Jerry Epstein (2012) in his MathLearn post "Re: FCI and CCI in China #2" wrote [my insert at ". . . .[[insert]]. . . .":
". . . ..this past Fall semester the CCI was given to about 1000 students in Shanghai, China. They score clearly at about the same level of gain as do the best students in the US (Michigan and three other small groups). Chinese students of course sit in lectures, often large lectures I think. But a lot of earlier work . . . . . .[[see e.g. Treisman (1992)]]. . . . seems to show that the students spend many more hours working in twos and threes on processing and digesting on the material from the lectures, working in small groups on problems, etc. and one speculates that this is central."
On the other hand in the abstract of my post "Re: FCI and CCI in China #2" I wrote [bracketed by lines "HHHHHHH. . . .":
HHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH "Although Bao et al.(2009) measured only pretest scores (not pre-to-posttest gains) for Chinese freshmen university students enrolled in science/engineering major courses, they pointed out that those students had taken "algebra-based courses with emphasis on development of conceptual understanding and skills needed to solve problems" for FIVE YEARS in grades 8-12, whereas the U.S. students had taken at most ONE YEAR of physics.
That suggests that the Chinese K-12 math curriculum might also be more intensive than that in the U.S. IF that's the case then it might help to explain the relatively high CCI gains for non-IE pedagogy, irrespective of possible student-organized out-of-class interactive group work. HHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH
In order to compare Epstein's CCI results with the results of Bao et al. (2009) it might be interesting to compare the PRETEST averages of the Shanghai students with the PRETEST averages of U.S. students.
IF the Shanghai calculus students are similar to the Chinese physics students in the Bao et al. (2009) study, then one might expect their CCI PRETEST averages to be considerably higher than the CCI PRETEST averages of U.S. students.
IF that's NOT the case then Epstein's explanation of higher gains by Chinese students in a teacher-centered course due to a "Treisman Effect" is bolstered.
Of course both the "Better Background" effect and the "Treisman Effect" may be operating simultaneously.
REFERENCES [URL shortened by <http://bit.ly/> and accessed on 11 Feb 2012.] Bao, L., T. Cai, K. Koenig, K. Fang, J. Han, J. Wang, Q. Liu, L. Ding, L. Cui, Y. Luo, Y. Wang, L. Li, & N. Wu. 2009a. "Learning and Scientific Reasoning: Comparisons of Chinese and U.S. students show that content knowledge and reasoning skills diverge." Science 323(5914): 586 - 587, 30 January; online as a 184 kB pdf at <http://bit.ly/90sdAG>; supporting material is online as a 152 kB pdf at <http://bit.ly/aNmbVz>. See also: (a) the longer report "Learning of content knowledge and development of scientific reasoning ability: A cross culture comparison" [Bao et al. (2009b)]; (b) the critique of Bao et al. (2009a,b) by Hake (2012b).
Bao, L., K. Fang, T. Cai, J. Wang, L. Yang, L. Cui, J. Han, L. Ding, & Y. Luo. 2009b. "Learning of content knowledge and development of scientific reasoning ability: A cross culture comparison." Am. J. Phys. 77(12): 1118-1123; online to subscribers at <http://bit.ly/wV1wbe>.
Epstein, J. 2012. "Re: [math-learn] FCI and CCI in China #2" online on the CLOSED! Math-Learn archives at <http://yhoo.it/zUsmtn>. Post of 10 Feb 10 9:24 pm (the insular Math Forum fails to specify the time zone).
Hake, R.R. 2012a. "Re: FCI and CCI in China #2 online on the OPEN! AERA-L archives at <http://bit.ly/zz7WXk>. Post of 22 Jan 2012 16:27:43-0800 to AERA-L and Net-Gold. The abstract and link to the complete post are being transmitted to several discussion lists and are also on my blog "Hake'sEdStuff" at <http://bit.ly/AbW5oy> with a provision for comments.
Hake , R.R. 2012b. "Bao et al.'s Comparison of Learning and Scientific Reasoning in Chinese & U.S. Schools: Alternate Conclusions and Recommendations," online as a 385 kB pdf at <http://bit.ly/zQfIdo>. The abstract and link to the complete article are being transmitted to various discussion lists and are also on my blog "Hake'sEdStuff" at <http://bit.ly/zM0Jqi> with a provision for comments.
Treisman, U. 1992 "Studying students studying calculus: A look at the lives of minority mathematics students in college," College Mathematics Journal 23(5): 362-372; online as a 1.5 MB pdf at <http://bit.ly/yzS1tw>.
[Non-text portions of this message have been removed]