Teacher2Teacher 
Q&A #561 
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From: Pat Ballew To: Teacher2Teacher Public Discussion Date: 2000062214:03:56 Subject: Re: Subtracton  borrowing from 10's Borrowing is one of those words we hope elementary teachers will be using less with students these days, but I know we have several generations who grew up on the term (I always wondered when the tens or hundreds column was going to come along and ask to be repaid.) I like the term the Oriental teachers use, decomposition. each "one" in the a column can be decomposed into ten of the items in the next column to the right (a ten is ten ones, a hundred is ten tens, etc. To go the other way (what you probably grew up calling a "carry", they call "composing". Whichever language you use, try several approaches to show the student "why" this makes sense with real quantities.. If Hanna is really having trouble, ignore the algorithm and talk about the ideas. What does it mean to subtract, how would you do it if you had a real task involving removing 45 from a group of 61 (or finding out how many to add to 45 to make 61, which is the same question). Ask Hanna to see how she thinks about subtraction, then try to lead her to see that both ideas really produce the same answer. For each problem in the home work, let her describe the situation in real language as removing something from something, or how much must be added to something to get something (which ever makes sense to her). Don't worry about the "short" way to get the answer until she has some real grasp of what the answer means..... Then if she still has problems, try drawing pictures. If she sees subtraction as "take away" as many young people do, then draw a picture of the first value, and cross out the ones that are to be removed. You could use X for tens and I for ones so the picture of 32  17 would look like: XXX II and then we need to erase 17, We can erase the ten easy enough, but there are only two "ones". How shall we subtract the 7? Now the need for "borrowing" or "decomposing" has a meaning. We can make change for one of the X to turn it into IIIII IIIII and with the two we have we now need to take seven ones from the 12 that are there leaving five. so our original looked like XXX II and then we took away ten to get XX II and decomposed a ten to make X II IIIII IIIII and now removing seven gives X IIIII so the answer must be fifteen. I bet that if Hanna is as clever as her Grandmother, she will catch on quick. Then you can show her the SHORT way to do these that you learned as a girl in school, and whatever words you use to describe the process, she will know what it means... good luck, and thanks to grandparents everywhere for the help they give kids with homework. Pat Ballew, for the Teacher2Teacher service
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