 How do I tell a real difference from random variation?  Max Janairo
This paper presents the concepts necessary to understand what the methodologies of hypothesis testing and confidence intervals accomplish, and provides an introduction to the use of these concepts to answer particular questions in medicine. Some problems
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 How round is your circle?  Bryant, John; and Sangwin, Chris
These photos and QuickTime movies accompany the book How Round Is Your Circle? Where Engineering and Mathematics Meet. See, in particular, the illustrations of how to drill a square hole. Sections include Falling apart (the Pythagorean Theorem, Dudeney's
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 How To Add Without Using Fingers  James Kent Murray
Teacher guide and student workbooks, designed to help students add faster and more accurately.
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 How to Factor A Quadratic Trinomial  Paul Patten
Practice in factoring quadratic equations, with problems and solutions.
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 How To Measure Area (SMILE)  Levi Johnson, James Otis
A 7th grade lesson designed to help students gain an understanding of square units. From the Geometry and Measurement section of a collection of almost 200 single concept lessons by the Science and Mathematics Initiative for Learning Enhancement.
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 How to Solve the Rubik's Cube v1.4  Mark Jeays
A complete solution to solving the cube from any position, credited to David Singmaster, who wrote the 1980 book Notes on Rubik's Magic Cube, except for Step 2, discovered independently by Mark Jeays.
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 hs.Beestar.org  Beestar Educations, Inc.
Providers of curriculumbased online programs for high school students, such as Beestar Progressive Exercise (BPE), a "systematic knowledge application and skillpractice program." See, in particular, the weekly SAT math and advanced SAT math programs.
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 HyperMath  Carl R. (Rod) Nave; Georgia State University
HyperMath uses concept maps to explore mathematics ideas and applications to physics and astronomy. Originally developed in HyperCard, HyperMath covers the topics of algebra, trigonometry, geometry, vectors, linear algebra, logarithms, exponents, calculus,
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 HyperPhysics  Carl R. (Rod) Nave; Georgia State University
HyperPhysics uses concept maps to explore physics ideas and applications. Originally developed in HyperCard, the networklike environment provides for numerical exploration in the form of active formula and standard problems implemented in Javascript.
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 Ian's Proof that Infinity = 1  Don Cohen (The Mathman)
Young children try writing the sum of an infinite series as a fraction. What's wrong with Ian's argument? Newton and Euler and those other mathematicians had made similar mistakes with infinite series! The problem is that the infinite series converges
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 IcoachMath
A platform for elementary and middle school math students to practice and improve their skills. The site has content for 300+ lessons in basic and advanced topics in math. Create worksheets with number, word problems and multiple choice questions; track
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 iCoachMath.com  HighPoints Learning, Inc.
iCoachMath.com coaches students online; and provides teachers with student performance reports, customized test papers, and math resources such as lesson plans aligned to state and national standards. The site freely offers an illustrated dictionary of
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 ICSE Maths  Suresh Lala
The site contains practice problems for the ICSE (Indian Certificate of Secondary Education) Exam. General topics include arithmetic, algebra, geometry and statistics. Each subtopic typically includes about twenty problems, with answers at the bottom
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 IDEA: Internet Differential Equations Activities  Thomas LoFaro; College of Sciences, Washington State Univ. (WSU)
Interdisciplinary computerbased activities for differential equations: a database of computer activities illustrating both mathematical concepts and the application of these concepts in a wide variety of disciplines. DynaSys, Java differential equations
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 Identical Calendars for 2000 (Math Chat)  Frank Morgan, MAA Online
For programming into the VCR on January 1st for correct day and date, what years in the 1900s have the same calendar as the year 2000? An identical calendar must, like 2000, be a leap year starting on a Saturday. Leap years occur every four years, and
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 IFORS tutORial Project  Moshe Sniedovich
A library of selfcontained modules, each dedicated to a relatively small OR/MS topic, from the International Federation of Operational Research Societies (IFORS). Modules typically contain some of: text, images, computer code, animation, and user interface
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 "I Get It!"  A Guide for the Mathematically Undiscovered  ThinkLinks Press
This fullcolour, K8 series focuses on conceptual language, appropriate models and simplified presentation. Books, manipulatives, blackline masters, and more.
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 iKodeko  iKodeko Software, Inc.
Free online math quizzes cover least common multiple (LCM), Roman numerals conversion, number to words, and algebra word problems. Review performance, and participate in discussions around individual test items. Download the iKodeko Worksheet Maker freeware
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 iMath Learning  Active Maths, Inc.
Mathematical activities for kids aged 7 to 16. For individuals, small groups or with the whole class using a projector or interactive smartboard.
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 The IMO Compendium  Dusan Djukic, Vladimir Jankovic, Ivan Matic, Nikola Petrovic
Huge collection of math olympiad questions, including all the information regarding The IMO Compendiuma book that contains all IMO shortlists (with solutions) and all available longlists. The site also has a large collection of related links.
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 Impressions from ICME9  Cut the Knot!, Alexander Bogomolny
Statistics on attendance (by country) at the International Congress on Mathematics Education held in Tokyo, Japan in August, and impressions of talks on the state of mathematics education in the year 2000. According to Mogens Niss (Denmark) who gave the
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 IMSA Math Journal  Michele Micetich; Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy
A journal published annually since 1993; each issue contains articles, problems, and activities spanning a wide variety of topics of interest to high school mathematics teachers and students. Articles are available in both online and downloadable versions.
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 Inch by Inch and Centimeter by Centimeter Extravaganza (SMILE)  Pamela J. BatesHines, Ninos Heroes Academy
A lesson for the very early grades designed to teach students to measure one inch to a yard; measure one centimeter to a meter; and compare and contrast standard to nonstandard units of measurement. From the Geometry and Measurement section of a collection
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 Incorporating Word Problems into Basic Skills Development  Gerald A. Baldino; YaleNew Haven Teachers Institute
Teaching word problems and methods of solution: a unit concerned with practical approaches to problem solving at the elementary mathematical level. It presents concepts and ideas calculated to encourage educators to concentrate on and deal with everyday
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 Infinite Series  Public Broadcasting Service
Math videos that mix graphics with narration from mathematician Kelsey HoustonEdwards. Clips, which date back to November, 2016 and run seven to seventeen minutes in length, have included "Singularities Explained," "The Mathematics of Quantum Computers,"
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 Infinite Sums  Jonathan Claydon
Blog by a high school math teacher in Houston, Texas, who "decided the corporate engineering world was not for me, so now I joke around with teenagers and teach them math. And soccer." Posts, which date back to June, 2011, have included "Standards Based
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 Information on Pentomino Puzzles  Frank Ruskey; Dept. of Computer Science, Univ. of Victoria, B.C., Canada
A pentomino is an arrangement of 5 unit squares (or sometimes cubes) that are joined along their edges. Up to isomorphism (rotating and flipping), there are 12 possible shapes, which are illustrated. Each piece is labelled by the letter that most accurately
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 INFORMS OR/MS Resource Collection
 Michael Trick, Carnegie Bosch Inst., Grad. School of Indust. Administration, Carnegie Mellon Univ.
An organized listing of sites concerned with the field of operations research, the technique of using modern scientific models to predict and compare the outcomes of complex systems, considering factors such as change and risk, with links to: FAQs; Societies;
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 Inquiry maths  Blair, Andrew; and Martin, Caitriona
Inquiry prompts for topics related to number, algebra, and shape to use in secondary school mathematics. Accompanying notes support teachers who "want to make their lessons more open and, thereby, encourage student independence and leadership."
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 Inquisitive Problems  B.S. Rangaswamy; Math Forum Teacher Exchange
Two collegelevel problems on numerals, Palindrome Cube and AL Perplex5, from the author's soontobepublished work, Wonders of Numerals, submitted to the Math Forum's Teacher Exchange. You are invited to send in your answers.
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 Insert Clever Math Pun Here  Meg Craig
Blog chock full of original classroom assignments and handwork samples. Posts by the Birmingham (Alabama) math teacher, which date back to July, 2014, have included "Equation Editor Awesomeness," "#mtboschallenge 123 Sunday Summary," "The Bagel AwardWinning
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 The Insight Method of Teaching Math  Robert Frick
How and why to teach math via mental models, as articulated by a cognitive psychologist who describes the "learning is memory" approach as "a disaster and a tragedy." See, in particular, Frick's sample problems: reverse arithmetic, expressing patterns,
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 Integer Programming in Recreational Mathematics  Martin J. Chlond
A collection of puzzles, each of which may be formulated and solved using integer programming. The puzzles are intended to give practice to students in the formulation of IP models, to stimulate interest, and to demonstrate the variety of structures that
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 Interactive Algebra  Robert Bunge
Java applets that allow you to practice your equations, factoring, and graphing skills, with multiple levels in each category. The applet generates random problems, which you work on paper, and you can check your answers when you're ready. Hints are also
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 Interactive Course on Projective Geometry  Juan Carlos Alvarez Paiva; Polytechnic University, Brooklyn, NY
An interactive, discoverybased course on projective geometry. Lecture notes, sample exams, applets, and a list of recommended reading are provided.
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 Interactive Games  Cathleen J. Chamberlain and Mark Cogan, Oswego City School District
Design matching games and quizzes. Premade games include Ghost Blasters and Sum Sense, for practicing arithmetic; Banana Hunt, for estimating angle measures; Bang on Time, Class Clock, and Stop the Clock; Billy Bug, for learning coordinates; Fraction
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 Interactive Geometry with JavaSketchPad  Bryan Dye; MathsNet
Java applets illustrate geometrical figures (circle, cuboid, equilateral, isosceles, and scalene triangles, kite, parallelogram, regular hexagon, octagon, pentagon, quadrilateral, square, rectangle, rhombus, trapezium); show what is meant by congruence,
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 Interactive Mathematics Online  ThinkQuest 1996
Algebra (Postulates  Things you can do with equations and inequalities, Function Basics and Simple Graphing, Kinds of functions (periodic, odd, even, etc.), Function Squashing); Geometry (an introduction, applications, glossary, sample problems); Trigonometry,
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 The Interactive Physics Problem Set  UC Berkeley Instructional Technology Program
This web site contains almost 100 practice problems for physics students. They're accompanied by detailed solutions and interactive computer experiments. (The computer experiments only run on Macintosh computers that have Interactive Physics II installed,
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 Interactive Precalculus Modeling  Leon La Spina & Students; Bethpage High School, Long Island, NY
An online precalculus curriculum, with problems illustrating a variety of applications, many including detailed solutions and some others with interactive animations. Precalculus modeling refers to the process of finding functions that predict and describe
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 Interactive Probability  Jean Fontaine
Interactive exercises on probability trees of choice that use randomized data, and run on Maple.
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 Interactive Tests  Ron Knott
Ron Knott has begun producing Mathematics A and AS Level tests for the independent UK curriculum development body, Mathematics in Education and Industry. The webbased format of the tests let you view a problem and then: choose an answer from a multiple
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 The InterFACE: Internet Fractal and Chaos Education  ThinkQuest 1997
Lessons, games, activities, demonstrations, and software, to inform users of the science and mathematics behind fractal images and chaos theory. The lessons, identified by subject and level of difficulty and including quizzes, are designed to promote
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 Interior Design (SMILE)  Sally Hill, Horatio May Community Academy
A lesson for grades 46 designed to teach students to calculate area and perimeter in inches. From the Geometry and Measurement section of a collection of almost 200 single concept lessons by the Science and Mathematics Initiative for Learning Enhancement.
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 InterMath  The University of Georgia
InterMath is a professional development effort designed to support teachers in becoming better mathematics educators. InterMath workshops provide an ongoing support community, a lesson plan database, and a discussion board. The site provides mathematical
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 International Mathematical Olympiad (IMO) / Olympiade internationale de mathématiques (OIM)
The World Championship Mathematics Competition for High School, which takes place each year in a different country. Its membership (by invitation only) has gradually expanded to over seventy countries from all five continents. Latest competition results;
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 International Mathematical Olympiad  John Webb
Search or download problems from every year of the International Mathematical Olympiad (IMO), dating back to the first competition, in 1959. Problems from 20032005 may be downloaded in Spanish as well as English; and from 2006 forward, in dozens more
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 International Mathematical Talent Search (IMTS)  Bela Bajnok; Canadian Mathematical Society (CAMEL)
A competitive yearround correspondence program in creative mathematical problem solving at the secondary school level, open to all students in every country at no cost. Problem rounds are available in HTML and PDF formats. The program parallels the USA
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 International Mathematics Olympiad (IMO)  IOI Secretariat; Eindhoven Univ. of Technology
The annual mathematics competition for high school students, the oldest of the International Science Olympiads (the first IMO was held in Romania in 1959). The problems come from various areas of mathematics, such as are included in math curricula at
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 internet intellligent tutors  Fred Koh
Weekly formulas with worked examples; answers available by clicking "Show Solution." Posts, which date back to August, 2016, have included "Evaluating Nested Square Roots," "Volumes by Cylindrical Shells Method," "Evaluating Nested Square Roots," "Integration
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