in communities of practice and activities like work within the prevailing modes of production.
Social technology -> Computer software can include functionality that supports social awareness and other aspects of sociability. Social awareness features display who is active in the environment and what they are doing.
Unit of analysis -> CSCL analysis of learning and interaction can be conducted with different units of analysis: The focus can be on actions, thoughts and representations of an individual; on processes and interactions for which the small group is the agent; and community activities like social reproduction and the training of newcomers.
Video analysis -> The development of digital video and its detailed manipulation on computers made possible the analysis of details about conversational interactions that were not possible to study before. Other forms of logging and displaying interaction data (whether involving video or not) allow for micro-analysis of interaction.
Zone of proximal development -> Vygotsky�s theory of cognitive development differentiated what a child could accomplish as part of a small group and what that same child could accomplish as a solitary individual. Collaborative accomplishments might be internalized and become individual skills a couple of years later. The significant difference between the two levels of development can be seen as an indication of what the child may be ready to learn with the help of a teacher of collaboration.

English to simplified Chinese

(initial translation suggestions by Weiqin Chen and Nan Zhou)

Artifact -> 人为的创造,人工制品, 人工产物
Cognition -> 认知
Cognitive tool -> 认知工具
Collaboration support -> 协作支持
Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning -> 计算机辅助协作学习
Community -> 社群
Computational media -> 运算媒体
Constructivism -> 建构主义
Conversation analysis -> 对话分析
Cooperative Learning -> 合作学习
Dialogical theory -> 对话理论
Descriptive -> 描述性的
Empirical -> 经验性的
Ethnography -> 民族志方法
Experimental -> 实验性的
Grounded theory -> 扎根理论,实地理论
Group -> 小组,团体
Group cognition -> 团体认知
Group meaning -> 团体意义
Granularity -> 粒度
Inquiry learning -> 查询学习, 研究性学习
Interaction -> 交互,互动
Interaction pattern -> 交互模式
Intersubjectivity -> 互为主体, 主体间性, 主体际性
Iterative design -> 反复式设计, 迭代设计
Intervention -> 介入
Knowledge building -> 知识构建
Learning Sciences -> 学习科学
Meaning making -> 意义建造 意义缔造
Meaning negotiation -> 意义协商
Moment-to-moment interaction -> 每时每刻的交互
Multi-disciplinarity -> 多学科
Paradigm Shift -> 范例变换
prescriptive -> 规约性的
Situated learing -> 情景学习
Social learning -> 社会性的学习
Social interaction -> 社会互动
Social practice theory -> 社会实践理论
Social technology -> 社会技术
Unit of analysis -> 分析单位
Video analysis -> 视频分析
Zone of proximal development -> 邻近发展区, 最近发展区域

English to traditional Chinese

Artifact ->
Cognition ->
Cognitive tool ->
Collaboration support ->
Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning ->
Community ->
Computational media ->
Constructivism ->
Conversation analysis ->
Cooperative Learning ->
Dialogical theory ->
Descriptive ->
Empirical ->
Ethnography ->
Experimental ->
Grounded theory ->
Group ->
Group cognition ->
Group meaning ->
Granularity ->
Inquiry learning ->
Interaction ->
Interaction pattern ->
Intersubjectivity ->
Iterative design ->
Intervention ->
Knowledge building ->
Learning Sciences ->
Meaning making ->
Moment-to-moment interaction ->
Multi-disciplinarity ->
Paradigm Shift ->
Prescriptive ->
Situated learing ->
Social learning ->
Social interaction ->
Social practice theory ->
Social technology ->
Unit of analysis ->
Video analysis ->
Zone of proximal development ->

English to Spanish

Artifact ->Artefacto
Cognition -> Cognición
Cognitive tool -> Herramienta cognitiva
Collaboration support -> Apoyo computacional
Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning -> Aprendizaje Colaborativo Apoyado por Computador
Community -> Comunidad
Computational media -> Medio computacional
Constructivism -> Constructivismo
Conversation analysis -> Análisis conversacional
Cooperative Learning -> Aprendizaje Cooperativo
Dialogical theory -> Teoria del diálogo
Descriptive -> Descriptivo
Empirical -> Empírico
Ethnography -> Etnografía
Experimental -> Experimental
Grounded theory -> Teoria fndamnentada
Group -> Grupo
Group cognition -> Cognición grupal
Group meaning -> Significado grupal
Granularity -> Granularidad
Inquiry learning -> Aprendizaje por indagación
Interaction -> Interacción
Interaction pattern -> Patrón de Interacción
Intersubjectivity -> Intersubjetividad
Iterative design -> Diseño Iterativo
Intervention -> Intervención
Knowledge building -> Construcción del conocimiento
Learning Sciences -> Ciencias del Aprendizaje
Meaning making -> Creación de significado
Moment-to-moment interaction -> Interacción al instante
Multi-disciplinarity -> Multidisciplinareidad
Paradigm Shift -> Cambio de paradigma
Prescriptive -> Prescriptivo
Situated learning -> Aprendizaje Situado
Social learning -> Aprendizaje social
Social interaction -> Interacción social
Social practice theory -> Teoria de la Práctica Social
Social technology -> Tecnología Social
Unit of analysis -> Unidad de análisis
Video analysis -> Análisis de Vídeo
Zone of proximal development -> Zona de desarrollo próxima

English to Portuguese

Artifact -> Artefato
Cognition -> Cognição
Cognitive tool ->
Collaboration support -> Suporte para a colaboração
Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning -> Aprendizagem Colaborativa com Suporte Computacional
Community -> Comunidade
Computational media ->
Constructivism -> Construtivismo
Conversation analysis -> Análise da conversação
Cooperative Learning -> Aprendizagem cooperativa
Dialogical theory ->
Descriptive -> Descritivo
Empirical -> Empírico
Ethnography -> Etnografia
Experimental -> Experimental
Grounded theory ->
Group -> Grupo
Group cognition ->
Group meaning ->
Granularity -> Granularidade
Inquiry learning ->
Interaction -> Interação
Interaction pattern -> Padrão de Interação
Intersubjectivity -> Intersubjetividade
Iterative design -> Projeto Iterativo
Intervention -> Intervenção
Knowledge building -> Geração de conhecimento
Learning Sciences -> Ciências da Aprendizagem
Meaning making ->
Moment-to-moment interaction ->
Multi-disciplinarity -> Multidisciplinaridade
Paradigm Shift -> Mudança de Paradigma
Prescriptive -> Prescritivo
Situated learning ->
Social learning -> Aprendizagem social
Social interaction -> Interação social
Social practice theory ->
Social technology -> Tecnologia social
Unit of analysis -> Unidade de análise
Video analysis -> Análise de vídeo
Zone of proximal development -> Zona de desenvolvimento proximal

English to German

Artifact ->
Cognition ->
Cognitive tool ->
Collaboration support ->
Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning ->
Community ->
Computational media ->
Constructivism ->
Conversation analysis ->
Cooperative Learning ->
Dialogical theory ->
Descriptive ->
Empirical ->
Ethnography ->
Experimental ->
Grounded theory ->
Group ->
Group cognition ->
Group meaning ->
Granularity ->
Inquiry learning ->
Interaction ->
Interaction pattern ->
Intersubjectivity ->
Iterative design ->
Intervention ->
Knowledge building ->
Learning Sciences ->
Meaning making ->
Moment-to-moment interaction ->
Multi-disciplinarity ->
Paradigm Shift ->
Prescriptive ->
Situated learing ->
Social learning ->
Social interaction ->
Social practice theory ->
Social technology ->
Unit of analysis ->
Video analysis ->
Zone of proximal development ->

English to French

Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning ->
meaning making ->
grounded theory ->
Learning Sciences ->

English to Turkish

Artifact -> Eser / Yapıt
Affordance -> Saðlarlýk
Cognition -> Bilişim
Cognitive tool -> Bilişsel araç
Collaboration support -> Yardımlaşma desteği
Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning -> Bilgisayar Destekli Yardımlaşmalı Öğrenme
Community -> Topluluk
Community of practice -> Meslek/icra topluluğu
Computational media -> Bilgisayar ortamı
Constructivism -> Oluşturmacılık
Conversation analysis -> İletişim Çözümleme/İnceleme
Cooperative Learning -> İşbirliğiyle Öğrenme
Dialogical theory -> Söyleşim kuramı
Descriptive -> Tanımlayıcı/Açıklayıcı
Empirical -> Verisel, veriye dayalı
Ethnography -> Etnoğrafya, kavimler ilimi
Experimental -> Deneysel
Grounded theory -> (veriye baðlý olarak) Temellendirilmiþ/yapýlandýrýlmýþ kuram
Group -> Grup, küçük topluluk
Group cognition -> Grup bilişimi
Group meaning -> Grubun paylaştığı anlam
Granularity -> (Çözümlemede) detay seviyesi
Inquiry learning -> Sorgulayıcı öğrenme
Interaction -> Etkileşim
Interaction pattern -> Etkileşim döngüsü
Intersubjectivity -> Araöznellik
Iterative design -> Yinelemeli tasarım
Intervention -> Müdahale
Knowledge building -> Bilgi inşası
Learning Sciences -> Ögrenim Bilimleri
Meaning making -> Anlam oluşturma
Moment-to-moment interaction -> Dakika-dakika etkileşim (süreci)
Multi-disciplinarity -> Disiplinler-arası (birden fazla bilim dalını içeren yaklaşım)
Paradigm Shift -> Paradigma (dünya görüşü, genel yaklaşım) değişimi
Prescriptive -> Yönlendirici, kural koyucu
Situated learing -> Durumsal/yerleşik öğrenme
Social learning -> Toplu/sosyal öğrenme
Social interaction -> Sosyal etkileşim
Social practice theory -> Sosyal icraat kuramı
Social technology -> Sosyal teknoloji
Unit of analysis -> İnceleme birimi
Video analysis -> Video/görüntü çözümleme
Zone of proximal development -> Yakınsak gelişim düzeyi

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Last edited June 5, 2009 5:02 pm by Murat (diff)
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