 The Prisoners' Dilemma  F. Heylighen, Principia Cybernetica Web
Cooperation in game theory: the principle of suboptimization. A game that has been and continues to be studied by people in a variety of disciplines, ranging from biology through sociology and public policy. It is a "nonzerosum" game: the best strategy
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 Prisoners' Dilemma  Wayne Davis
An interactive game simulation inspired by Prisoners' Dilemma game theory as described in the book The Selfish Gene by Richard Dawkins. The payoff is a reduction in prison sentencing of very good, fairly good, fairly bad or very bad, which is translated
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 The Private Eye  Kerry Ruef
A handson, investigative teaching approach that attempts to stimulate the wonder of looking closely at the world, thinking by analogy, changing scale, and theorizing. It uses everyday objects, a jeweler's loupe, and a series of simple questions, which
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 Prized Geometric Logic  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Computer programs can handle all sorts of data [such as] a set of discrete
elements, such as temperatures. Some elements of a set may be larger in value than others, or they may exhibit some other relationship that allows you to rank them or put them
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 Prize offered for solving number conundrum  Ivars Peterson  Science News Online
A proof of a conjecture related to Fermat's last theorem would earn $50,000.
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 Prizes and Perils of Popularizing  Keith Devlin
A series of vignettes abouut some of the leading popularizers of mathematics. Sections include: Casti's Tale; Devlin's Tale; Stewart's Tale; Paulos's Tale; Dunham's Tale; and Why Do We Do It? Previously published in Focus.
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 Probabilistic Thinking  Richard Jeffrey, Princeton University
A 1995 book. Chapters include: Probability; Methodology; Expectation; Decision; Probabilism and Induction. Solutions to problems are included.
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 Probability Abstract Service  University of Washington, Seattle, WA
Latest abstracts, with some preprints and information about authors; all abstract titles (old and new titles and authors, a large file); old abstracts; submission and subscription information; and related WWW servers.
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 Probability and Quantile Applets  Balasubramanian Narasimhan
The Probability Applet calculates areas under the standard normal density curves. You are presented with two fields and three buttons on top of a normal density curve. The buttons allow you to calculate areas to the left or to the right or between. The
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 Probability and Statistics (MathPages)  Kevin Brown
More than 40 "informal notes" by Kevin Brown on probability and statistics: evaluating probabilities of Boolean events, area under the bell curve, N items distributed in M bins, dice rolling a given sum, a better lottery, meetings and birthdays, on random
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 Probability and Statistics with Reliability, Queuing, and Computer Science Applications  Kishor Trivedi
Powerpoint slides of chapters of the John Wiley publication Probability and Statistics with Reliability, Queuing and Computer Science Applications.
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 Probability and Stochastic Processes  Elmer G. Wiens; Egwald Web Services Ltd.
Theory, diagrams, and examples of probability distributions used in hypotheses testing; graphs of random walks; normal, gamma, chisquare, studentt, and F distributions.
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 Probability by Surprise  Susan P. Holmes et al.
Experimenting Paradoxes  browsersensitive Java applets (try Internet Explorer first) to try out: The Birthday Problem; Say Red; The Collector; Banach's Matchbox Problem; The Matching Problem; The IID Sequence; Polya's Urn as a restaurant choice; Random
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 Probability Guide  Doru Barbu, INFAROM
Introduction to Probability Theory and its applications for nonmathematicians.
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 Probability  Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny
A short essay on probability theory, with links to some wellknown problems: Monty Hall Dilemma; Three pancakes problem; Lewis Carroll's problem; Bertrand's Paradox; Bear cubs problem; Misuse and Misconception of Statistics; Pauling's joke; Probability
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 Probability in the Engineering and Informational Sciences  Sheldon M. Ross, Ed.; Cambridge University Press
A journal focusing on stochastic modelling in the physical and engineering sciences, with particular emphasis on queueing theory, reliability theory, inventory theory, simulation, stochastic control theory and probabilistic networks and graphs. Online
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 Probability Theory and Related Fields (PTRF)  Geoffrey Grimmett, Managing Editor
Editors' site. The electronic pages of PTRF are kept at the web site of the publisher, Springer. Subscribers or members of subscriber institutions may access recent issues electronically.
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 Probability Theory and Stochastic Processes  Dave Rusin; The Mathematical Atlas
A short article designed to provide an introduction to probability theory: enumerative combinatorial analysis when applied to finite sets; thus the techniques and results resemble those of discrete mathematics. The theory comes into its own when considering
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 Probability Theory: The Logic of Science  E. T. Jaynes
An online textbook by E.T. Jaynes in PS format.
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 Probability Theory: the Logic of Science  E. T. Jaynes, Dept. of Physics, Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO
Chapters (entirely in PostScript files) include: Principles and Elementary Applications; Advanced Applications; Appendices; and References. The long table of contents is on the Web. The LaTeX source is available for download (gz).
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 The Probability Web  Bob Dobrow; Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Carleton College
A collection of pages to serve people with interests in probability theory and its applications. Information is presented under the following headings: Probability links, Abstracts, Listservers, Newsgroups, People, Jobs, Journals, Software, Books, Booksellers,
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 Problem at the Art Gallery  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
The Crystal Art Gallery was being readied for its grand opening, and I had to figure out how many guards were needed to make sure that every wall of paintings was under scrutiny. I was also ordered to keep costs as low as possible. The trouble was that
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 Problem Corner  Les Reid; Southwest Missouri State University (SMSU)
High School, Advanced, and Challenge problems, updated monthly (approximately). High School: solutions are not solicited, although feedback (generalizations, suggestions for future problems, etc.) is appreciated. Each month, the solution to the previous
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 A Problem Course in Mathematical Logic  Stefan Bilaniuk
A freeware mathematics text, available by anonymous ftp in LaTeX, PostScript, and PDF formats, for an introduction to mathematical logic for undergraduates with some mathematical sophistication. It supplies definitions, statements of results, and problems,
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 The Problem of Knot Classification  Charilaos Aneziris
Contents: Denoting Regular Knot projections; When is a notation drawable?; Equal Drawability; Identifying Equivalent Knot Projections; Ordering Knot Notations; Connected Sums; Comparing Regular Knot Projections; NF=14 Results; Calculating the Alexander
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 The Problem of Points  Isaac Reed
An ageold gambling problem led to the development of probability by French mathematicians Pascal and Fermat in the 17th century.
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 The Problem of the Knight: A Fast and Simple Algorithm  Arnd Roth
Download a Mathematica notebook that discusses different algorithms for solving the Knight's Tour problem, finding a path for the chess knight that visits every square once. For an Introduction, Implementation, and Examples, visit Roth's MaxPlanckInstitut
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 Problem of the Week  Alberto L. Delgado, Bradley University, Peoria, IL
Collegelevel problems, posted weekly for the current semester, with archives of problems and solutions starting in spring 1997, for number theory, combinatorics, probability, calculus, etc.
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 ProblemoftheWeek  David Poole; Department of Mathematics, Trent University, Canada
Most of these problems can be done using only high school mathematics and logical reasoning. Eight problems with solutions and one without, from the fall of 1997, at Trent University, Canada. An email contact is listed, for those outside the university
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 Problem of the Week  Dr. Annalisa Crannell; Franklin & Marshall College
Puzzles to solve in number theory, geometry, probability, cryptography, and the like. See problems from 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, and 1997.
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 Problem of the Week  Elgin Johnston, Department of Mathematics, Iowa State University of Science and Technology
Download PDFs of challenging problems in number theory, abstract algebra, graph theory, and other topics every Monday. Intended for undergraduate students enrolled at Iowa State University: "Solvers of each week's problem will be listed on the Problem
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 Problem of the Week  Pavel Belik, Augsburg College
Weekly challenges, posted for undergraduates at Augsburg College, that run the gamut from number theory to geometry and beyond.
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 Problem of the Week  Purdue University
A panel in the Mathematics Department publishes a challenging problem once a week and invites college and precollege students, faculty, and staff to submit solutions. Solutions are due within two weeks from the date of publication and should be sent
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 Problem of the week  Stephen Sproule
An index of sites offering Problems of the Week, organized by level: elementary, middle grades, high school, and advanced. Sproule appraises PoW sites according to whether or not they include solutions and archive past puzzles.
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 Problem of the Week  Steven Locke; Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, Florida Atlantic University
Problems in set theory, sequences, and series, with archives dating back to November, 2003. Locke offers a reward for the FAU student who submits the best solutions.
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 Problem of the Week  U.S. Military Academy
A current collegelevel Problem of the Week, with links to past problems and solutions, a project of the Pi Mu Episilon chapter of the United States Military Academy. MathCad or Word are needed to view past problems and solutions.
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 Problems and solutions of the UIUC Undergraduate Math Contest  University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign
A locally organized problems contest, held in the latter part of the spring semester. It is similar in format and content to the Putnam competition, but the problems are easier. Results, winners, and contest problems since 1996 are on the Web.
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 Problems  Bojan Mohar
Conjectures in graph theory ranging from paths to colorings to matchings to crossings. With references, links to other collections of open problems, and chapters of the book that Mohar authored with Carsten Thomassen, Graphs on Surfaces.
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 Problem Sets for Honors Multivariate Calculus  Stephen B. Maurer; Dept. of Mathematics & Statistics, Swarthmore College
This series of multivariate calculus problem sets supplements and is drawn from texts such as C. H. Edwards, Jr.'s Calculus of Vector Functions and Buck's Advanced Calculus. Problems include Change of Variable in Limits, Matrix Norms and Quadratic Forms,
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 Problems in Topological Graph Theory  Dan Archdeacon
An ongoing list of open questions in topological graph theory, to which the author invites contributions. Classical questions on genus; coloring graphs and maps; drawings and crossings; paths, cycles, and matchings; symmetries; locally planar embeddings;
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 Problem Solving in Mathematics  Jim Wilson; Univ. of Georgia
Problems in algebra, geometry, conversion, cryptarithm, "mean," trigonometry, and a mixture of all, many with comments and solutions, from a course given in the Dept. of Mathematics Education at the University of Georgia. The site also provides links
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 Problem Solving Strategies  Finlay McQuade, Boğaziçi University (Turkey)
Strategies for solving problems, each illustrated with sample math challenges and worked solutions: draw a diagram; make a list; guess and check; divide and conquer; look for a pattern; start at the end. Also available in Turkish.
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 The Problem with Algebraic Models of Marriage Structure  James M. Cargal; The Math Forum
Algebraic models of marriage systems have been in use for nearly fifty years. These models continue to be a matter of controversy. Most anthropologists have found algebraic models abstract and unnecessary. Mathematical scientists have tended to consider
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 Production Functions and Cost Schedules  Elmer G. Wiens; Egwald Web Services Ltd.
Production functions, such as the CobbDouglas and CES, underly cost
schedules used to model firms in microeconomics. The models illustrate
this link and show the relation between long and short run cost schedules.
Uses calculus (Langrangians)
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 Prof. Dr, H.C. Tijms  Henk Tijms
Home page for this professor. Includes two software packages, free for noncommercial use: MCQueue (educational software for Markov chains and queues), and ORSTAT2000 (educational software for probability and operations research, including modules for
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 Professional Development Programs for Grade K12 Teachers of Mathematics  The State University of New Jersey  Rutgers
Read about and apply for summer institutes such as Institutes for New Teachers of Mathematics and Science, Helping All Students Succeed in Grades 712 Mathematics, the Leadership Program in Discrete Mathematics, and the DIMACS Connect Institute; conferences
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 Professional Development  Texas Instruments, Inc. (TI)
Learn about the T3 Teacher Leader Cadre Program, onsite systemic professional development; T3 Outreach Program, short term, onsite professional development; T3 international and regional conferences; free online courses for professional development;
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 Professional Homework Help
Solutions to your mathematics and statistics homework problems. Request a free quote.
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 Profession Jokes  Mathematicians  David Shay
Jokes about proofs, mathematicians, and mathematics.
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 Professora Karolina Barone Ribeiro da Silva  Karolina Barone Ribeiro da Silva
Aulas de geometria incluem geometria esférica e geografia, geometria não euclidiana e a física, uma guia com atividades simples sobre geometria euclidiana plana, e "de Euclides a Poincaré." Veja tambem as coleções
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