 Memory, Mental Arithmetic, and Mathematics  MacTutor Math History Archives
All the mathematicians whose biographies are given in the MacTutor archive exhibited extraordinary mental powers. This article examines a few mathematicians who showed extraordinary powers of memory and calculating, together with a number of people who
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 Mesopotamian Mathematics  Duncan J. Melville, St. Lawrence University
The origins of mathematics in Mesopotamia from the earliest tokens, through the development of Sumerian mathematics to the grand flowering in the Old Babylonian period, and on into the later periods of Mesopotamian history. Organized into background;
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 The Metric System (SI): A Concise Reference Guide  David Bartlett
Accurate but concise information intended to clarify the mysteries of the Système International d'Unités (SI), for both the layman and the expert. Introduction, a brief history, the base and supplementary units, derived units, SI prefixes,
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 The Middle East  Mathematics and the Liberal Arts  Todd Hammond
Notes on published articles: a resource for student research projects and for teachers interested in using the history of mathematics in their courses. Many pages focus on ethnomathematics and on the connections between mathematics and other disciplines.
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 MidLink Magazine  Caroline McCullen
"The Digital Magazine for Kids, By Kids." A bimonthly online magazine created by several middle schools and hosted by the University of Central Florida for children ages 10 to 15, linking middle schools around the world. Each magazine issue features student
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 Mobilizing Minds: Teaching Math and Science in the Age of Sputnik  National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
The 1957 launch of Sputnik, combined with a burgeoning school age population, catalyzed reform in mathematics and science teaching in the United States. This online exhibit presents objects from the time of Sputnik, including books and apparatus associated
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 Money Cents  MoneyCents, Inc.
Cartoon characters introduce the basics of saving and spending money. Interactive calculators to investigate sales and car loans, history quizzes, and Shockwave games.
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 Moscow Mathematical Society  Kolmogorov Library Project
The Legacy of A. N. Kolmogorov  April 25, 1903  October 20, 1987. A. N. Kolmogorov was President of the Moscow Mathematical Society from 1964 to 1966 and from 1973 to 1985. This page lists addresses by Kolmogorov at meetings of the Moscow Mathematical
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 Move Over Fermat, Now It's Time for Beal's Problem  Keith Devlin (Devlin's Angle)
Beal's Problem is like Fermat's, but instead of focusing on equations with one exponent, n, there are three: m, n, and r. Thus, Beal's equation looks like this:
x^m + y^n = z^r. The idea is to look for whole number solutions to this equation where the
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 MQS Search  Mathematical Quotations Server, Furman University
Search the Mathematical Quotations Server by keyword.
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 MSMS World of Logic  Claudia Carter; Mississippi School for Mathematics and Science (MSMS)
MSMS Logic and Game Theory is a study of logic, symbolic notation, truth tables, simple game theory, and problemsolving strategies. Links to significant figures in the world of logic: Lewis Carroll, George Boole, Giuseppe Peano, Von Neuman, Willard Van
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 Multimedia Catalogue  Biography Index  Institute and Museum of the History of Science of Florence, Italy
Biographical texts of personalities connected in some way to Galileo. Each text is accompanied by still or animated images or by filmed sequences. Included are Archimedes, Aristotle, Bernoulli, Brahe, Copernicus, the Galilei family, Kepler, Milton, Ptolemy,
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 Museum of History of Science, Florence, Italy
A bilingual (Italian and English) site providing research capabilities within the Italian Bibliography of Science History and the Library of the History Of Science Museum. Includes an online exhibition on Mechanical Marvels  Invention in the Age of Leonardo,
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 The Museum of HP Calculators  David G. Hicks
The Museum of HP Calculators displays and describes HewlettPackard calculators
introduced from 1968 to 1986 plus a few interesting later models. There are also sections on calculating machines and slide rules as well as sections for buying and selling
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 Museum of the History of Science  Oxford University, U.K.
The Museum houses a collection of historic scientific instruments in the Old Ashmolean on Broad Street, Oxford, covering almost all aspects of the history of science, from antiquity to the early twentieth century. Particular strengths include the collections
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 The Music of the Primes  Marcus du Sautoy
An article on the Riemann Hypothesis, "the greatest unsolved problem of mathematics."
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 My Reckonings  Ron Doerfler
Doerfler's book Dead Reckonings: Calculating without Instruments "describes techniques of computation and approximation that can be used to rapidly and mentally calculate mathematical quantities." Other sections of the site discuss sundials; astrolabes
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 Names for Numbers  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Once someone discovers an interesting pattern or type of behavior, those particular numbers are likely to earn a collective name. So we have perfect numbers, amicable numbers, lucky numbers, Mersenne numbers, Fermat numbers, Fibonacci numbers, Keith numbers,
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 National Curve Bank  Gray, Venit; California State University, Los Angeles
Animation and interaction, and geometric, algebraic, and historical aspects of curves. Topics include Calculus, PreCalculus, History of Math, Limits, and Fractals. Submissions are encouraged.
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 Native American Geometry  Chris Hardaker
A physical, proportional geometry that originates from the simple circle. A growing body of architectural and iconographic evidence suggests this geometry was a relatively common tradition and has been practiced for at least 2000 years. The site is divided
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 The Nature of Physical Science  Richard Brill
A Honolulu Community College course, based around the Web and a series of television programs, that focuses on the history of science and its effects on our culture. Study guides are detailed outlines of various topics, including the foundations of arithmetic,
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 Nautilus  Nautilus Ventures LLC
An online and print monthly dedicated "to science and its endless connections to our lives." Each issue contains chapters — essays, investigative reports, blogs, fiction writing, games, videos, graphic stories, and other original content —
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 NCTM San Diego Sessions on Humanistic Math  Mathematics Education at the Math Forum
A selection of presentations from the 74th Annual NCTM Meeting, April 1996, San Diego, CA.
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 Neutral and NonEuclidean Geometries  David C. Royster; University of North Carolina at Charlotte
Course notes that include: Origins of geometry; spherical geometry; logic and the axiomatic method; proof; Euclid's mathematical system; incidence geometry; betweenness axioms; congruence theorems; axioms of continuity; neutral geometry; theorems of continuity;
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 Newton Papers  University of Cambridge
View and download Isaac Netwon's handwritten papers: his own annotated copy of Principia Mathematica; the socalled "Waste Book," a large notebook that he inherited from his stepfather, and which Newton filled with notes and calculations when forced to
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 Newton's Castle  Steve Feld
Learn about color, optical illusions, how cars appear to roll uphill on "magnetic mountains," why dogs chase cars, and more; then test your learning with the online quiz. Also, see quotations and a timeline of Newton's life. With a bibliography and webliography.
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 Newton, Sir Isaac (Funk & Wagnalls Multimedia Encyclopedia)  Lycos Zone: Mathematics
A short biography of Sir Isaac Newton (16431727), focusing on The Fluxional Method, Optics, and The Principia.
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 Next in Line  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
Number sequences present all sorts of intriguing puzzles and patterns. Consider the sequence of counting numbers: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 .... Now, take out every second number, leaving: 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ...; form the cumulative totals
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 A Nobel Formula  Keith Devlin (Devlin's Angle)
The discovery of a single mathematical formula in 1970 led to this year's Nobel Prize for economics, shared between Stanford University professor of finance (emeritus) Myron Scholes and economist Robert C. Merton of Harvard University. The prize would
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 Nobel Prize Internet Archive  Almaz Enterprises
An interactive archive devoted to Nobel Prizes and prizewinners. Browse by prize type or search by keyword. Additional information about the lack of a prize in mathematics, women laureates, and the Ig Nobel Prizes.
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 NonEuclidean Geometry  MacTutor Math History Archives
Covers Euclid's Elements through the end of the 1800's, with 23 references (books/articles).
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 Nonstandard Analysis and the Hyperreals  Jordi Gutierrez Hermoso; Math Forum, Ask Dr. Math FAQ
An essay introducing the most basic ideas of nonstandard analysis and the hyperreal number system. Contents: A Very Brief History of AlmostNothing and MorethanEverything; The Hyperreal WishList; Construction of the hyperreal numbers; Hyperreal arithmetic;
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 The Noon Observation Project  Cathie Godwin, Kathleen Smith; College of Education, Univ. of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign
A joint effort among interested schools worldwide in accurately estimating the circumference of the earth. How to compute local noon at your location; the original 1999 form for submitting Noon Observations; an explanation of the formulas for computing
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 NOVA Online: Hunting the Hidden Dimension  Public Broadcasting System (PBS)
The PBS television series NOVA has produced a program about fractals, their impact on the world of mathematics, and the way they're shaping our understanding of nature. In addition to the program itself (in five chapters), the website offers a program
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 NOVA Online: The Proof  WGBH, Public Broadcasting System (PBS)
For over 350 years, some of the greatest minds of science struggled to prove what was known as Fermat's Last Theorem  the idea that a certain simple equation had no solutions. This site includes an interview with Andrew Wiles (the man who spent seven
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 NOVA Teachers: Featured Teacher  PBS
Teachers' featured stories of a lesson plan using one of the NOVA films. Lesson titles include: Students Inclined to Study Galileo, Exploring Research Bias, Placing Value on Maya Math, Teaching with Trebuchets, Bridges Form Foundation for Geometry Unit,
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 NSDL Middle School Portal: Math Pathway  NSDL; the Ohio State University
A middle school portal into NSDL's math resources, browsable by topic, or choose a preselected set of resources on given subjects.
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 Number Theory: Historical things  Keith Matthews, Dept. of Math, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
Biographies of past number theorists and various items of historical interest, including prizes, photos, and mathematical family trees.
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 Number Theory (MathPages)  Kevin Brown
More than 100 "informal notes" by Kevin Brown on number theory: linear recurring sequences, Zeisel numbers, Wilsonian primes, arithmetic progression, sublime numbers, square triangular numbers, and many more.
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 The Number Warrior  Jason Dyer
Blog by an algebra and calculus teacher. Posts, which date back to January, 2008, have included "The Educational Problem with Teaching Multiplication as Repeated Addition," "Nonlinear lesson design (Giant Ants of Doom)," "The design of mathematical notation,"
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 The Number Years  Libicki, Quinn
A concept originally created by Eric Libicki as a classroom activity to bring a sense of fun to learning the history of mathematics, now in the game show format presented here. Several online versions are available, and users will be able to craft their
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 Numericana.com  Gérard P. Michon
The online companion of Numericana, this site contains excerpts from Michon's book, including the entire glossary of scientific terms. Browse an index with pithy summaries, browse by popularity, or search nearly two hundred of his "final answers" of readers'
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 Oceania  Mathematics and the Liberal Arts  Todd Hammond
Notes on published articles: a resource for student research projects and for teachers interested in using the history of mathematics in their courses. Many pages focus on ethnomathematics and on the connections between mathematics and other disciplines.
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 Old and New Arithmetic  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
"Three merchants have invested their money in a partnership..." This problem appears in a mathematics textbook known as the Treviso Arithmetic. The original book, written in a Venetian dialect, had no formal title, and its author is unknown. Treviso is
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 Oldies & Goodies: The School Museum List and Site  From Now On
Virtual Museum Resources, sponsored by From Now On  The Educational Technology Journal. Museum Resources: articles and other resources meant to guide those who are building virtual museums with their students; The Grand List of School Virtual Museums:
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 Online Exhibits Hotlist  The Franklin Institute
A list of links to more than 100 online learning experiences for math and science, both interactive projects and exhibits.
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 Online Math Applications  Leung, Jiang, Jiang, Chiu, Klopfer, Chiu; ThinkQuest Junior
Activities, examples, problems, and online quizzes about math applied to real world situations in investing (a stock market simulation game), music (classical MIDI files), history (biographies and anecdotes), science (astronomy, computers, 'math in the
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 Online Math Education  Yordan Petrov Petrov
Math tutorials and quizzes, with some math history information as well. Includes a discussion forum. Available in English or Bulgarian.
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 On Roman Numerals
Learn the basics of Roman numerals and how to write them, from I (1) to M (1,000) and above. Also, submit an Arabic numeral and click to convert it into its Roman numeral equivalent; or vice versa.
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 On the Teeth of Wheels (Computing Science)  Brian Hayes, American Scientist
A little history on the importance of gears in the history of computing and the importance of computing in the history of gears. "Designers of gear trains have not merely borrowed ideas from mathematics but have also developed some of those ideas on their
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