 Babylonian numerals  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay exploring the development of the Babylonians' number system, with ideas inherited from the Sumerians and the Akkadians. From them came base 60, or the sexagesimal system, but neither the Sumerian nor the Akkadian system was a positional system
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 The Bakhshali manuscript  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay on the discovery and history of an early mathematical manuscript. The Bakhshali Manuscript is a mathematical work written on birch bark, found in the summer of 1881 near the village Bakhshali in Mardan tahsil, 50 miles from the city of Peshawar
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 Base Considerations  Keith Devlin (Devlin's Angle)
A discussion of base systems, including negative bases, used in computers. "We are so used to computers nowadays that it seems obvious that computer arithmetic should be performed in a binary fashion. After all, this is the most natural form for a computer,
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 Basic Ideas in Greek Mathematics  Michael Fowler; University of Virginia
Lecture notes from a course entitled "Galileo and Einstein." Nailing down the square root of 2. Zeno's paradoxes: Achilles and the tortoise. Proving an arrow can never move  analyzing motion, the beginning of calculus. How Archimedes calculated Pi to
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 Before Pythagoras: The Culture of Old Babylonian Mathematics  New York University Institute for the Study of the Ancient World
This archaeological exhibit explored the world of Old Babylonian mathematics through cuneiform tablets, and illustrates how the ancient civilization performed arithmetic on numbers based entirely on two symbols. Online highlights include images of a multiplication
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 The Beginnings of Set Theory  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay describing the rise of set theory from Cantor (with discussion of earlier contributions) through the first half of the 20th century, with another web site and 25 references (books/articles).
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 Benoit B. Mandelbrot  Computer Science Dept., Yale University
From the Yale University Computer Science Department's listing of Research and Academic Faculty. Prof. Mandelbrot joined the Yale faculty in 1987.
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 The Bertrand Russell Editorial Project  McMaster University
These archives, at McMaster University, house the complete papers of Bertrand Russell (18721970), British Philosopher, logician, essayist and renowned peace advocate. His Collected Papers include logical and philosophical works, Toward the "Principles
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 Bessel, Friedrich Wilhelm (Funk & Wagnalls Multimedia Encyclopedia)  Lycos Zone: Mathematics
A short biography of Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (17841846), the German astronomer and mathematician, best known for making the first accurate measurement of the distance to a star.
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 Bibliography Index  MacTutor Math History Archives
About 700 books/articles on the History of Mathematics, some general works and some more specialised, intended to supplement the list of references attached to each biography or History topic in the MacTutor Math History archives. The items in the bibliography
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 BigPictures Index  MacTutor Math History Archives
An alphabetical list of pictures of mathematicians accompanying the archives.
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 Biografias y Vidas  Biografias y Vidas, S. C. P.
Biographies in Spanish, including those of mathematicians. Using the advanced search (Buscador Avanzado), search for matematicas in the description.
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 A biographical sketch of Ada Byron, Lady Lovelace  Dr. Betty Toole
A brief biography and book reference of Ada Byron, Lady Lovelace, one of the most picturesque characters in computer history, who suggested to Babbage a plan that is now regarded as the first "computer program." Also Ada Lovelace's Notes on her translation
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 Biographical Studies  Clark Kimberling; Dept. of Mathematics, Univ. of Evansville, Evansville, IN
Biographies of: Emmy Noether (18821935) mathematician; David Dale Owen (18071860) geologist; Joseph Granville Norwood (18071895) geologist; Margaret Chappellsmith (18061883) lecturer and writer; John Chappellsmith (18061895) artist and writer; Eduardo
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 Biography of M. C. Escher  Thames and Hudson's Escher Interactive
A biography of the wellknown, early 20th century artist. Escher's work is famous today for the imaginary worlds he created. He combined bizarre creatures and spatial illusions with craftsmanship and love of detail. Born in Holland in 1898, the son of
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 The brachistochrone problem
 MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay on the brachistochrone problem, posed by Johann Bernoulli in Acta Eruditorum in June, 1696. With references and other related web sites.
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 Brain Science & ICT in Mathematics Education  Dave Moursund
An exploration of three major topics from a math education point of view: Brain Science Craft & Science of Teaching & Learning (C&S of T&L) Information & Communications Technology (ICT). Read the author's thoughts on constructivism,
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 A Brief History of Algebra and Computing: An Eclectic Oxonian View  Jonathan P. Bowen; Oxford University Computing Laboratory, UK
Math history: Chapters on: The Origins of Algebra; Early English Algebra; Algebra and Analytical Engines; Boolean Algebra; Algebra and Computing; Recent Developments in the Algebra of Programs. References. Also available at http://www.museums.reading.ac.uk/vmoc/algebra/.
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 A Brief History of Cosmology  MacTutor Math History Archives
A hypertext essay describing the course of cosmology from its beginnings in early Babylonian society through the present, with References.
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 A Brief History of Mathematics  British Broadcasting, United Kingdom
Ten episodes of maths history by Marcus du Sautoy, first broadcast on the BBC in 2010, each themed around a particular mathematician or group of mathematicians.
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 A Brief History of Mathematics  Marcus du Sautoy, BBC Radio 4
Audio biographies of famous mathematicians: Newton and Leibniz, Euler, Fourier, Galois, Gauss, Riemann, Cantor, Poincaré, Hardy and Ramanujan, and Bourbaki. Each clip, originally aired on BBC Radio 4, runs about fifteen minutes long.
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 A Brief History of Mechanical Calculators  James Redin
An essay on the historical evolution of calculating machines, from the abacus to Babbage's differential machine to today's computers. Contents include: the abacus; the Antikythera calculator; Napier's Bones; Leonardo da Vinci's design; Schickard’s machine;
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 A Brilliant Madness: The story of Nobel Prize winning mathematician John Nash  PBS
"The story of a mathematical genius whose career was cut short by a descent into madness." Read a synopsis of the documentary, the film's transcript, primary sources such as John Nash's dissertation, his Nobel autobiography, and more. Based on the documentary,
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 The British Society for the History of Mathematics (BSHM)
The British Society for the History of Mathematics promotes research into the history of mathematics and its use at all levels of mathematics education through meetings, a newsletter, and by other means. The BSHM takes in all periods and civilisations,
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 Calculus & Higher Mathematics (Funk & Wagnalls Multimedia Encyclopedia)  Lycos Zone: Mathematics
An article defining and describing calculus, including differential and integral calculus, differential equations, and the development of calculus. Also articles on Bessel; complex numbers; Hamilton; Limits; Linear Algebra; Newton, and the Phase Rule.
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 'The Calculus of Logic' by George Boole  D. R. Wilkins, School of Mathematics, Trinity College, Dublin
The paper "The calculus of logic" by George Boole, first published in The Cambridge and Dublin Mathematical Journal, vol. 3 (1848), is available here in various formats: HTML (with inlined images), LaTeX, DVI, PostScript (US Letter size), and PostScript
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 Calendars and Astronomy (Math and the Heavens)  Dave Rusin, The Mathematical Atlas
Moreorless mathematical posts related to calendars and astronomy: background information on calendar traditions and a discussion of the mathematical aspects of the calendar, with a pointer to the Calendar FAQ; the related questions, on which day of
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 Calendars  L. E. Doggett
An introduction to calendars: what they are; astronomical bases of calendars; calendar reform and accuracy; historical eras and chronology; the Gregorian Calendar  ecclesiastical rules, history; the Hebrew Calendar  rules, Determining Tishri 1, Reasons
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 Calendopaedia  The Encyclopaedia of Calendars  Michael Astbury
A Comparison of Calendars, including Julian, Gregorian, Mayan, and Hebrew, details about these calendars and their history, and brief notes on different ways we measure time.
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 Calendrical Calculations  Nachum Dershowitz and Edward M. Reingold
A book about the algorithms used to calculate different calendars (Gregorian, Julian, Mayan, Hebrew, Persian, and more.) The preface, table of contents, index, and a sample chapter are available in PDF and PostScript formats. Other book resources include
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 Canadian Society for the History and Philosophy of Mathematics (CSHPM)  Glen Van Brummelen, SecretaryTreasurer
Promotes research and teaching in the history and philosophy of mathematics. A History and Pedagogy of Mathematics Newsletter is free to members; back issues of the HPM Newsletter are available in WordPerfect format. The CSHPM Bulletin, with announcements,
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 Carlo Emilio Bonferroni  Michael Dewey, University of Nottingham
A brief description of Bonferroni's life and works, including Bonferroni's inequalities and his interest in algebraic means. With bibliographies.
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 Catalog of the Scientific Community in the 16th and 17th Centuries  Albert Van Helden
A searchable collection of 631 detailed biographies with facts about each individual and his or her contributions to science, compiled by the late Richard S. Westfall; Dept. of History and Philosophy of Science, Indiana University.
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 Category Theory  JeanPierre Marquis
An entry in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy covers category theory's definitions, history, and philosophical significance. Also includes a bibliography.
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 Cattle of the Sun  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
The story goes that Archimedes of Syracuse (287212 B.C.) was annoyed with Apollonius of Perga (262190 B.C.), who had criticized Archimedes' work on the multiplication of large numbers. For revenge, Archimedes devised a fiendish computational problem
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 Chameleon Graphing: Plane History  Ursula Whitcher
A Web unit for middle and high school students. Sam the Chameleon investigates the history of the coordinate plane. Was it invented? Who named it? The unit includes a glossary and brief biographical information about the historical figures involved. See
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 Chaos and the Solar System  Paul Trow
An essay on the historical development of chaos theory, especially as it relates to the solar system.
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 Chaos (Mathematics Across the Curriculum)  Dartmouth College
Syllabus, related links, reading list, and student papers (access is restricted to the papers; you must have a password to view them) from a Dartmouth College course from winter, 1998. The course examined chaos from scientific, literary, historical and
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 Charles Babbage Institute of Computer History (CBI)  University of Minnesota
CBI is a research center at the University of Minnesota dedicated to promoting the study and preservation of the history of information processing. As part of its mission, CBI maintains an archival collection available for use by the public that includes
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 Chinese Mathematics  MacTutor Math History Archives
Articles on mathematics in Chinese culture: An Overview of Chinese Mathematics; Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art; The Ten Mathematical Classics; Chinese Numerals; and Chinese Problems. Also an alphabetical list of Chinese mathematicians, linked to
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 Chinese Remainder Theorem  Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny
An explanation and proof, using modular arithmetic, of the Chinese Remainder Theorem, which concerns problems of the following type: There are certain things whose number is unknown. Repeatedly divided by 3, the remainder is 2; by 5 the remainder is 3;
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 Chips A Tally  Bayonne, NJ Board of Education  5th Grade Teachers
A collaborative math project to determine whether the number of chocolate chips in Chips Ahoy cookies is the same everywhere. Classes may submit data, and results will be posted November 30, 2000. Site includes: lesson plans that use statistics to analyze
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 Christianity and the Mathematical Sciences  the Heliocentric Hypothesis  MacTutor Math History Archives
Linked essay on Christianity's influence on the mathematical sciences. With references and other related web sites.
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 A Chronology of Mathematicians  MacTutor Math History Archives
A chronology of mathematicians between the dates stated, showing how the lives of
the mathematicians overlap: 700 BC700 AD; 7001650; 16251775; 17501850; 18251900; 18751957. Where either the birth or death of a mathematician is unknown (mostly for
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 A chronology of pi  MacTutor Math History Archives
Precomputer calculations of pi, from the Rhind papyrus through Ferguson (1946); computer calculations from Ferguson (1947) through Kanada, Takahashi (Sept 1999). With references and other related web sites.
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 Chronology of Recreational Mathematics  Mario Velucchi
David Singmaster's list of events from circa 2700BC to 1993, with references, includes how in Greek mythology, Palamedes was the inventor of dice; in 1392, three packs of cards were made for Charles VI of France; in 1605, Cervantes' Don Quixote gives
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 ChronoMath: Petite Chronologie des Mathématiques  S. Mehl
Travaux fondamentaux de l'histoire des maths de l'Antiquité à nos jours. Le site dispose d'une vaste documentation et d'une bibliographie. An extensive site on math history, in French, with bibliography.
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 Circles  360 Degrees  Math Forum, Ask Dr. Math Common Question
A selection of answers to questions about why a circle has 360 degrees, and the origin of that degree measurement.
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 Circles of Dissonance  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Much of today's music rests upon ancient tradition going back thousands of years to the time of the Greek mathematician and mystic Pythagoras. The Pythagoreans observed that tones an octave apart are pleasing to the ear. In modern terms,
one can say
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 The Civilization of the Mayans  ThinkQuest 1997
Essentially a school paper in web format, covering, briefly, Mayan art, astronomy, ballgame, books and hieroglyphics, class system, and number system, with rated related Mayan links and references, and an abouttheauthors section.
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