 ostermiller.org  Stephen Ostermiller
Converters, Calculators, and JavaScript include Multiplication Game, in which letters represent digits in a multiplication problem; Length, which converts between units of length and distance; Roman Numerals, which converts between Arabic and Roman numerals;
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 Other Maths  Jon Perry
Notes, applets, and proofs on a variety of open problems and conjectures: roots of x^p, highest power of 2 that divides ab + bc + ca, a prime product paradox, consecutive integers, (n + 1)!, Collatz, nsecting a line, the first lower digit, Fibonacci,
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 Panagiotis Stefanides
Geometry presented at national conferences in Greece. Contents include: Quantization of Circle Duality; Logos Pyr Chronos; 'Buena Fortuna' (artwork); Geometric Mean Ratio (T) by Ruler and Compass; Quadrature Master Theorem; Corollary (Circle Circumference
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 Paper Cup Mathematics  Jerry Neidenbach, Sue Harvey, and Marilyn McArthur; Park City Mathematics Institute
In this classroom activity, a PCMI Resource for Teachers, students investigate whether paper cups roll out the pattern of an annulus and how you can tell, how the dimensions of the cup relate to the dimensions of the annulus, and whether you can predict
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 paperfolding.com  Eric Andersen
Learn to fold origami from diagrams; read about the history of paperfolding, including the origin of the term "origami." The origami & math essay contains sections such as Origami, Geometry, and the Kawasaki Theorem; and Origami and Topology.
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 Papers on the History of Mathematics  Gregory Cherlin, Rutgers University
A random selection of term papers submitted in undergraduate, onesemester courses on the history of mathematics. Topics include zero, Fermat, Euler, Newton, Euclid's proof of the Pythagorean Theorem, Fibonacci, Vieta, conic sections, mathematics at Princeton
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 Passy's World of Mathematics
Lesson outlines by this Australianborn math teacher include Venn diagram word problems, combining like terms, translate word equations, and isometric drawing and 3d cubes; PowerPoint presentations include traversable networks, sharing using ratios, real
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 Pasta by Design  George L. Legendre
Photos of architect Legendre's 2011 book by the same title. Pasta by Design provides an illustrated taxonomy of over 90 forms of pasta, along with the mathematical formulae, descriptions of special attributes, and advice on specific cooking uses for each
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 Pattern  Drew, Wallace; Mathematics Across the Curriculum, Dartmouth College
An interdisciplinary course in textile design and elementary group theory. Syllabus, course pages (notes, figures, questions, group work and homework), final project and class artworks from a 1996 math and art crosscurricular class at Dartmouth College.
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 paulus gerdes's Storefront  Paulus Gerdes
Purchase print editions or download Gerdes' titles, some also available in Portuguese, Dutch, and French: Drawings from Angola: Living Mathematics, Enjoy Puzzling with biLLies, Puzzle Fun with BiLLies, The Bisos Game: Puzzles and Diversions, Introducing
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 PBS Mathline: Math at the Movies
Math concepts, challenges, and more, from the movies. For kids: solve puzzles from the movies; explore movie math concepts; and learn about a movie career involving math. Teachers, there are teaching and assessment tips here as well, not directly connected
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 PCTM Online Puzzle of the Week  Judy Brown; Pennsylvania Council of Teachers of Mathematics
Weekly illustrated math puzzle online competition from 199697, with an archive of past puzzles. Since 1997 this project has moved to the Math Forum to become its Middle School Problem of the Week.
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 PentoMania  Douglas Twitchell, Virtu Software
This pentominobased puzzle game for Windows allows students to solve geometric puzzles or create puzzles and designs of their own.
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 Pentomino Relationships  Adrian Smith
The site describes how pentominoes (twelve pieces of wood, each a different shape and each made of five cubes) fit together into rectangles or cuboids, as well as the subsequent challenge of finding as many other solutions as possible from the one just
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 Perimeter Efficiency  William Blackwell
Perimeter Efficiency, also known as Isoperimetric Inequalities, compares the actual perimeter of a shape with the circumference of the circle that would be required to enclose the same area. Since a circle will enclose any given area with the least amount
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 Perplexus  flooble
A large archive of mathematically inclined puzzles and problems displayed by category. Includes logic, number theory, geometry, probability and other problems. All are rated by difficulty and quality and discussed in depth by visitors. Most with solutions.
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 Personalized Programming Service Inc.
Educational software for teachers and students. Topical software in Math, English, Social Studies, and Science, as well as Quizmaker and Testmaker programs. Download demos and upgrades, browse the products, or order on site.
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 Personal Tutor  Memory Banks Pty. Ltd., Australia
Maths and science software designed to complement the secondary school math syllabus. A comprehensive learning system usually used by students and schools as a supplement and aid to coursework, but thorough enough that it can be used by individuals without
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 Perspective Images  H. B. Meyer
The computation of image points of perspective images by the use of similar triangles ("numerical perspective") is shown. By inversion of the corresponding mapping equations the determination of proportions of various distances in the real scene becomes
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 Perspective Study  Hop David
David suggests a mapping from half of 3D space onto a plane, feeling that traditional perspective drawings are similar to the image projected by a pinhole camera. Perspective illustrations of arches, looking up or down at a skyscraper, peripheral vision,
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 Peter Ash's Thoughts on Math and Education  Peter Ash
Musings on doing and teaching mathematics, book reviews, and math problems both elementary and advanced from the creator of Cambridge Math Learning. Blog posts, which date back to August of 2007, include "Very Proper Fractions"; "Physical Models for NonEuclidean
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 Peter Doyle  Mathematics, Univ. of California at San Diego
Advanced tutorials, proofs and papers, mostly statistics, probability, geometry, and graph theory, but with examples from other mathematics areas as well. Don't miss Dr. Doyle's Flip Flops.
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 Peter J. Lu  Department of Physics, Harvard University
Lu's mathematical and historical research has revealed new insights in medieval Islamic quasicrystalline tilings and the earliest machines, such as the one he suggests precisely interconverted the linear and rotational motion responsible for the distinctive
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 peterlu.org  Peter Lu
Publications and research into medieval Islamic geometry (e.g., decagonal and quasicrystalline tilings in its architecture), softmatter and colloid physics, highperformance imaging, ancient Chinese technology (e.g., first use of diamond, early precision
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 Peter Winton's Radical Home Page
Math topics include puzzles, a gallery of fractals, and Visual Basic programs to download (count the grains of rice on a chessboard, or graph different curves).
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 Petran Mathematics  Petro Greffrath
From South Africa: grade 11 and 12 math problems, tests, and answers. Teachers may register their students (R360/year for 110 students; the Petran academic year starts 1st February and ends 31st January the following year). Includes access to an EnglishAfrikaans
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 Philosophy of Science  David Banach
A syllabus and collected resources for a course in the philosophy of science, including excerpts from various books. Topics include ancient Greek science and mathematics: the Golden Section, Pythagoras, infinity and continuity, and Plato and Aristotle,
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 PhotoMath  Martha Jean Barrett; Kodak
A project where students created their own mathematical board games for use with younger or less advanced students, for grades 48. Working in teams, advanced students covered seven math categories: whole numbers, decimals, fractions, measurement, geometry,
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 Pieces 'n Creases: A Fun Guide to Origami  Herring, Long, Haeggquist, Jeremy; ThinkQuest Junior
Contents include the history of origami; uses and benefits; terms, symbols, and tips; origami and peace; poems about origami; activities, and resources for folding paper. An awardwinning entry from Vidor Middle School.
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 Plane Geometry by Shalosh B. Ekhad, XIV  Doron Zeilberger
A textbook entirely written in Maple, "by" Shalosh B. Ekhad, XIV (ca. 2050), "downloaded from the future" by Doron Zeilberger. Code provided, with illustrations and instructions.
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 Plane Geometry Web Pages  David Jaffe
Materials from a geometry course originally taught to future middle and high school teachers. Using definitions, theorems, proofs, and examples, the site introduces mappings; isometries and similarities; angles and trigonometry; congruence and similarity;
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 Plane Graphic Calculator  J. E. Lillge
A Java calculator that can plot graphs of mathematical functions. Intended primarily as an educational aid to understanding the geometric interpretation of mathematical functions, it also supports complex numbers, vectors, and parametrically defined functions.
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 Plane Isometries  Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny
A collection of basic facts and partial explanations on plane isometries. With accompanying Java applets for translation, reflection, rotation and glide reflection.
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 PlaneMath  InfoUse, in cooperation with NASA
Materials for elementary school students about math and aeronautics, designed to stimulate and motivate students with physical disabilities in grades 47 to pursue aeronauticsrelated careers via the development and delivery of accessible math education
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 Planet Perplex  Stefan Van den Bergh
Collection of optical illusions, impossible objects, visual puzzles, and hidden images.
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 The Planimeter  Paul Kunkel
The planimeter is a drafting instrument used to measure the area of a graphically represented planar region. The region being measured may have any irregular shape, making this instrument remarkably versatile.
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 Play Ball (SMILE)  Roslyn N. Matthews, South Shore High School
A baseball lesson designed to teach students to compute batting and earned run averages; given general dimensions of the playing field and some equipment, change the units to the metric system; find the diagonal distance from 3rd base to 1st base; and
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 Plexagon  Pleated Hexagon  Paul Bourke, Ron Evans
Plexagon is a new modular geometry based on the radial pleating of polygonal plates, and their joining or cobracing into 3D modules. This engineering approach can form a very practical basis for modular greenhouses (using recycled plastic sheeting) and
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 Point Plots and Space Curves  Theo Gray
Download a Mathematica notebook that defines the functions PointParamPlot3D, SpaceCurve, and PointSpaceCurve. These functions let you make discrete point plots in two and three dimensions. The SpaceCurve and PointSpaceCurve functions let you make threedimensional
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 Polaroid Geometry Scavenger Hunt  Math Forum
This activity presented by Ruth Carver at the Math Forum's 1996 Summer Institute, "Constructing Mathematics on the Internet," displays pictures of items found on this a hunt for a list of geometric items (tessellations, symmetry, concentric circles, shapes,
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 Polymath Love  Gary Smith
Free and lowcost Macintosh software for middle school mathematics: over
200 programs written by a classroom teacher. Program descriptions and some free programs are available to download from the Web, or order the CDROM for $100 U.S., which includes
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 Polyominoes  Slavik Jablan
A plane topological disk (i.e. a plane region without "holes") consisting of n edgetoedge adjacent squares is called a polyomino. This site offers a shape description: in every border square cell of a polyomino we could introduce twosided mirrors perpendicular
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 Polytopes and Polyhedra  Dave Rusin; The Mathematical Atlas
A short article designed to provide an introduction to geometric objects made from straight pieces: polygons, polyhedra, and generalizations. Applications and related fields and subfields; textbooks, reference works, and tutorials; software and tables;
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 Polytopes, Zonohedra, Zonotiles, Mathematica notebooks  Russell Towle
Some of the author's endeavors in geometry, including studies of zonohedra, polyhedra, spacefillings, polytopes in higher space, and the discovery of new types of polyhedra and spacefillers. Mathematica notebooks are provided which create these kinds
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 The postIMO97 web page  Olimpíada Matemática Argentina
Problems and results from the math olympics held in Argentina in July, 1997. Available in English and Spanish, with problems also in French, Russian, German, and a host of other languages.
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 Potent Problems  Institute for Studies in Educational Mathematics
A database of problems that deepen understanding of mathematics through multiple answers, approaches to an answer, interpretations, extensions, perspectives on a mathematical idea, layers of complexity, or algorithms. Potent problem content topics include
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 Power Math: Online Math Problem Solving
Algebra, geometry, and arithmetic formulas for grades up to 9th.
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 PowerMath: the Virtual Reality Mathematics Teacher  Alexandre Menezes, PowerClassroom Software, LLC
Modular, studentcentered instruction software for Windows, based on visualization of mathematical ideas. Available in licenses from one to unlimited users. Demo CD available. Pricing and topics listed on web site.
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 Praktick  Praktick Learning private Ltd.
Autoscoring practice problems aligned to the UK's Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Standards, from prekindergarten to grade seven. Questions adjust dynamically based on performance, while a timer counts up response time; incorrect answers
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 PreAlgebra Problem of the Week  Math Forum
Math problems for students learning algebraic reasoning, identifying and applying patterns, ratio and proportion, and geometric ideas such as similarity. The goal is to challenge students with nonroutine problems and encourage them to put their solutions
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