 An overview of Indian mathematics  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay on the contributions of Indian mathematics, in particular the number system invented by the Indians, on which much of mathematical development has rested. With references and other related web sites.
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 Overview of "Mathematician's Secret Room"  Hisanori Mishima
Challenges to unsolved problems in Number Theory, some translated into English from the Japanese.
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 Overview of the History of Mathematics  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked overview from the Babylonians through topics from the twentieth century, with additional sections on notation and communication, brilliant discoveries, how we view history, and a challenge, as well as a 700item general bibliography.
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 Owners of home computers join researchers in cracking problems and crunching data  Ivars Peterson  Science News Online
Owners of home computers have joined researchers in cracking problems and crunching data, searching for signs of intelligent extraterrestrial life, running large models of the world's climate, and carrying on a worldwide effort to identify recordbreaking
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 Oxford University Press
The world's largest university press, publishing 3,000 new books a year, including scholarly works in all academic disciplines, bibles, music, school and college textbooks, children's books, materials for teaching English as a second language, business
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 OzGrid Business Applications  Dave Hawley
Focus on Microsoft Excel and Spreadsheet applications, with over 4000 pages (and growing) of information. Newsletter, most popular productgs, templates, books, question and answer forum.
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 Pacific Institute for the Mathematical Sciences (PIMS)
A networked institute based in Alberta and British Columbia, Canada. Primarily dedicated to the support and advancement of mathematical science in Western Canada and the Pacific Rim, it maintains physical offices at the Universities of Alberta, British
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 Packomania  E. Specht
The best known packings of equal circles in the unit square and the unit circle. Tables summarize the current status of the search. Figures may be downloaded in postscript format. Also available from http://hydra.nat.unimagdeburg.de/packing/packing.html.
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 Pagina de Pedro Hugo Garcia Pelaez  Pedro Hugo Garcia Pelaez
Pagina con diversas calculadoras fisicas y matematicas. Apuntes y links relacionados. Calculadoras: Programa de resolución de multiplicación de matrices hasta orden 6; Forma de Jordan; Calculadora de diagonalización; Calculadora de proyecciones; Calculadora
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 Paginedimatematica  Bruno Tomaino
In Italian: Analisi, trigonometria, equazioni differenziali, test a risposta multipla.
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 Palindromic Numbers and Other Recreational Topics  Patrick De Geest
Many odd facts about big (and little) numbers, including circular primes and palindromic triangulars, tetrahedrals, squares, cubes, and primes. Also assorted odd puzzles, etc.
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 Palindromic Primes  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Palindromic primes are whole numbers, evenly divisible only by themselves and 1, that also have the same sequence of digits read forward or backward... The current record for the largest known palindromic prime is held by Harvey Dubner, a retired electrical
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 Palisade
Software for Excel, including @RISK, using Monte Carlo simulation, and PrecisionTree, for risk analysis, decision analysis, optimization, and forecasting.
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 PAM Electronic Discussion List (PAMnet)  Parker Ladwig and Thurston Miller (list owners)
An electronic discussion forum for the discussion of library and information resource issues relevant to the fields of physics, astronomy and mathematics, maintained by the PhysicsAstronomyMathematics (PAM) Division of the Special Libraries Association.
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 Panagiotis Stefanides
Geometry presented at national conferences in Greece. Contents include: Quantization of Circle Duality; Logos Pyr Chronos; 'Buena Fortuna' (artwork); Geometric Mean Ratio (T) by Ruler and Compass; Quadrature Master Theorem; Corollary (Circle Circumference
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 Panitz cooperative learning and WAC web page and much more  Ted Panitz, Cape Cod Community College
Workshops, articles, and other resources on cooperative learning and pedagogy.
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 PaperFoldingFractals  Joel Castellanos, Rice University
A classroom teaching or personal learning software tool for Windows that can be an introductory lesson to fractals. Simple, stepbystep processes of paper folding can give rise to infinite verities of fractals. The user learns what fractals are and how
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 Paper Models of Polyhedra  Gijs Korthals Altes
Dozens of paper models of polyhedra: Platonic and Archimedean solids, compounds, caleidocyli, and more. Print the images, cut, and glue them together, or download the models in zipped CorelDraw or GIF format.
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 Papers  A. R. D. Mathias
Downloadable papers in DVI PostScript format: a piece on Bourbaki; a piece on Stalin; a long piece on Mac Lane set theory; a short piece on Zermelo set theory; a recent piece on Strong Statements of Analysis; and three other papers, appdyn97, delays97
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 Papers  Chaim GoodmanStrauss, Dept. of Mathematics, Univ. of Arkansas
On Composite Twisted Unknots; Matching Rules and Substitution Tilings; Aperiodic Hierarchical Tilings; Bounding the Results of Arithmetic Operations on Random Variables with Unknown Dependency; A Small Set of Planar Aperiodic Tiles; A Pair of Aperiodic
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 Papers on Riemannian Geometry  Alan Weinstein
Papers written by graduate students in the course Math 240, Riemannian Geometry, in the Spring Semester of 1995 at the Univ. of California at Berkeley. Each paper is either a survey of an area or a tutorial essay in a topic related to riemannian geometry.
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 Papers on the History of Mathematics  Gregory Cherlin, Rutgers University
A random selection of term papers submitted in undergraduate, onesemester courses on the history of mathematics. Topics include zero, Fermat, Euler, Newton, Euclid's proof of the Pythagorean Theorem, Fibonacci, Vieta, conic sections, mathematics at Princeton
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 Parallel Applications in Statistics and Economics (PASE)
Announcements of meetings, previous PASE workshops and where conference proceedings are published. Subjects: parallel algorithms and artificial neural networks; dynamical chaotic systems and fuzzy logic; stochastic optimization concepts; genetic algorithms
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 Parallel Coordinates  Alfred Inselberg
Download articles, read a course syllabus, and see images about a method for visualizing multidimensional spaces with industry applications that have included visual and automatic (classification) data mining, optimization, GIS, process control, decision
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 Parcelles d'infiniPromenade au jardin d'Escher  Alain Nicolas
Book in French, largely composed of pictures, on methods of figurative tiling. Site includes links to related sites in French and English.
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 PartsLibrary.com
A CAD resource with a large SolidWorks parts library. Access is reserved for registered PartsLibrary environment users.
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 Party Games  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
You're one of six people at a dinner party. You would undoubtedly find that the dinner party includes either a group of at least three people who all know one another or a group of at least three people who don't know one another. The reason for this
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 PASCALC.com  Pascal C.
A Webbased calculator with output printed linebyline on the screen. You can pass series of calculations on to your peers by sending a link. Note: the link is not encrypted, and you might consider something like tinyurl.com to shorten the link.
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 Pascal's Fractals  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
It's possible to convert Pascal's triangle into eyecatching geometric forms. For example, one can replace the odd coefficients with 1 and even coefficients with 0. Continuing the pattern for many rows reveals an everenlarging host of triangles, of varying
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 Pascal's Triangle from Top to Bottom  Matthew Hubbard and Tom Roby
A comprehensive resource for the study of Pascal's Triangle. The section "Applications" addresses questions such as "What types of questions are answered by the binomial coefficients?" and "What number greater than 1 shows up most often in Pascal's Triangle?"
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 Pascal's Triangle using Clock Arithmetic  Jay's Corner
Exploring Pascal's triangle when the modulus is a prime; when the modulus is a power of a prime; and when the modulus has at least two different prime divisors. From mod 2 to mod 12, illustrated. (See also Part II.)
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 Pascal Triangle Applet  Sergey Butkevich
An applet that graphically presents Pascal's triangle modulo an integer number p; i.e. it computes the binomial coefficients. It can draw triangles with up to 650 rows with a p value between 2 and 30,000 (though it's not very clear above 15,000). The
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 Passalgebra.com
Pass algebra with this online study guide. Practice with hundreds of problems, with answers worked out step by step. Examples of study guide and exercises provided. $27 for 1 year; stepbystep instruction for $2.50/problem.
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 Pass Calculus  Le Site PassCalculus.com
Calculus question solution service. Solutions offered via email, phone, or fax; quotes are free; payment by credit card. Sample solutions and FAQ online.
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 A Passion for Pi  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
Some of you may be familiar with the sentence: How I want a drink, alcoholic of course, after the heavy lectures involving quantum mechanics! The number of letters in each word represents successive digits of pi: 3.14159265358979. How Simon Plouffe memorized
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 Pasta by Design  George L. Legendre
Photos of architect Legendre's 2011 book by the same title. Pasta by Design provides an illustrated taxonomy of over 90 forms of pasta, along with the mathematical formulae, descriptions of special attributes, and advice on specific cooking uses for each
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 Past Lectures  Gresham College
Dozens of video lectures by Robin Wilson, Gresham Professor of Geometry and former Visiting Professor in the History of Mathematics: "The Great Mathematicians," "Early Mathematics Day," "Lewis Carroll in Numberland," "Topics in the History of Financial
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 Path Puzzles  Erich's Puzzle Palace; Erich Friedman
Sixteen paththroughagrid puzzles; can you fill in the correct path? Answers provided.
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 Pathways to Science  Institute for Broadening Participation
Programs such as undergraduate summer research opportunities, graduate fellowships, postdoctoral positions, as well as resources and materials pertaining to recruitment, retention, mentoring, and funding of underrepresented groups on pathways to science,
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 Pattern  Drew, Wallace; Mathematics Across the Curriculum, Dartmouth College
An interdisciplinary course in textile design and elementary group theory. Syllabus, course pages (notes, figures, questions, group work and homework), final project and class artworks from a 1996 math and art crosscurricular class at Dartmouth College.
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 Pattern Recognition Student Projects, 1997  Godfried Toussaint, McGill University
A variety of student projects: papers presented on the Web, many with Java applets. Topics include: Skeletonization Algorithm of Hilditch; Alpha Shapes; Didier KMeans Algorithm; The MIT Reading Machine for the Blind; Distance Transforms; Midpoint Smoothing;
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 Patterns and Magic Squares  Recmath
This page looks at a particular subset of Magic Squares, those of order four which are 'continuous' (also known as pandiagonal, Nasik and Jaina). It explores the patterns possible when the numbers in these kinds of squares are
represented by a set of
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 Patterns of physical change  Phil Henshaw
Focuses on the use of tools such as derivative reconstruction (DR) to measure growth and changes in a system. Includes: a short paper "Is the basis of change evolutionary?"; a description of the theory of derivative reconstruction as a method of analyzing
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 Pat Thompson's Home Page  Patrick W. Thompson
Research on students' development of algebra and calculus ideas in grades 316, on the nature of multiplicative reasoning and its role in learning sophisticated mathematical ideas, and on teaching and learning statistical and probabilistic reasoning.
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 Paul Erdos: An Infinity of Problems  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
Paul Erdos died of a heart attack on Sept. 20 [1996] at the age of 83. Considered by many as one of the great mathematicians of this century and certainly one of the most prolific ever, he will be missed. For more than 50 years, Erdos wandered the globe
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 Paul's Online Math Notes and Tutorials  Paul Dawkins, Lamar University
Online notes and tutorials on algebra, calculus, and differential equations. Also, PDFs, some reduced to fit onto one printed page, offering a review of algebra and trigonometry, a primer of complex numbers, listing common math errors, suggesting how
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 Paul's Page of Pi  Paul A. Gusmorino 3rd
Most of the content of this site is focused on methods of calculating pi: Archimedes' method; Wallis' formula; Gregory, Leibniz, and Machin; Newton's fluxions; and Paul's 8192 digits. Also Pi Poems, Music of Pi, and Pi Links.
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 paulus gerdes's Storefront  Paulus Gerdes
Purchase print editions or download Gerdes' titles, some also available in Portuguese, Dutch, and French: Drawings from Angola: Living Mathematics, Enjoy Puzzling with biLLies, Puzzle Fun with BiLLies, The Bisos Game: Puzzles and Diversions, Introducing
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 Pavilion of Polyhedreality  George W. Hart
A page of images of polyhedra from the author of Multidimensional Analysis and the Encyclopedia of Polyhedra. Constructions from wood, paper, paper clips, pencils, food and forks. The is also an extensive linked list of other Web pages related to polyhedra
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 PAX Puzzle  PAX Puzzle
Wooden puzzles, rope puzzles, puzzles boxes, and board games for sale. Recommendations and gift sets available.
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