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Magic Squares

Suzanne's Math Lessons || Suzanne's Tessellation Lessons
Magic squares received their name because there are so many relationships between the sums of the numbers filling the squares.

Students often believe that "mathematics" was "written" by one person. In these pages you will find that the magic square mathematical game has existed throughout history and in many different parts of the world. Math is all around us and your mind will see it when you're ready!

What is a Magic Square?

Allan Adler defines and discusses some special properties of magic squares.

Magic Squares - History, Mathematics, Geography

Lo Shu Magic Square
The Back of the Divine Tortoise
Classroom Activity
China - the country of Lo Shu

Albrecht Dürer's Magic Square

Albrecht Dürer - Engraving of Melancholia
Al brecht Dürer - engraver
More about Albrecht Dürer
Classroom Activity
Germany - the country of Albrecht Dürer
GEOM ART RY - Ralph Martel

Benjamin Franklin's 8x8 Magic Square

The World of Benjamin Franklin - the Franklin Institute
Classroom Activity
Pennsylvania, U.S.A. - Benjamin Franklin's State

The Sator Square

The Sator Rotas Square
Classroom Activity

Where's the Math? - with Allan Adler

Classroom activities: multiplying magic squares
Constructing magic squares
Defining the magic square; special properties
Exploring the math
Review: Squaring a magic square

Mike Morton's Magic Square Java Applet

Updated Magic Square Java Applet by Pavel Safronov and Michael McKelvey

Dubi Kaufmann's Magic Square Puzzle

H. B. Meyer's 5 x 5 Magic Square Generator

Special magic square unit by Neil Abrahams

The Franklin Square
Background and Lesson Information
Construction Algorithm
Observations and Proofs: Rows
Columns and General Observations
Columns and General Observations, cont.
Questions, Suggestions & References

Other Magic Square Links

Double Six Magic Square - Jill Britton
Buried in the foundation of a house to dispel evil spirits, the Double Six Magic Square at the Shaanxi History Museum contains six numbers in length and breadth, the numbers in vertical, horizontal and diagonal lines add up to 111, respectively.

Note: Paul Michelet provides this additional description: The "Double six magic square" from the Shaanxi History House in China, is in fact a so-called bordered square, with the 6 x 6 containing a perfect panmagic 4 x 4 square, with numbers running from 11 to 26.

Mutsumi Suzuki's Magic Square Page
Magic Squares, Magic Stars & Other Patterns by Harvey D. Heinz
Fabrizio Pivari's Simple Magic Square png maker
Grog's Magic Squares
Interactive Magic Square by Lee-Anne Grunwald
MathWorld: Magic Squares by Eric W. Weisstein
Multimagic Squares by Christian Boyer
Solving Magic Squares by Kevin Brown

Mutsumi Suzuki's Magic Stars

What is a Magic Star?
Magic Star Sets
Transforming Magic Stars
Combining Exchange Rules

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