 The Largest Known Primes  Chris Caldwell
An integer greater than one is called a prime number if its only positive divisors (factors) are one and itself. Primes are the building blocks of the positive integers: every positive integer is a product of prime numbers in one and only one way, except
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 The Lighter Side of Dr. Paulsen  William Paulsen
A collection of online games and puzzles: blackjack, The NonZero Difference Game, No Alibi (a mystery detective game), a haunted mansion labyrinth, sliding tile puzzles, and The Prime Maze.
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 Lucky choice turns up worldrecord prime  Ivars Peterson  Science News Online
Gordon Spence, a participant in the Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search (GIMPS) discovered the largest known prime number, an 895,932digit behemoth:
2^2,976,221  1, the 36th Mersenne prime to be found.
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 Mandelbrot Midlevels Competition
A mathematics competition that emphasizes problemsolving, geared towards students in seventh and eighth grade. Three rounds are distributed to schools throughout the year; students may participate in individual or team portions of the contest. Site
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 The Mark of Zeta  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
How mathematicians delve into the mysteries of prime numbers, the relation Euler discovered between the zeta function and prime numbers, and the Riemann hypothesis: Riemann found that his zeta function is zero for the values 2, 4, 6, and so on, and
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 Martin Gardner's Lucky Number  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Hunting for prime numbers, those evenly divisible only by themselves and 1, requires a sieve to separate them from the rest. For example, the sieve of Eratosthenes, named for a Greek mathematician of the third century B.C., generates a list of prime numbers
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 Math Becomes Way Cool  Keith Devlin (Devlin's Angle)
Over the past two or three years, books about mathematics and mathematicians have made their ways onto the bestseller lists, television series about mathematics have been aired, radio programs have carried stories about mathematics, and newspapers and
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 Mathematical Connections  Brian R. Sears
A collection of more than 20 wellknown problems (with solutions), and Sine Wave, a set of essays on "the aesthetic aspects of mathematics."
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 Mathematical constants and computation  Xavier Gourdon and Pascal Sebah
How famous mathematical constants were computed in the past, and current ways of obtaining them: pi, e, the logarithmic constant, square root of 2, Euler's constant, and Apery's constant. Also algorithms (arbitrary precision computation; FFT based multiplication
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 The Mathematical Explorer  Stan Wagon and Wolfram Research, Inc.
Based on Mathematica technology, The Mathematical Explorer mixes text, graphics, and formulas in an easytouse notebook interface, offering a set of explorations for investigating some of the most fascinating topics in mathematics, from Escher patterns
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 Mathematical Gems
Brief articles include Irrationality of the Square Root of 2; The Best Card Trick; Boltzmann in Berkeley; Four of a kind and two jokers; Mathematical Paint (on Gabriel's Horn); How Many Squares, Mr. Franklin? Goldbach's Proof of the Infinitude of Primes;
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 Mathematics Illuminated  Annenberg Media
A video course for adult learners, high school and college teachers; 13 halfhour video programs, online text, course guide, and Web site; graduate credit available. "Rather than a series of problems to be solved, mathematics is presented as play we engage
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 Mathfest '99: Primes and Prizes (Math Chat)  Frank Morgan, MAA Online
Last weekend [August 1999] over 1100 gathered in Providence for the summer MathFest of the Mathematical Association of America. Hedrick lecturer Carl Pomerance, recently of the University of Georgia and now at Bell Labs, with his marvelous understated
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 Math Fundamentals  Vinay Agarwala
Lessons with diagnostic tests and problem sets, and books by the author, all designed to encourage conceptual understanding of math fundamentals. Lesson topics include numbers and place values, addition and multiplication, subtraction and shortage, division
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 Math Games  Hans Software Pvt Ltd.
Free games for review of multiplication facts & prime numbers (Number Cop & Factortris), slopeintercept graphing (Karappan Puchi: Algebra vs. the Cockroaches), and coordinate graphing (Catch the Fly).
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 MathPickle  Gordon Hamilton
Free videos that pose "rich math gems": Fibonacci Mutant Bunnies, Amoeba Squares, Kajitsu, Locker Room Prank, Area and Perimeter of Animals, Ballast Puzzles, and more. Select a grade band for PDF solutions, presentations in PowerPoint and Keynote formats,
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 Math Problems & Quiz Games  Syvum Technologies, Inc.
Illustrated preparation materials and selfscoring tests on counting money with US coins, values of Roman numerals, conversion to Roman numerals, composite and prime numbers, even numbers and odd numbers, and metric measurement.
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 Math Recreations  Thinks.com
The brain games, puzzles and pastimes website, proving that mathematics can be fun. Java Kali (explore symmetry groups and make fantastic patterns); The Largest Known Prime (can you beat it?); Ball Drop (demonstrate the normal distribution curve); Tackle
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 Math Stuff  The Connaissance Museum; ThinkQuest 1996
Tutorials/definitions of math terms and concepts in Arithmetic; Algebra; Geometry; Trigonometry; Calculus; and Helpful Tables and Graphs. Also The Famous Dictionary of Mathematics  math terms for help in doing homework, from abscissa, acute, and additive
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 Math WWW VL: Specialized Fields  Dept. of Mathematics, Florida State University
Links to sites for resources in specialized fields in collegelevel mathematics.
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 Mersenne Megaprime  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
On June 1, 1999, a participant in the Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search (GIMPS) discovered the the 38th known Mersenne prime  the first known prime number with at least 2 million decimal digits, more than twice as many as the previous record holder.
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 Mersenne.org  George Woltman
A domain created as a home for the Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search (GIMPS).
Mersenne primes are named after the French monk Marin Mersenne. The goal of the search is to find ever larger Mersenne primes. You can join this search by downloading the
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 Mersenne Prime Freeware  Conrad Curry
An extensive list of software, with descriptions, for various operating systems, as well as libraries and developeroriented links.
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 Mersenne Primes: History, Theorems and Lists  Chris Caldwell; Dept. of Mathematics & Computer Science, Univ. of Tennessee at Martin
When 2n1 is prime it is said to be a Mersenne prime. Page contents: Early History; Perfect Numbers and a Few Theorems; Table of Known Mersenne Primes; The LucasLehmer Test and Recent History; Conjectures and Unsolved Problems; Remote pages on Mersennes:
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 Mersenne Prime  Susan Stepney
Susan Stepney discusses Mersenne primes, the LucasLehner test, and perfect numbers, and supplies links to other relevant sites and print references.
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 Millennium Primes  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
The arrival of the year 1999 and the impending transition to 2000 has captured the attention of people who like to play with integers. Consider 1999. It's a prime number, meaning that it is evenly divisible only by itself and 1 (see
Prime Talent). As
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 Mining Prime Terrain  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
Venturing again into largely unexplored digital territory, computer scientists at Cray Research have unearthed another gargantuan prime number, setting a new record for the largest known prime. This number, 2^1,257,787  1, has 378,632 digits, putting
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 Mrs. Glosser's Math Goodies  Gisele Glosser
Interactive math lessons that work online and offline in a Web browser, and provide immediate feedback to students, with in addition Worksheets (on circumference and area; exponents; expressions and equations; integers; Ocean Math; order of operations;
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 MSTE Java  University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign (UIUC)
Javabased activities submitted to MSTE, the Office for Mathematics, Science & Technology Education at UIUC. Topics include: best fit; box perimeter; Buffon's needle; CAD viewer; cereal box problem; chisquared test analysis of random marbles; cliff
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 The Music of the Primes  Marcus du Sautoy
An article on the Riemann Hypothesis, "the greatest unsolved problem of mathematics."
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 Nine Primes in a Row  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
...number aficionados Harvey Dubner of New Jersey, Paul Zimmermann of INRIA Lorraine in France, Tony Forbes of Great Britain, and Nik Lygeros and Michel
Mizony of Claude Bernard University in Lyon, France, mounted a campaign and solicited computational
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 Notes and Literature on Prime Numbers  Peter Alfeld, University of Utah
From Understanding Mathematics, a study guide for Univ. of Utah students. Includes definitions, explanations, links to other related sites, and a list of works to consult for further reference.
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 The Nth Prime Page  Andrew Booker
A form into which you can enter a value for n, from 1 to 10^12, inclusive. The server will return the nth prime number (counting 2 as the first). Commas and scientific notation (e.g. 1.0e12) are allowed. Also a Pi function: enter a value for x, from 1
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 NumberSpiral.com  Robert Sacks
Instructions, observations, formulas, and a glossary about number spirals, formed by writing the nonnegative integers on a ribbon, rolling it up with zero at the center, and arranging the spiral so all the perfect squares line up in a row on the right
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 Number Theory  Alex LópezOrtiz and the Sci.Math FAQ Team
Links to information on: Fermat's Last Theorem (History of Fermat's Last Theorem; What is the current status of FLT?; Related Conjectures; Did Fermat prove this theorem?), and Prime Numbers.
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 Number Theory  Dave Rusin; The Mathematical Atlas
A historical introduction to number theory; applications and related fields and subfields; textbooks, reference works, and tutorials; software and tables; other web sites with this focus; and selected topics.
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 Number Theory (MathPages)  Kevin Brown
More than 100 "informal notes" by Kevin Brown on number theory: linear recurring sequences, Zeisel numbers, Wilsonian primes, arithmetic progression, sublime numbers, square triangular numbers, and many more.
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 Numericon  School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia (UTS)
Mostly elementary presentations of: Numbers we've all heard of; Perfect numbers; Facts about prime numbers; Australian cricket's 25 leading allrounders; Pythagorean triples; Pi in the sky; 73939133; and Fermat's Last Theorem.
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 Organisation des nombres premiers  Mustapha Chouar
Une répartition des nombres premiers qui utilse la fonction 1+4+2 avec une représentation graphique de l'addition des carrés et une spirale.
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 Palindromic Numbers and Other Recreational Topics  Patrick De Geest
Many odd facts about big (and little) numbers, including circular primes and palindromic triangulars, tetrahedrals, squares, cubes, and primes. Also assorted odd puzzles, etc.
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 Palindromic Primes  Ivars Peterson (MathTrek)
Palindromic primes are whole numbers, evenly divisible only by themselves and 1, that also have the same sequence of digits read forward or backward... The current record for the largest known palindromic prime is held by Harvey Dubner, a retired electrical
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 Pascal's Triangle using Clock Arithmetic  Jay's Corner
Exploring Pascal's triangle when the modulus is a prime; when the modulus is a power of a prime; and when the modulus has at least two different prime divisors. From mod 2 to mod 12, illustrated. (See also Part II.)
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 Perfect, Amicable and Sociable Numbers  David Moews
Definitions, descriptions, and discussions of perfect, amicable, and sociable numbers; aliquot sequences, related problems, and other definitions of divisibility, with a short bibliography.
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 A Perfect Collaboration  Ivars Peterson (MathLand)
Euclid and Euler seem an unlikely pairing. One was the most prominent mathematician of antiquity, best known for his treatise on geometry, the Elements. The other was the most prolific mathematician in history, the man whom his 18century contemporaries
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 Perfect Numbers  Math Forum, Ask Dr. Math FAQ
What is a perfect number? How many are there? How can you calculate a perfect number from a Mersenne prime?
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 Poem about the Riemann Zeta Function  Tom Apostol
A poem about the zeta function and the Riemann hypothesis, linked to explanations of the important concepts by Chris Hughes.
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 PreAlgebra (Middle School Math)  Homeworkhelp.com, Inc.
Free prealgebra lessons on: types of numbers (numbers and their properties, negative numbers); fractions (reducing, multiplying, dividing, adding and subtracting, mixed numbers, comparing fractions, ratios & proportions, percentages, decimals, scientific
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 Primality Testing  Math Forum, Ask Dr. Math Common Question
A selection of answers to questions about primality testing, from "How does the Sieve of Eratosthenes work?" to "Is there an algorithm to determine whether a very large number is prime?"
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 Prime and Composite Numbers (SMILE)  Charlotte Goldwater, Kenwood Academy
A lesson for grades 59 that presents a systematic method of deciding whether a number is prime. From the Arithmetic section of a collection of almost 200 single concept lessons by the Science and Mathematics Initiative for Learning Enhancement.
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 Prime Factorization Machine  James Brennan
A page that runs a script that will return the prime factorization of a positive integer (limited to numbers less than 1,000,000). Even with this limit, numbers with very large prime factors may take a few minutes to factor if your computer has a slow
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